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SIVA 1-4 

LINGA 5-6 


GARUDA 12-14 

NARADA 15-19 

KURMA 20-21 


AGNI 27-30 

VARAHA 31-32 

BRAHMA 33-36 

VAYU 37-38 

PADMA 39-48 















Translated and Annotated by 




First Edition: Delhi, 1983 
Reprint: Delhi, 2000 

All Rights Reserved 

ISBN: 81-208-0354-x 

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This book has been accepted in the Indian Translation Series of the UNESCO 

Collection of Representative Works, jointly sponsored by the United 

Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 

(UNESCO) and the Government of India 

Printed in India 







The purest gems lie hidden in the bottom of the ocean 
or in the depth of rocks. One has to dive into the ocean or 
delve into the rocks -to find them out. Similarly, truth lies 
concealed in the language which with the passage of time has 
become obsolete. Man has to learn that language before he 
discovers that truth. 

But he has neither the means nor the leisure to embark on 
that course. We have, therefore, planned to help him acquire 
knowledge by an easier course- We have started the series of 
Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology in English Translation. 
Our goal is to universalize knowledge through the most popular 
international medium of expression. The publication ofthe 
Puranas in English translation is a step towards that goal. 


The present volume contains the Brahmanda Purana, 
Part I (Chapters 1-38) completing the first-two sections 
(Prakriyd and Anusaiiga) of the text in English Translation. This 
is the Twenty-second volume in the series which we have 
planned on Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology. 

The project of the Series was envisaged and financed in 
1970 by Lala Sundar Lai Jain of Messrs Motilal Banarsidass. 
Hitherto twentyone volumes of the Series (comprising English 
translation of Siva, Linga, Bhdgavata, Garuda, Ndrada and 
Kurma Purdnas) have been published and released for sale. 

This Purana, like all other Puranas, is encyclopaedic in 
character. It deals with miscellaneous topics such as Cosmogony, 
Religion, Philosophy History, Geography and Astronomy. It is 
called Brahmanda since it gives explanation of the real state of 
affairs about the universe. It is divided into four sections : 
Prakriyd, Anusahga, Upodghuta and Upasamhdra. It is accompanied 
by Lalitd-Mdhdtmya (the glorification of the Goddess Lalita) in 
40 chapters. 

The present volume consists of two Sections viz. Prakriyd 
and Anusahga. Section 1 Prakriyd consists of five chapters which 
deal with the creation of the universe in the light of the Vedic 
metaphysics which it expounds in detail in the Puranic 
manner. This section describes the original state of equilibrium 
ofgunas (qualities), the laying of the Golden Egg, the emer- 
gence ofthe creator lord Brahma from it. The second section 
Anusahga, which this volume includes, contains 33 chapters 
(6-38). It is a connected continuation ofthe theme of Prakriyd 
p&da inasmuch as it recounts the account ofthe birth as well 
as the genealogies ofBrahmarsis (Brahmanical sages), Devarsis 
(Celestial sages) and Rajarsis (Royal sages). The two sections 
which complete this volume illustrate the two characteristics of 
a Mahapurana viz., Sarga (Creation) and Vathsa (genealogy), 
although the latter trait is resumed in the third section, namely 
the Upodghdta ofthe next volume. 

( via ) 

The aim of this series is to universalize knowledge through 
the most popular international medium of expression, namely 
English. Old Sanskrit Text has been rendered into English as 
precisely as possible. The translation is based on the standard 
edition of the Venkatesvara Press. The text is well edited, still it 
presents problems, hard to be overcome by mere translation. 
The need of annotations is evident therefore. The learned 
translator has added ample materials in the footnotes which 
facilitate correct interpretation of the text. He has put elabo- 
rate comments in these notes on each and every problem of 
importance and discussed textual variations in the verses 
common to other Puranas. His critical Introduction needs no 
•comment in the preface. The comparative study of the Javanese 
text of Brahmanda Purana in Kavi language with the Sanskrit 
text of the present Purana is a feature that shall be most wel- 
comed by the reader. 

We have included Abbreviations in this part. They will be 
repeated in the succeeding parts too with such additions as are 
madein the notes ofthose parts. The general Index will be 
appended to the last part. 

Acknowledgement ofOhligations 

It is our pleasant duty to put on record our sincere 
thanks to Dr. R. N. Dandekar and the UNESCO authorities 
for their kind encouragement and valuable help which render 
this work more useful than it would otherwise have been. We 
are extremely grateful to Dr. G. V. Tagare who has meticu- 
lously and delightfully accomplished this onerous task. The 
critical Introduction, the lucid translation and comprehensive 
annotations are, in fact, his monumental contributions to the 
studies in Indology. We must thank Shri T. V. Paramesh- 
•war Iyer for his valuable assistance in the preparation of this 
work. We should also express our gratitude to all those persons 
who have offered suggestions for improving the same. 






I The title Brahmanda xvii 

Extent, Position, Transmission xviii-xix 

Tlie place of Composition xix 

II Text-criticism : Materials 

(i) Chapter Concordance of the 
Brahmanda and Vayu Puranas 

(ii) The Brahmanda and Narada Puranas 

(iii) The Old Javanese Brahmanda Purana 

III The Brahmanda as a Maha-Purana 

IV Religious Sects in the Brahmanda Purana: 
Saivism— Vaisnavism — Saktism — The Sun 
worship — An obscure cult: — Godharma — 
Non-Vedic religions 

V Dharma Sastra— Ancient Lores — The Science 
of Music 

VI Religion and Philosophy in the Brahmanda 
Purana: Vedanta — Sarikhya — Yoga— Bhakti — 
Tantra — other points 





VII The Parasurama Legend 

VIII Historical Tradition in the Brahmanda Purana Ixxiv 

IX The Date ofthe Brahmanda Purana Ixxix 

X Appendix to the date ofthe Brahmanda Purana Ixxxi 

( X ) 




1. Contents of the Brahmanda Purana 3 

2. The Legend of Naimisaranya 22 

3. Evolution ofthe Universe : The Creation of 
Hiranyagarbha 28 

4. Constitution ofthe world (The Cosmic Egg) 32 

5. Creation ofthe Universe 36 



6. Kalpas and Manvantaras; their Duration 57 

7. Knowledge About the World 65- 

8. God Brahma's Mental Creation : gods, sages, 
manes, and human beings created 86 

9. Progeny of Rudra : Birth of Bhrgu and 

Others 93 

10. Magnificence of God Siva : Birth ofNila- 
lohita : His eight Names and Forms 101 

11. Creation of Sages 109^ 

12. Race ofAgni 113 

13. Real Nature ofKala — Time: Seasons as Pitrs 

(Manes) 120- 

14. Race of Priyavrata 134 

15. Length and extent ofthe Earth : Description 

of Jambijdvlpa 141 

16. Description of Bharata 149 

17. Varsas of Jambfldvlpa, Hari and Ilavrta 162 

18. Jambtidvlpa; The Bindu Lake- 
Its four streams 165 

19. Plaksa and other Continents 174 

20. Description ofthe Netherworlds 192 

21. The Solar System. Movements of heavenly 

Luminaries : Division ofTime 19ft 

( xi ) 

22. The Divine Luminaries, Varieties of clouds. 
Divisions of Stratosphere, the Chariot of the 
Sun-God 214 

23. Information about Heavenly bodies. The 
movement ofthe Polar Star 222 

24. The arrangement ofthe Heavenly Luminaries. 

The Sun, the source of Light to Luminarie s 232 

25. Origin of the Epithet Nllakantha. Siva 
swallowing poison 247 

26. Origin ofthe Linga-image of Siva 258 

27. Siva cursed by Daruvana sages. Installation 
of Siva Liiiga — Injunctions regarding Ash- 
bath 265 

28. Meeting ofPururavas and Pitrs. Performance 

of annual obsequies on the New Moon Day 277 

29. Cycle ofYugas. Characteristics ofYugas 287 

30. Inauguration ofthe Sacrificial Cult. Fall of 

King Vasu for denunciation of Sacrifices 296 

31. The four Yugas : Castes and Stages of Life 301 

32. Yugas and Classes of People. Lineage of Sages 313 

33. Characteristics of Sages and of Mantras 325 

34. Vyasa and his Disciples 331 

35. Legends of Yajnavalkya and Vyasa, Description 

of Svayambhuva Manvantara 338 

36. The Lineage ofManu, Manvantaras Milking 

ofthe Earth 361 

37. Caksusa Manvantara : Dynasty ofVaivasvata 
Manu 381 

38. "The Vaivasvata Manvantara : The Marica 
Creation 386 


Common and self-evident abbreviations sucii as cii(s) — 
ciiapter(s), p — page, pp — pages, v— verse, w — verses, Ftn — 
footnote. Hist. Ind. Pliilo — History of Indian Piiilosopiiy are 
not included in tliis list. 

ABORI Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research 

Institute, P o o n a . 

AGP S. M. Ali's ne Geography of Purdnas, PPH, 

New Delhi, 1973. 

AIHT Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, F. E. 

Pargiter, Motilal Banarsidass (MLBD), 

AITM Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology Series, 

MLBD, Delhi, 1972 onwards. 
AP Agni Parana, Guru Mandal Edition (GM), 

Calcutta, 1957. 

Arch. S. Rep. Archaeological Survey Report. 

AV Atharva Veda, Svadhyaya Mandal, Aundh. 

Bd. P. Brahmdnia Purdna, MLBD, Delhi 1973. 

B G Bhagavadgitd. 

Bh. P. Bhdgavata Purdna, Bhagavat, Vidyapeeth, 


Br. Brdhmana (preceded by name such as 


Bs. P. Bhavisya Purdna, Vishnu Shastri Bapat, Wai. 

Bv. P. Brahma Vaivarta Purdna, GM, 1955-57. 

CC Caturvarga Cintdmani by Hemadri. 

CVS Carana Vyuha Sutra by Saunaka; Com. by 

DB Devi Bhdgavata, GM, 1960-61. 

( «v ) 

De or GDAMI The Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and 

Mediaeval India, N. L. De, Orienta 

Reprint, Delhi, 1971. 
Dh. S. Dharma SUtra (preceded by the author's 

name such as Gautama). 
ERE Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics — Hastings. 

GP Garuda Parana, Ed. R. S. Bhattacharya, 

Chowkhamba, Varanasi, 1964. 
GS Grhya Sutra (Preceded by the name of the 

author such as Apastamba) 
HD History of Dharma Sdstra by P. V. Kane, 

lA The Indian Antiquary. 

IHO The Indian Historical Quarterly. 

KA Kaufiliya Arthas&stra. 

KP KUrma Parana, Venkateshwara Press Edt. 

Bombay, also Kashiraj Trust Edt., 

Varanasi 1971. 
LP Lifiga Parana, GM, 1960; also MLBD, Delhi, 

Manu Manu Smrti. 

Mbh. Mahdhhdrata, Gita Press, Gorakhpur, VS 

M K P Mdrkandeya Parana. 

MN Mahdhhdrata Ndmdnukramani, Gita Press, 

Gorakhpur, VS 2016. 
Mt. P. Matsya Parana, G M , 1954. 

MW Monier Williams Sk. English Dictionary 

MLBD, Delhi, 1976. 
NP N&radiya or Ndrada Parana; Venkateshwar 

Press, Bombay. 
PCK Bhdratavarsiya Prdcina Caritra koia, Siddheshwar 

Shastri, Poona, 1968. 
Pd. P. Padtna Parana, GM., 1957-59. 

PE Puranic Encyclopaedia by V. Marti, English, 

MLBD, Delhi, 1975. 

( XV ) 

PJ. Purdna (Journal of the Kashiraj Trust), 

PR or P R H R C Puranic Records on Hindu Rites and Customs 

R. G. Hazra, Calcutta, 1948. 
RV Rg Veda, Svadhyaya Mandal, Aundh 

Sat. Br Satapatha Brdhmana. 

SC or SMC Smrti Candrikd—Dcv&nna. Bhatta. 

SEP Studies in Epics and Pur anas by A. D. Pusalkar 

Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan(BVB), Bombay. 


1. The Title Brahmdnda 

This Pufana is called 'Braiimanda', as god Bralima narrat- 
ed it with special emphasis on the description of the Brahmanda 
(the Cosmic Egg) and deals with the future Kalpa-periods.' 
KP. states that this Purana, sanctified by the description of the 
Brahman was recounted by Brahma to Sages engaged in a 
Sattra in Naimisa forest.^ The NP (Narada Purana) calls it 
'an ancient treatise dealing with the events of the Adi-Kalpa/ 
The Bd.P.* (Brahmanda Purana) repeatedly declares its main 
object to give 'the explanation of the real state of affairs or the 
reality about the Universe or the world (loka-tattva). The term 
Brahmanda connotes a mix of ancient Indian concepts about 
cosmography, cosmology and cosmogony. 

Traditionally' the Purana is divided into four parts (Padas) 
of unequal length as follows : 

1) Prakriya Pada (No. of Chs. 5) 

2) Anusanga Pada (No. ofChs. 33) 

3) 'Upodghata Pada (No. of Chs. 74) 

4) Upasaihhara Pada (No. of Chs. 4) 

1. Brahma brahtnanda-mahatmyam adhikrtya'bravit punah / 
tacca dvadasa-sahasrarh Brahmandam dvisatadhikam // 
Bhavisyanam ca kalpanarii sruyate yatra vistarah / 
tad Brahmanda-puranam ca Brahmana samudahrtam // 

Mt.P. 53-54-55. 
2 KP. II. 43.4. 

atra purvarh sa Bhagavan rsTnam sattram asatam / 

sa vai provaca Brahmandam Puranam Brahma-bhavitam // 

AP. 211.11 repeats Ml. P. 53.54a, b.c. 

3. NP. 109.1 

4. loka-tattvartham akhilam Yeda-sammatam / 

loka-tattva-vidhanartham — ibid. 12 

5. Bd.P. : Evam padastu catvarah 
NP. 109.29 calles Bd. P. 'catnspada' 

xviii Brahman da Parana 

This seems to be the original division as followed in the 
Purva Sarhhita(Fa. P. 11.61.58-59), but later on, Padas 1 and 2 
-were included under Purva bhdga, Pada 3 under the middle part 
(MadhyaBhdga) and Pada 4 as Uttara-bhdga (the latter part). 

The original Bd.P. ended with the 4th Ch. of the Upa- 
samhdra Pdda as its concluding verses (III IV. 4. 41-73) state that 
all the sages of Naimisaranya, the performers of the sacrificial 
session, went to heaven. It further gives the genealogy of the 
teachers of Bd. P. who handed down the Text (and it — the 
Genealogy— is much more comprehensive than that in the begin- 
ning-I.i. 1.8-12). 

Moreover, we find that the Lalita Mahatmya starts with 
a fresh Mangalacarana and has a new pair of interlocutors. 
Its contents — manifestation of goddess Lalita to kill Bhandasura, 
her marriage with Kamesvara, (Siva) and glorification of Maha- 
padma etc. — show that it is an- independent work and not an 
integral part of the Bd. P. 

Lalita Mahatmya of 40 chapters is thus a later accretion 
or an Appendix, as it is not mentioned in the NP. Ch. 109 nor in 
the Javanese version of the Bd. P. 

2. Extent : 

As to the extent of the Purana, majority of the Puranas' 
regard "Bd. P. as consisting of 12000 verses" (dvddasa-sdhas- 
rath Brahmdndam). Though Ml. P. 53.54 gives 12,200 as the 
number ofverses in Bd.P., the Venkateshwar Press edition of this 
Purana, however, contains 14286 verses. Obviously Venk. Press 
edition is inflated with an interpolation of 2286 verses. The 
absence ofLalita mahatmya in the JVP. and that ofthe so-called 
'Prophetic history of future dynasties' in the Indonesian edition 
ofthe Bd.P. show that the original Bd. P. was smaller. 

3 . Position 

All Puranas, however, agree about the. 18th position of 
Bd P. in the list ofPuranas (vide KP. III. 6. 21-24, Bh. P. XII. 13. 
4-8, LP, 1. 39.61-63, Mt. P. 53.12ff, SK. P. VII. 2. 5-7). 

1. e.g. Bh.P. XII. 13.8., AP. 271.23- 

Introduction xix 

4. Transmission 

The Bd.P. records the following two lines of transmission 
Of this Purana : 

I. God Brahma-*Sage Vasistha->Parasara-»-Jatukarnya 
Dvaipayana (Vyasa) — Stita Ro (Lo) maharsana ('^rf.P. 1.1.1 8-17). 
JVP. (109.33-36) substitutes Sakti for Parasara and adds Vayu 
(the Wind-god) between Jatukarnya and Vyasa. II. This is 
much longer than the I above, and is given in the concluding 
portion of the Purana (Bd.P. HI. iv. 4. 58-66). 

It is as follows : 

God Brahma-vMatarisvan (The Wind-god)-* Usanas-*- 
Brhaspati-VThe Sun-god-*The God of death-»-Indra->Vasistha 
- + Sarasvata->Tridhaman -''-SaradvataTrivista-»-antarIksa-> 
Trayyaruni->-Dhananjaya -> Krtanjaya Bharadvaja ~> Gau- 

tama ->Niryyantara-» -Vajasravas->- So masusma Trnabindu-*- 

Daksa->Sakti->Parasara (while in womb)->Jatukamya->.Dvai- 
payana (Vyasa)- >-Siita Ro (Lo)maharsana. 

One wonders why Vasistha did not transmit this Purana 
directly to his son Sakti and Why fifteen generations of teachers 
or contemporary teachers had to intervene between the father 
(Vasisfha) and the son (Sakti). 

The VS. P. 103.58-66 gives this very list of teachers who 
transmitted the text of that Purana. 

It must however be conceded that all the teachers in the 
list are accommodated in the longer II list. 

5. The Place of Composition 

It is difficult to pin-point the place of the composition of 
Bd.P. In Bd.P. I.ii. 16.43-44 the author states : 

"The region towards the northern extremity of the Sahya 
mountain where the Godavarl flows is the]most fascinating realm 
in the whole of the earth. A city named Govardhana was built 
there by Rama. Heavenly trees and divine medicinal herbs 
were planted there by sage Bharadvaja to please Rama. Hence 
the region of that excellent city is charming". 

In my note on Govardhana,* I have noted that Govardhana 

•Note I on p. 157. 

XX Brahmanda Parana 

was an important centre oflearning and was mentioned several 
times in tiie famous inscription ofUsavadata (100 B.C.)— ^i"'- 
Ind. VIII, p. 78. Braiimins liailing from tliat area are known as 
Govardltana Braiimanas. Some of tiie details of the Sraddha 
ritual (Sraddha Kalpa) in Bd.P. (H.iii. Chs. 10 to 20) are common 
to those ofthe Madhyandin Brahmins (Madhyandin Brahmins 
seem to have colonised the Godavarl valley right from its source 
at Tryambakeshwar). 

Kane regards this area as the place of composition ofBd. P. 

(HD.V.ii.895 and IV. 710 Footnote 1618), I still think thatsome 

more clinching evidence is necessary to support this claim, for 

in Ch. 16 under reference and elsewhere a number of places 

in India are mentioned in glowing terms. 

I I . Text-Criticism : Materials 
II. i. Chapter Concordance of the Brahmanda and Vdyupurdna 


Vayu . 







































































































































II. 1 














































29 • 

























Brahmanda Purana 





10.1 -52a 

















































































It is due to this close correspondence between the texts of 
Bd. P. and Va P. that I referred to the reading in the corres- 
ponding verse in theVa.P. in case the reading in Bd.P. is corrupt, 
incorrect or doubtful. * 

//. ii. The Brahmanda and the Narada Purdnas 

TheNP.,inCh. 109, briefly gives a list oftopics in the Bd. 
P. They are not 'a Table of contents' in the modern sense of the 
term but are found described at various places in the Bd.P. 


Below is a comparative table of the topics in the Bd. P. 
as recorded in the NP. 

NP.Ch. 109 

V.4 Stipulation of duties 

Story of the Naimisa forest 

The origin of Hiranyagarbha 

The conception of different worlds. 

N.P. Ch. 109 

V.5 Narration ofKalpas and Manvantaras 

Krowledge about worlds 

V.6 Narration ofmental creation 

Rudra's offspring 
Prowess of Mahadeva 
Creation by Sages 

V.7 Agnivarhsa 

The wheel of Time 
Dynasty of Priyavrata 
The extent of the earth 

V.8 Description of Bharata 

Review of other sub-continents 

Description of Jambiidvlpa and other 


The description of the nether-worlds 

V.9 Enumeration of the upper worlds 

The movements ofplanets 
Planetary system 


Purva bhdga 

Prakriyd pdda 







sanga Pdda 

;, Lii.6 












I.ii. 18 & 19. 


Lii.21.20 ff. 

I.ii. 23. 

I.ii. 21, 22 

Brahmanda Parana 

NP Bd.P. 

Enumeration ofDivine plants I.ii.24 

V.IO Explanation of the name Nilakantha I.ii.25 

Prowess of Mahadeva I.ii.26, 27 

Description ofthe New Moon day I.ii.28 

Review ofthe Principles ofYuga I.ii.29. 

V.ll The Institution ofYajnas I.ii.30. 
The last two Yugas described I.ii.31 

Characteristics of human beings in 

different Yugas I.ii.32. 
Spiritual lineage of Sages I.ii.32 

V.12 The classification ofthe Vedas I.ii.34. 

Svayambhuva Manu and his Man- 

vantara I.ii.35. 

Enumeration of remaining Manu 

epochs I.ii.36. 

Milking ofthe Earth I.ii.36. 

V.13 The Caksusa Manvantara I.ii.37. 

JVP. HI Upodghata 


The creation of Seven Sages H.iii.l. 

V. 14 The family ofPrajapati and the birth of 

Devas II. ill. 2, 3 

Birth of Maruts II. ill. 5 

V.15 The race of Kasyapa II. ill. 7 

The families of Sages II.iii.8 

Pitf-Kalpa 1 1, ill. 9 

Srdddha-Kalpa H. ill. Chs. 10-20. 











NP. Bd.P. 

V.16 The origin ofVaivasvata Manu and 

iiis creation II. iii. 59 

Tlie family of Manu's sons II. iii. 60 

The review of Gandharvas (Science 

of Music) 
V.17 The race oflksvaku 

The race ofAtri 

The race ofAmavasu 

The story of Raji 
V.18 The story ofYayati II. iii. 68 

The race ofYadu 

The story of Karttavlrya II. iii. 69 

The story of Jamadagni and Para- 

surama II. iii. 21-46. 

V.19 The race ofVrsni II. iii. 7 1 . 

The birth ofSagara II. iii. 47. 75-100. 

The story of Bhargava and the killing 

of Karttavlrya II. iii. 37-46. 

V.2C The story of Sagara II. iii. 45-56 

The story of Bhargava again II. iii. 57-58. 

Battle between Devas and Asuras II. iii. 72. 67- 195 

and 73.1-68. 

Birth ofKrsna II. iii. 71 . 195-241. 

V.21 Indra's(Prob-Siva's) prayer by Sukra II.iii.72.163ff 

Greatness ofVisnu II. iii. 73 . 

The race ofBali II. iii. 74. 26 S. 

V.22 The future kings of Kali Age II. iii. 74 

Bd. P. 
UttaraBhdga-Upasamhdra Pdda 

V.23 Description ofVaivasvata Manvantara III.iv.5 fil 
V.24 Stories offuture Manus III. iv. 1.7 flE 

^"^i Brahnianda Parana 

NP Bd.P. 

V.25 Kalpa and Pralaya lU.iv.l & 3. 

Measures ofTime III. iv. 2. 90 ff. 

14 Worlds and their character III. iv. 2. -8-89. 

V.26 Description ofHells III. iv. 2. 145- 195. 

Prakritic Pralaya IV. 3. 

V.27 Description of Siva's city IV.iv.2. 

Threefold goals 

V.28 Description ofBrahman IV.iv.iv.4. 

It will be seen from the above comparative Table that 
Lalitd-Mdhdtmya does not form a part of Bd.P. according to 

//. (Hi) The Old-Javanese Brahmdn4a Purdna* 

The first scholar to invite attention to the old-Javanese 
(OJ.) Bd. P. was R. Friederich who, in A.D. 1847, noted it in. 
his 'Provisional Report ofthe Isle ofBali'. But that Purana in. 
Kavi language came to be edited and translated in Dutch by the 
great scholar Prof Dr. J. Gonda of Utrecht in 1932-33. (Het. 
oud-javaansche Brahmanda Purana Edited and annotated, 
Bandung 1932 and II translated, Bandung 1933). 

Like other OJ. texts (e.g. many Parvans ofthe Mbh.) 
the Bd. P. in Kavi Language is an abridged prose translation of 
theSK. Bd. P. orwas a translation of an abridged form of the 
original SK. written in the Sloka style. It prunes superfluous adjec- 
tives and other trammels and succinctly presents the story. It 
follows SK. passages which were borrowed and translated very 
closely. Although it is much shorter, it does not generally speak- 
ing, omit, from the chapters what is essential. What is especially 

•Based on Prof. Dr. J. Gonda's paper : Einige Mitteibingen uber das- 
alt-jdvanische Brahmanda Purdna in Acta Oritntalia XI. 218-259. I am grateful 
to Dr. Gonda for inviting my attention to this article (His letter dated. 

Introduction XXVll 

interesting is that many Slokas, double or single porfas are lite- 
rally borrowed and interspersed at irregular intervals. These 
SK. quotations constitute fragments of an independent tradition 
of these texts. The Javanese Bd. P. is closely related to the 
Brahmanda-Vayu recension though different in many respects 
from it and is a valuable source ofknowledge for studying the 
textual tradition ofthe Puranas. Dr. Gonda examines the struc- 
ture of the Javanese Bd. P. and draws attention to the following 
particulars which shed light on its relation with SK. Bd. P. and 
the inter-relation between the SK. Puranas themselves: 

1. The introduction mainly agrees with SK.Va.P., with 
the sacrifice of King Adhislma-Krsna. Among Brahmanas and 
Sages who attended was Bhagavan Romaharsana. He, at their 
request, proceeds to narrate the Manuvamsakrama including 
Puranic stories. OJ. (Old-Javanese) Bd. P. p. 48.5 — p, 53.30 
correspond toVa. P. 1.8-28. Va. P. 1.1-9 are completely missing. 

2. Romaharsana commences his narration by describing 
the creation ofthe universe Bd.P.l, 3, 8. After describing Pra- 
dhana, the OJ. text informs about the creator : Rudra, Kala 
adding some notices of (originally Sankhya but Puranised con- 
cepts like) mahan, ahamkara, ekadasendriya, tanmatras and 
the origin ofthe cosmic egg.. Then, the creation of nine devar^is,. 
the birth of Rudra (cf Bd.P. Gh.lO), the origin of Sahkalpa 
and Dharma (Of Va. P. 9.7 ff), the creation of gods, Asuras, 
pitrs. The first quotation in OJ. Bd. p. corresponds to Bd. P. 

1.3.8 and the last to 1.8.54-55. 

3. After some details about the chronology of creation 
and originof four Varnas, theOJ. text treats the birth ofSvayam- 
bhuva Manu and Satartipa, their marriage and birth of Rati 
etc. The narrative runs parallel to Bd. P. 1.9.32 ff(Va. P. 10.8ff) 
but the OJ. version is shorter and presents the topics in different 
order. While dealing with Daksa's wife Prastiti and her twenty- 
four children (OJ. Bd.P. p. 58.1.21 ff) the text agrees with KP. 
8.15 rather than with the more detailed Bd.P. 1.9.47-49 (Va.P. 
10.23-24) showing that the Javanese author had a shorter SK. 
redaction of the Bd. P. 

The text Bd. P. ch. 11 (Va. P. ch. 28) and OJ. Bd. P. run 
parallel but OJ. version drops Agnivamsa-varnana. The 

xxviii Brahmania Pur an a 

short note on Pitrs (Bd. P. 1.13.1 ff. Va. P. 30.1 ff) is also 

4. OJ. Bd. P. is silent on Deva-vamsa Varnana (Bd. P. 
1.13.87-151, Va. P. 31). 

5. Ksanriya-Sarga i.e. the genealogy of Manu Svayam- 
bhuva in OJ. Bd. P. p. 68.1.2 ff corresponds to Bd. P. 1.14 
and Va. P. 33. In SK. Bd. P. and Va. P. the description of 
Jambudvipa (Bd. P. 1.15, Va. P. 34. 1-57, 53.1-9, 45.1.20a) 
follows rationally and chronologically after narrating the 
appointment of Manu's seven grandsons to seven dvipas, but 
Chs. Bd. P. 15-31, Va. P. 34-58 are not found in OJ. Bd. P. It 
gives the geography ofJambudvIpa at a later place. 

6. The OJ. Bd.P. p.72.1,ff containing yuga-prajS-laksanam 
and Rsi-pravaravarnanam corresponds to Bd. P. 1.32.1 ff). The 
duration of life of gods, demons, men, dharma, asramas etc. 
are discussed to some length. 

7. Bd. P. Ch. 33 containing sages and sacred formula 
(rs-nam namani, mantra-laksanam, mantranam n&ndvidhatvam 

etc.) is missing in OJ. Bd. P., though the contents are to follow 
later on (p. 14 ff.). Though the subject matter of Bd. P. 34 is 
generally speaking adequately represented in the OJ. text, 
there is much diversity in details (so in Va.P. as well). 

8. The episode of the pupils of Devamitra Sakalya and 
Sakapuni are common to OJ. and SK. Bd.P. (Ch. 35 ofBd. P.); 
so are the next subjects such as division ofYajurveda, Vaisam- 
payana's brahma-hatyd, behaviour of Yajnavalkya who, after 
'vomitting' old Yajurveda, acquires a new (white) Yajurveda and 
names of 86 pupils of Vaisampayana etc. The OJ. text spells 
many names differently. There is a curious statement in OJ. 
Bd. P. p. 90.1 where Yajiiavalkya is shown to refuse Vaisampa- 
yana's request to observe penance to atone for his Brahmahatya. 
But both SK. Bd.P. 1.35.20 and Va. P. 61.17 state the willing- 
ness of Yajiiavalkya to obey: 

aham ekal carisydmi tisthantu munayas tvime 

9. The next section on the rsis offour Vedas, the mantras, 
their use differs considerably in details from SK. Bd. P. Ch. 33 
but Va. P. too differs and so the origin of deviation is Indian and 
not Indonesian. 

Introduction xxix 

10. When OJ. text (p. 112.30) reaches SK. Bd. P. 
1.35.201 and Va. P. 61.172, it (OJ.Bd.p. p. 112.30) observes : 
"Like that the narrative goes in the Prakriydpdda of Brahmanda- 
samhita as told by the revered Vyasa"). But the Prakriyd-pdda 
in SK. Puranas ends much earlier viz. at the end of Ch. 5 in 
Bd. P. and 6 in Va. P. It is puzzling how the term Prakriydpdda 
is used in the OJ. Text which shows no knowledge of the four- 
fold division (viz. Prakriyd, Anusaiiga, Upodghdta and Upasarh- 
hdra> of the mula-purdna. 

11. The long section dealing with other Manus and the 
descendants of Svayambhuva Manu esp. the Vena-Prthu episode 
runs parallel in general with Bd. P.,Va.P. Kirfel points out the 
difference between redaction of the Vena-Prthu episode in Bd. 
P., Va. P. and in other Puranas like Brahma, Harivamsa and 
concludes that the OJ. text betrays the activity of the same 
redactor who arranged the Indian Bd. P.-Va. P. texts. Here- 
after OJ. text treats the description of Jambiidvlpa, Bhuvana- 
vinydsa and a part of Jyotihpracdra which constitute Bd. P. Ch. 
1.15 and Va. P. Ch. 34. The harmonization of this remarkable 
transposition of the topics is a problem. 

12. Bd. P. 1.15-24, Va. P. 34-54 and Mt.P. 112-128 
constitute a large coherent treatise ofgeography and cosmogra- 
phy. OJ. text (p. 128.22 fl) refers to Bhattara Bayu "The Lord 
Vayu" as an authority (cf the beginning of Bd. P. 1.15, Va. 34) 
and deals with Jambudvlpa, its mountains (esp. Meru) the 
Saptavarsa of Jambiidvlpa and closes with Kuruvarsa. 

13. Next OJ. text (p. 136, 30-143, 4) gives the descrip- 
tion of Bharatavarsa. The order of Stanzas in Bd. P., Va. P. is 
similar to OJ. text but curiously enough the line Bd. P. 1.16.8 
andVa. P. 45, 78 regarding the mutual unapproachability ofthe 
nine regions of Bharata-Varsa is untraced in OJ. text and SK. 
Mt. P. 

14. The next section deals with other varsas ofJambfl- 
dvlpa (Kimpurusa etc.), the penance of Bhaglratha, the descent 
of Gahga, lakes, rivers and Vadavamukha or Aurvagni. The 
OJ. shows the influence of Mt. P. and the quotation in OJ. 
text p. 152.12 (yasyamjambQnadalismrtah) has more in common 
with Mt.P. 120.67 rather than Bd. P. 1.18.69a and Va. P. 47.66b. 

XXX BrahmSnda Pur ana 

15. The next section deals with other dvipas, Saka, Kusa 
etc. On this cosmographic topic SK. Puranas resolve into three 
groups (1) Bd. P., Va. P. etc. (2) Mt. P., Varaha (3) Pd. P. 
and Mbh. The Javanese version joins the Matsya recension of 
this cosmography. 

16. The last section deals with astronomy. Bd. P. 20, Va. 
P. 50.1-57 give the description of the nether-worlds. But OJ. 
deletes this and goes with Mt. P. As to the description of stars, 
planets, division of stratosphere, the Solar car (Bd.P. 1.22), 
the OJ. text follows more closely Mt. P. In Mt. P., Bd. P, Va. P. 
the narration (of the stars etc.) continues but the OJ. text 
abruptly comes to a close where the above Indian parallel texts 
do not even finish the chapter. 

From this Prof. Dr. Gonda concludes that the OJ. text is 

The Vamsdnucarita traditionally dealt with in the Purana 
is completely absent as it was of little importance to Javanese 

A part of this OJ. text containing the Vena-Prthu episode, 
the geography and part of cosmography has come down to us 
in a metrical adaptation in a MS called Prthuvijaya, the name 
of the poet being Asta-guna. 

///. The Brahmdnda as a Mahd-Purdna 

It may be due to the interpolatory nature of Ch. 1 ofour 
Purana, that the ancient division of this Purana in four parts- 
Pddas) follows the Panca-laksana*\\st characterising Maha- 
puranas, as the former is given in W. 38b-39 and the latter in 
W. 37b-38b of the opening chapter. Be it as it may, the latter — 
the Panca-laksana definition of a Purana is very popular as it is 
repeated in a number of Puranas e.g. AP. 1.14, KP. 1.1.12, 
MK. P. 134. 13-14, Varaha P. 2.4, Va. P. 4.10-11. 

It is interesting to note how this ancient Purana of "four 
feet" (Catuspdda) adapts itself to the Panca-laksana formula 

*It is equally possible that tlie MS of SK. Bd.P' taken to Java might 
have been at a period before the so-called 'future kings'. Hence their non- 

Introduction xxxi 

adopted by it. The five cliaracteristics (laksanas) of a Purana 
given by it, are : (1) Sarga (creation of the Universe), (2) 
Pratisarga (Dissolution and re-creation of the world), (3) Man- 
vantaras (Periods of Time presided over by Manus), (4) Vamsa 
(Genealogies ofgods, the Patriarchs, The Sun and The Moon) 
and (5) Vamsdnucarita (accounts of dynasties of different ruling 

( 1 ) Sarga — Creation of the Universe 

The Purana gives the following theories of the creation of 
the Universe ; 

( 1 ) Creation from the Brahman 

The eternal Brahman, the source ofthe Universe is begin- 
ningless and endless. It is the source of the beginning and the 
place of ultimate merging and rest (of the Universe). It is 
incomprehensible and beyond Sat and Asat. It pervaded the 
entire universe which was dark (unmanifested), as the gunas 
were in a state of equilibrium. At the time ofcreation, Ksetrajna 
presided over Pradhdna and agitated the gunas which thereby 
became uneven (due to loss of their equilibrium) and the great 
principle Mahat was evolved. As the Sattva-guna predominated in 
the Mahat, the linga Sarira psychic-subtle-body) was evolved 
and was presided over by the Ksetrajiia. Saiikalpa (thought- 
power) and Adhyavasdya (determination) are remembered to 
be his functions. With a desire to create, he created this great 
creation ( 

(//) The Purdnic Theory* 

The Ksetrajna called Brahma who awoke in the egg of 
Prakrti (Cosmic Egg) is the first embodied being and he is 
called Purusa (One lying in the abode ofthe cosmic eggl. This 
god Brahma, the first creator of Bhutas (elements or beings) 
existed first. This four-faced Hiranyagarbha appeared at first 
in this (Cosmic Egg). Both at the time ofcreation and re-crea- 
tion (after destruction), he is the Ksetrajiia called Brahma. 

*A few verses in the text of Bd. P. are corrupt and unintelligible. So this 
theory is given on the basis of the corresponding verses of the Va. P. 4. 76-79 
as both these PuraBM hove identical verse 

xxxii Brahmanda Purana 

In the Vedic tradition, Hiranya is tlie Ligiit-Life principle. 
He in wiiom this principle vibrates is Hiranyagarbha*. Our Purana 
states that the Cosmic Egg contains seven worlds, the earth 
along with Seven continents, oceans — nay everything including 
the Sun, the Moon, Stars, Planets and the mountain Lokaloka 
( The egg is enveloped from outside with seven 
sheaths of the fowf" elements (water, fire, wind and thV'ether), 
of the Bh&lddi, Al/that and PradKaria each sKeatlTten times bigger 
than the former. Sankhya influence is obvious here. 

This is the Prdkrtacieation, a vivartaoithe Brahman presid- 
ed over by Ksetrajna (Brahma). It takes place without preplan- 
ning (abuddhipurva) like the flash of a lightening (I. 1.3.24-37). 

(///} Prdkrta Sarga 

Our Purana presents the Sankhya Theory of Creation as 
follows : 

Before the creation of the Universe, the Unmanifest was 
stationed in itself and the product (the Universe) was withdrawn. 
The Pradhana and Purusa remained with their characteristics 
Tamas and Sattva respectively. Laya means equilibrium of 
Gunas and Creation means dis-equilibrium ofthese Gunas. Three 
divinities viz. Brahma, Visnu and Rudra were born out of the 
qualities Rajas, Sattva and Tamas respectively. But it is Visnu 
who, as the enlightener and revealer of the Rajas, becomes 
Brahma and that ofthe Tamas adopts the form of Kala (Rudra) 
and ofthese Sattva assumes the form ofVisnu. Thus, the trinity 
of gods, though separate with separate functions, are but one 
entity. "The self-born deity has three states. He has four faces 
as Brahma and possessing Rajas exclusively, creates the worlds; 
as Kala, he has the gunas — Rajas and Tamas, and he annihilates. 
As Purusa with a thousand heads, he is exclusively Sattvika. 
This is the position of Gunas in the case ofthe Self-born deity" 
(I. i. 4. 17-19) That Deity is Om. Omniscient, Adya, (first), Aja 
(Unborn) Hiranyagarbha, Kala and eternal, (ibid. 26-34). 

"The Puranas amplify Vedic tradition. For tlie concept 'Hiranyagarbiia' 
vide V. S. Agrawala — Hirartyagarbha (Purana II i.ii. 285-306). 

Introduction xxxlii 

(IV) The Nine Creations of Brahma 

At the beginning, tliere was one vast ocean (Ekarnava, 
also called Maharnava, Stabdha-Salila or Tugdnta-Toya 'Water 
at the end ofYugas' in other Puranas). This primeval watery 
flood expresses the infinite unmanifest cause of the Universe 

(called the Kdrana Brahman by Nilakantha on HV. P. 3. 9. 1-4). 
Brahma named Narayana with a thousand heads slept there. 
He remained meditating for a thousand Yugas. He moved alone 
in waters and knew that the Universe had sunk into that vast 
expanse of water and thought of the other eight-fold cosmic 
body (evolved by) Orhkara in the beginning of Kalpas as before 

(I. i. 5. 1-9). 

He assumed the form of a boar and lifted up the earth* 
and re-arranged the mountains, oceans etc. on the earth as before 
'again and again at the beginning of every Kalpa' (ibid 9-27). 
With a desire to create, he meditated and as he was meditating 
Avidyd with its five 'knots' (parvans) viz. Tamas (ignorance), 
Moha (Delusion) Mahamoha (great Delusion and) others 
(These are the Klesas in the Togasdstra) unfolded itself and 
immobile (mukhya or sthdvara) creation took place. Brahma 
was not satisfied with this meditated (Vaikrta) creation and 
created the animal world called Tiryak-srotas as it functioned 
bliquely. This second creation was Tamasika and Brahma 
being dissatisfied with it created the Third divine — Sattvika — 
of gods (called Urddhvasrotas). 

These are the three 'meditated' and Primary creations 
(ibid. 28-46). Later, god Brahma desired to create another 
set of beings and Lo ! a 'downrcurrented' category of mortal 
beings full of Rajas and Tamas yet capable of achieving these 
goals was created (ibid 47-50). 

The fifth creation is called Anugraha Sarga (favoured crea- 
tion) as it was created through the favour of Avyakta or Prakrti. 
It consists of four classes and they are born again and again 
(W. 51-52 and VV. 100-104). 

"^The beautiful allegoric description of Yajna-Varaha should be read in. 
the original VV. 11 fiF. 

xxxiv Brahmanda Purana 

The sixth creation is the Bhuta-Sarga (creation of elements, 

There seems to be some confusion (probably due to the 
uncritical nature ofthe Text). But to recapitulating the names 
of these sargas: 

/. Primary Creation : 

(1) Creation of Mahat 

(2) Creation of Tanmatras, (called Bhflta sarga here again) 

(3) Vaikdrika (Creation of Aindriya Sarga) 

These are the Prdkrta (created from Prakrti) Primary crea- 
tions and 

//. Secondary Creation : 

(4) Mukhya Sarga (Creation of insentients or ofimmobiles). 

(5) Tiryak-Srotas (Creation of lower creatures and ani- 

(6) Urddhva Srotas (Creation of gods and divine beings). 

(7) Arvdksrotas (Creation of human beings) 

(8) Anugraha-Sarga (Both Sattvika and Tamasika) 

These five (4-8) are called Vaikrta (Secondary) creations 
and these function without consciousness or fore-knowledge 

III. Primary-Cum-Secondary (?) 

(9) The Kaumdra Creaft'on— Creation by mind-born sons. 
But when Sanat-Kumara and others became Yogins and did 
not procreate, Brahma created mind-born sons viz. Bhrgu, 
Arigiras, Marlci, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Daksa, Atri and 
Vasistha from various parts of his body (L i. 5. 70-76). These are 
termed as nine Brahmas as they participated in creation, but 
his mental sons Sanat-Kumara and Kratu became Yogins. 
Later on (W. 107- 108), the Rgvedic idea about the creation 
of four Varnas from different parts ofthe Lord's body, is stated. 
In spite of the overlapping of these theories, they represent a 
metaphorical amplification and continuation ofVedic concepts 
with a strong admixture of Sankhya (e.g. the concept of the 

Introduction XXXV 

Trinity of gods — Brahma, Visnu and Rudra). The corner- 
stone of Puranic lore, is a mix of the Vedic Brahman and the 
Sankhya concept of three gunas etc. 

The Pralaya is of four types : 

( 1 ) Nilya — usual 

(2) Naimittika (Periodical). 

(3) Prdkrtika (of Prakrti, the. primordial nature) 

(4) Atyantika (Absolute or final). 

(1) The Nitya Pralaya is what goes on every day e.g. 
deaths of beings. 

(2) The Naimittika Pralaya takes place at the completion 
ofa Kalpa i.e. at the end ofone thousand sets of (Gatur) Yugas. 
God Brahma begins to absorb the subjects in him. A continuous 
drought for hundred years, the Sun with his seven rays burns 
up everything and evaporates the oceans. The Samvartaka fire 
burns down the four worlds viz. Bhfl, Bhuvar, Svar and Mahar. 
Thereafter, Samvartaka clouds pour down torrential rains and 
everything mobile and immobile is destroyed and dissolved into 
one vast expanse ofwater and god Brahma becomes a thou- 
»and-eyed, thousand-headed entity and goes to sleep for a period 
ofone thousand sets of four Yugas (God Brahma's night) (II. iv. 


At the end of Brahma's night, he wakes up and recreates. 
The day and night ofBrahma i.e. the complete day of Brahma 
is called Visesa Kalpa (ibid. 190-210) 

(3) The Prdkrtika Pralaya takes place at the end of Brahma's 
period. When the Pratyahara' (withdrawal of the Universe) 
is imminent, Bhiitas (elements, both gross and subtle) are anni- 
hilated, evolutes of Prakrti beginning with Mahat ahd ending 
with Visesas are destroyed. The waters swallow the special 
quality — smell — of the earth, the fire that of the water upto Akdsa 
which merges into BhUtddi. In this way the higher evolute of 
Prakrti "swallows up" the lower one, till at last the Mahat dis- 
solves itself into Guna-sdmya (equilibrium of Gunas). Only, the 

•Cf. KP.1I.45. 1-10. VP. 1.7. 41-43, VI. 3. 2 ff. 

XXXVl Brahmanda Purana 

Atman remains. This process of reabsorption of Principles 
(Tattva-Sdmya) is recurrent (II. iv. 3-1-24). 

(4) Atyantika Pralaya takes place when one becomes 
liberated through spiritual knowledge. He does not take up 
another bodyjust as a sprout (never comes out) when the seed 
is burnt, (ibid. 80-84). 

This is called "dissolution due to dawning of knowledge 
(II. iv. 1.131). 


Puranas look upon Time as a form ofGod.' His power to 
create the universe by disturbing the equilibrium of gunas of 
Prakrti, the destroyer of all beings' and the empirical time- 
sequence. The Bd. P. is committed to the description of all 
Manvantaras and Kalpa-periods' and it describes Time figura- 
tively in terms ofunits oftime : "The San is his source and the 
period of nimefa* (twinkling of an eye or utterance of a short 
vowel) is his beginning. Day and night constitute his form and his limbs. The year is his essence. This lord of sub- 
jects (Prajapati) is of the nature of the present, past and future".' 

The main division oftime are the day, the fortnight, the 
month, the season and Ayanas.* 

The Manvantaras are based on the concept of Yuga 
periods. Originally a Yuga consisted of five years called (1) 
Samvatsara, (2) Parivatsara, (3) Id or-Idavatsara, (4) Anuvat- 
sara and (5) Vatsara'. We find the same duration of Yuga in 
Mbh. Sabha 11.37-38) Kautilya" and Vedanga-jyotisa." 

1. Yugabhimani Kdlatma-Rudrafr / I.ii. 13.139 

2. I.ii. 13. 109. Sarva-bhutapahdrakah / also see V. 149. 

3. I. i. 1.46 

4. It means either'winking ofthe eye' or 'time required to uttera 
short letter, (laghvakfaram) vide Bd. P. I.ii. 29. 5. 

nimtsakdla-tulyarh hi vidydllaghvaksaram ca yat 

5. I.ii.l3.III-113a. 

6. Ibid. 113b-114a. 

7. Ibid. 114b-115. 

& Paiica-samvafsart yugam—Arlha-sdstra 11.20 p. 109. 
9. Paftca-sarrwatsara-mayam Tugddhyaksam Prajdpatim V. 1. 
Hence Kane conjectures that 'yuga' in RV.III.26.3, 1 1 1 .55. 18 means 
*a period of 5 years'. 

Introduction xxxvii 

Later on, the period ofYuga came to be extended to 12000 
years e.g. Bd. P. I. ii. 29. 25-29, state 12,000 years as the total 
number of years of four Yugas (including the 'twilight'years) — 
a period endorsed by Manu' and Mbh.*. Nowhere is there a 
hint that these are not human years but divine ones. 

But later on, the concept of 'divine' or super-human years 
developed as can be seen from units of time given as follows'. 

15 nimesa «= Kastha; 30 Kastha = Kala 

30 Kalas = Muhijrta; 

30 Muhiirtas = Day and night (24 hours) 

30 days = A month = One day and night of Pitrs 

30 human months = 1 year of Pitrs 

360 human months = 1 year of Pitrs 

Human Uttarayana=* 1 day of the Devas 

Human Daksinayana= 1 night of the Devas 

1 human year = A complete day and night ofDevas 

30 Human years = A month ofDevas 

360 Human years = One year ofDevas 

3030 Human years = 1 Saptarsi year 

9090 Human years = 1 Dhruvayear 

360,000 Human years = 1,000 years of gods. 

Thus the Yuga periods with the twilight period (San- 
dhydmSa) of each Yuga is as follows: 







Krta-yuga : 






Treta-yuga : 












Kali-yuga : 





Total period of four yugas (Catur- 
yugi or MahS-ydga) 

12,000 years. 

1. Manu 1.71. 

2. Vana. 188.27. 

3. Bd. P. I. U. 29. 5. -21. 

xxxviii Brahmania Parana 

But these are 'divine' years. And our Purana converts 
tliem into iiuman years as 4320,000. Tiiis new concept of Yugas 
is adopted in Puranas vide KP.I.Clis.5 1 ,53 NP. I. Cii. 41, 
Mbli. Vana, Ciis. 149, 188, VP. 1.3, Va.P. Chs. 21, 22, 57, 58. 

The day ofgod Brahma consists of 1000 catur-yugis in which 

fourteen Manus ruled. It means a manvantara = catur^yKgtJ 

or 71^«, catur-yugas or 12000 x 360 x 71 + 17,28000), or 
30,67,20,000 human years'. Strangely enough, this yuga-theory 
is limited to Bharata-varsa.' 

The theory ofYugas and Kalpas began to take shape in 
300 B.C. and was fully developed in the first centuries of the 
Christian Era.' 

The Characteristics of Yugas : 

Our Purana offers a few remarks about the state of society 
in Krta-yuga : There was social equality. People were ever 
young, equal in beauty and longevity. They were without malice 
and had no conflicts. The institution of Varndsrama-dharma 
(classification of Society into Vamas and Stages in life) was yet 
to be established. People lived in natural surroundings as the 
climate was pleasant. Strangely enough, birds, beasts and reptiles 
were non-existant. Knowledge was valued the most.^ 

The Tretd-Tuga : Though Dharma lost 'one leg' Vedic 
mantras and Siddhis which were 'lost' at the end of the (last) 
Kalpa, manifested themselves to sages. The beliefin the eternal 
nature ofmantras and their disappearance at the end ofa Kalpa 
only to manifest themselves at the beginning of another Kalpa 
is peculiar to Puranas. In Treta Yuga, there was only one Vedic 

The beginning of this Yuga was marked with rainfall and 
luxuriant vegetations. People gave up their previous nomadic 

1. Bd. P. 38, 39; also VP. I. 3.19-21. 

2. Catvdri Bharate varje yugdni kavayo'bruvan / Ibid. 23 

3. Kane-HD. III. 888-890. 

4. Bd. P. I. ii. 7. 45-59. 

5. Ibid 74-195 and Ch. 29.52-92. 

Introduction xxxix 

habits and settled by constructing liouses in mountains, along 
the rivers and also establishing villages, townships etc. They 
maintained themselves by products from the trees but due to 
some climatic change, the vegetation was 'swallowed up' by the 
earth and the earth had to be 'milched' as per god Brahma's 
direction (i.e. Agriculture was developed). The Social structure 
based on fixed prescribed duties (Varndsrama-dharma) came to 
be established. The Saptarsis (Seven sages) laid down Srauta 
and Smdrta dharmas. The institution of Kingship and of Law 
and order (Dandaniti) became established. Ritualistic sacrifice 
came in vogue in Treta. 

The Dvdpara-Yuga With two 'legs' of Dharma lost, this 
Yuga shows the deterioration and confusion of social, religious 
and other conditions providing the background for the chaos 
of Kali Yuga. It is in every Dvapara that a Vyasa is born to 
arrange the floating Vedic hymns into four Sarhhitas. This idea 
of an incarnation of a Vyasa is found in other Puranas such as 
VP. III. 3, Bh. P. 1.4. 24-25, KP. I. 52, Va. P. 23.107-213. 
The list of the Vyasa per each Dvapara is as follows :' 
1. Svayambhti (Self-born god Brahma), 2. Prajapati, 
3.Usanas,4. Brhaspati, 5. Savitr, 6. Mrtyu, 7. Indra,8.Vasistha, 

9. Sarasvata, 10. Tridhaman, 11. Trivarsa,, 12. Sanadvaja 13. 

Antarlksa, 14. Dharma, 15. Traiyyarum, 16. Dhanaiijaya, 
17. Krtaiijaya, 18. Rjisa, 19. Bharadvaja, 20. Gautama, 21. 

Uttama,22. Haryavarhsa, 23. Vena, 24. Vajasravasa, 25. Soma- 

mukhyayana, 26. Trnabindu, 27. Tataja, 28. Sakti, 29. Parasara. 

30. Jatukarna, 31. Dvaipayana. 32. Future Vyasa, Droni (Asva- 


So here we have a bonus of three more Vyasas in addition 
lo the prescribed twenty-eight.' 

Kali Tuga :* Almost all Puranas depict a gloomy picture 
of the Kali Age e.g. Mbh. Vana. Chs. 188, 190, Santi 69.80-97, 

1. Bh. P. Ch. 31. 

2. Ibid. Ch. 35.116-126. 

3. There are different names in the list ofVyasas in KP. I. 52 viz. 11. 
Rsabha, 12 Sutejas 14. Sucaksus 18. Rtanjaya 22. Narayana, 24. Valmiki. 

4. Ibid. Ch. 31.33-101. 

xl Brahmanda Purana 

Bh. P. XII. 1-2, VP. VI. 1, Vayu 58 and 99. 391-428, Mt. P. 
143.32-78. It appears that that was the actual state ofthe society 
when Puranas were written, though they prophesise it as a future 
state of society.' 

In a prophetic tone, our Purana says : The Dharma will 
be on the last leg. Men and women will be character-less. 
Ksattriya and Vaisya classes will be practically eliminated. 
Brahmins will be fallen and associate with Sudras in eating etc. 
and bow to them. Stidras will be kings and act as Brahmanas. 
Kings instead of protecting subjects will act like robbers. 

Predominance of Buddhists, Jains, Kapalikas and atheists 
is predicted. 

The only relieving feature is that a person gets the fruit of 
his good act immediately in Kali-yuga.^ 

At last god Visnu incarnates and puts an end to the chaotic 

Seventyone such groups of four Yugas constitute a man- 
vantara. A Manu presides over the world for this period ofseventy- 
one cycles of four yugas. Each Manu has his separate set of 
Indra, gods, saptarsis (seven sages) etc. All Manus and their 
paraphernalia(Indra etc.) have the same powers, function etc. 
as those ofthe previous ones. The number of Manus is fourteen. 
Out of them six have already ruled and retired. The present 
Manu is Vaivasvata. The names ofthe Manus are as follows: — 
(1) Svayambhuva, (2) Svarocisa, (3) Uttama, (4) 
Tamasa, (5) Raivata, (6) Caksusa, (7) Vaivasvata (8) Manu 
Meru(?) Savarni, (9) Daksa Savarni (10) Brahma Savarni, 
(11) Dharma-Savarni, (12) Rudra-Savarni, (13) Raucya (14) 

The following example of one Manu Svayambhuva' 
will illustrate the personnel attending upon a Manu. 

1. R. C. Hazra points out that such was the actual condition of the 
Hindu Society after Asoka and before 200 A.D. (Puranic Records on Hindu Sites 
and Customs // Ch. 1). 

2. Bd. P. I. ii. 31. 31-72b. 

3. Vide Bd. P. I.ii.36 and III. iv.l. 

Introduction xli 

I Manu — Svayambhuva: 

(1) Gods — Yamas, (2) Incarnation of Visnu, Yajna, 
officiated as Indra (3) Seven Sages — Marici, Atri, Aiigiras, 
Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya, Vasistha. 

II yia.n\i—Svdrocisa 

(I) Gods— 12 Tusitas and 12 Paravatas (2) Indra— Vipas'cit 
(3) Seven Sages (the descendants of the Saptarsis of the pre- 
vious Manvantara) — Urja, Stamba, Prana, Rsabha, Datta, 
Niscala, Arvarivan. (4) Sons — Nine sons such as Caitra, Kim- 
purusa and others. 

Fourteen Manvantaras complete the day of god Brahma. 
At the end ofgod Brahma's day, there is a deluge. After taking 
rest'at night' of an equal duration as that ofthe day, god Brahma 
creates the Universe as he did in the previous Kalpa' —a fact 
hammered by the author ofthe Purana every now and then. 
As noted above, the Pralaya after the completion of a day of 
Brahma is called Naimittika while that at the end of life of 
Brahm" is called Prdkrlika Pralaya. 

(4 & 5) Varhsa and Vamsdnucarita 

Genealogies of ancient dynasties are the chief data for 
reconstructing history of ancient India. The disbelief of early 
scholars in Puranic accounts of these dynasties is now much 
modified by the works of F.E. Pargiter,' S. N. Pradhan,' H. C. 
Raychaudhary,^ A.D. Pusalkar' and others. Scholars like 
M. K. Acharya" D. R. Mankad' and others have tried to recon- 
struct the chronology of these ancient events. Pusalkar, in the 
Vedic Age takes 3102 B.C. — the usual date for Deluge or Flood 

1. Vide for example Op. cit. 31.118-119. Cf. Dhata yatha-purvan 
akalpayat / MahandrayanTya 5.7 

2. Ancient Indian Historical Tradition. 

3. Chronology of Ancient India. 

4. Political History of Ancient India. 

5. Vedic Age (Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay). 

6. Dates of Ancient Indian History. 

7. Puranic Chronology. 

xlli Brahmanda Purana 

in Mesopotamia — as tlie definite starting point for tire date of 
Manu Vaivasvata and divides tiie ancient Indian Iristorical 
periods as follows : 

(1) Manu Vaivasvata period 3102 B.C. 

(2) Yayati Period (C. 3000-2750 B.C.) 

(3) Mandhata Period (C. 2750-2550 B.C.) 

(4) Parasurama Period (C. 2550-2350 B.C.) 

(5) (Das'arathi) Ramacandraperiod(C. 2350-1950 B.C.) 

(6) Krsna period (C. 1950-1400 B.C.) 
Tentatively, I accept this chronological frame work. 

Our Purana describes the dynasties of Vaivasvata Manu 
(I.ii.chs. 36, 38, II. ill. 59, 60). The dynasties of sages like 
Kasyapa, Atri^Vasistha (Il.iii.Chs. 5-8), Dynasties of Iksvaku, 
Nimi (Ibid Chs. 63, 64), of Amavasu and Dhanvantari (Ibid 
Chs. 66-67), the Lunar dynasty (Ibid Chs. 65, 68-71). 

Despite these attempts in fixing period frames and deter- 
mination of contemporary kings (for example Dasaratha of 
Ayodhya and Divodasa ofVaranasT), the chronology of these 
kings is comparative and a sort of rational guess work ! 

We are on firmer grounds from the time of Megasthenes. 
Although Sandrocottus mentioned by Megasthenes is showed 
to be Candragupta I of the Gupta dynasty and not Candra- 
gupta Maurya, according to K. D. Sethna.' I, however, still 
believe that Megasthenes refers to Candragupta Maurya. 

Our Purana has given the following dynasties of the Kali 
age (i) Pauravas (Parlksit to Ksemaka), (ii) Aiksvakus (Brhad- 
bala to Sumitra), (ill) Barhadrathas (Sahadeva to Ripuiijaya) 
Bd.P.II.iii 74-107b— 122a. (iv) Pradyotas, (v) Sisunagas 
(vi) Nandas 74.139-143. (ibid. 74. 122b-127a.) (74.127b-135a) 
(vii) Mauryas (74.144-1449) (viii) Sungas (74.150-156a.) 
(ix) Kanvayanas (74.156b-160a.) and (x) Andhras (74.160b- 

1. Trover in A.D. 1858 advocated this identity in his Rajatarangini. 
This is confirmed by K.D. Sethna, G. C. Bose and others (Purana Jan. & July 

Introduction xllll 

The various periods of tiiese genealogies given in tliis 
Purana are rougiily correct.' 

Tlius, our Purana supplies important material on the 
history of ancient India and stands the test of the Paftcalaksana 

Panca-Laksana and Four Pddas 

So the problem arises : What is the relation between the 
four Pddas of the Bd. P. to these Panca-laksanas ? Our Purana 
positively states: 'This Purana as recognised by people consists 
of four Pddas viz. (I) Prakriyd, (2) Anusahga, (3) Upodghdta and 
(4) Upa-Samhdra?, (in.iv.4.43-44). Roughly these four divisions 
have accommodated the nveLaksanas of a Purana as follows: 

(1) Prakriyd It means the creation of the Universe and 
corresponds to Sarga. Our Purana describes the Vedic meta- 
physics of creation in a Puranic manner in Chs. 3, 4 and 5 of 
Prakriyd pdda when it deals with the original state of equilibrium 
ofgunas, the laying ofthe Golden egg and emergence of Hiranya- 
garbha (Lord Brahma, the creator from it). 

(2) Anusahga-pdda : As its name suggests it is a connected 
continuation of the previous pdda and includes the birth and 
genealogies of Brahmarsis (Brahmanical Sages), Devarsis (celes- 
tial sages) and Rajarsis (Royal Sages as in Chs. 8-38. 

(3) Upodghdta Pdda : This seems to have combined in 
itself the Manvantara and Varhsanukirtana. A sort ofoverlap- 
ing and mixing up of topics seems to have taken place as the 
Dynasty of Manu and the topic of Manvantaras is given in 
Chs. 36-38 ofthe previous section. The lineages of Sages which 
should have formed a part ofthe previous section are given in 
the III Section Chs. 1-7. The topic of Srdddha and an inflated 
version of Parasurama legend (which are probably accretions 
ofa later date) have occupied Chs. 12-58. The topic ofVaivas- 

1. For the details ofthese dynasties see the annotations on that chapter 
(II.iii.74). And injra 'Historical Tradition in Bd. P.' 

2. Prakriyd prathamah pddah kathdyds tu parigrahah j 
Anusaiiga upodghdta upasamhdra eta ca // 

evam era catuh-psdam purdnam loka-sammatam / 

xliv Brahmanda Purana 

vata Manu is repeated in Ciis. 59-60. And tlie real Varlisa- 
nukrama dealing with the dynasties of Iksvaku, Nimi etc. are 
crammed in Chs. 63-71 (which was probably the older portion 
in the original Purana) and Ch. 74 which deals with the dynasties 
in Kali age in a prophetic vein. 

(4) Upasamhdra Pdda : It deals with the dissolution of 
the Universe and corresponds to the Pratisarga laksana. 

Although I have discussed the Miila Purana theory in 
my introduction to the Narada Purana (pp. 2-9), it is difficult 
to state which topics formed the parts of the original catus-pdda 
Brahmanda Purana in the absence ofa critical edition. 

I V . Religious Sects in the Bd. P. 

Although the Bd. P. believes in the Para Brahman as the 
ultimate principle and the trinity of gods — Brahma, Visnu, 
Siva as His manifestation on a lower plane, it testifies to the 
existence of the following religious sects at that time. 

1 . Saivism 

Rudra or Siva as Mahesvara is the Supreme deity. Siva 
on a lower plane is born of god Brahma as Nlla-lohita and was 
given the following eight names : (along with the explanation 
of their significence) Rudra, Bhava, Sarva, Isana, Pasupati 

{PasUndm patih in the text), Bhima, Ugra and Mahadeva'. 
From the Brahmana period where (as in the Satapatha VI. 

1.3.1-18) Rudra was regarded as born from Prajapati and was 
given the same list of names (except Asani for Bhima in Bd. P.). 
The names Sarva, Bhima, Ugra indicate the terrific or des- 
tructive aspect ofRudra, while the rest, his auspicious nature. 

He is credited to have created all the Universe including god 
Brahma and Visnu.' Siva's four faces create functions of guar- 
dians of quarters such as Indra, Kubera and Varuna. 

Mythological legends 

The most outstanding feat ascribed to Rudra in all the 
Puranas (e.g. Bh. P. IV. 5, LP. I. 99 & 100, NP. II. 66. 5-16, 

1. Bd. P. I.ii.lO. 

2. Op. Cit. I. 2.26.9. 

Sukra's eulogy of Nilalohita II.iii.72 .163- 195. 

Introduction xlv 

Siva II. 1.1-36 Va. P. 1.30.122-160) is the destruction of 
Daksa's sacrifice. The legend dates back to the Brahmana 
period where (as in Satapatha and Kausltaki) Daksa's moral 
turpitude is givenas the cause of destruction. The Mbh. (Santi 
283.26-33) attributes the destruction of Daksa's sacrifice to his 
denial to give Rudra his due sacrificial share. But in the next 
chapter (284) sage Dadhici is said to have condemned Daksa 
for not inviting Siva and cursed that it would not be completed 
(ibid 284.12-21). But in our Purana (I. II. 13.45 fi) Daksa 
insults his eldest daughter SatI, the wife of Siva. SatI immolates 
herself in Yogic fire. Rudra and Daksa mutually curse each 

Another miracle attributed to Siva is the drinking of 
Halahala poison which emerged while churning the milky ocean. 
He was requested by god Brahma to save the world from it. 
Siva drank it and became blue-throated as the effect of that 
deadly poison (I.ii. 24.7-98). The Mbh. (Santi 342.114-115) 
attributes it to the strangling of Siva's throat by Visnu in a fight. 
Bd.P. takes every opportunity to glorify Siva. Parasurama, 
an incarnation of Visnu, is advised by his forbear Aurva to 
perform penance for propitiation of Siva and secure from him 
his secret missiles. Parasurama performs penance, is tested by 
Siva and granted the missiles (Il.iii.Chs. 22-24). For avenging 
his father's death by killing Sahasrarjuna, Parasurama approa- 
ches Brahma forguidance and is directed to propitiate Siva by 
penance (Il.iii. Chs. 31-32). As a contrast, Mbh. Santi, 
disposes of this episode in a few verses, even though it is a 'Bhrgui- 
sed' version. 

The Siva-linga 

Modern scholars hold that the symbol (Linga) of Siva is his 
phallus. As in KP (1.26.66-99) the Lifiga of Siva is the mani- 
festation of a column offire (the Skarhbha in A.V.) the beginning 
and end ofwhich were untraceable and hence incomprehensible 
to gods Brahma and Visnu ( Theyjointly prayed 
that Lifiga in terms attributable to the Supreme-most power 
who creates, permeates, protects, destroys everything. It is 
caWed para Brahman, the highest abode (paramam padam)etc. (Ibid. 
W. 31-54). It is as it were a garland of the epithets of Siva. 

xlvi Brahmanda Purana 

The identification ofRudra and sacrificial fire is found in 
Vedic literature (e.g. Tail. Sam. V.iv.3.1). The similarity in 
Linga-worship and fire-worship is significant. Here the phallus- 
aspect has no place. 

As in KP. II. 38-39, Siva P. IV. 12.4-54, our Purana des- 
cribes the falling of the Phallus of Siva in Daruvana(I.ii.27). 
God Siva came to bless the sages of Daruvana and demonstrat- 
ed to them the Pasupata way of reducing sins by inviting public 
•censure, technically called Braj-a' which includes outward acts 
of courting (srrigdrana), irrelevant speech (avitad-bhdsana etc .)* . 
The sages were aghast as the behaviour was against dharma as 
they understood it. They requested him to drop his phallus; 
clothe himselfand speak gently. Siva ofhis own accord dropped 
it and disappeared. God Brahma advised them to prepare its 
replica and worship him. The words are : 

drstarh vai yadrsam tasya lingam asTn mahatmanah / 
Tadrk-pratikrtirh krtva Sfllapanim prapadyata // 

'After making the replica of the Lifiga of the great soul in the 
same form as seen by you, resort to Lord with the trident in his 

Strictly speaking, this is not the direct advocacy of phallus- 
worship. Nor the Liriga-replica prepared by them could include 
Toni. But the hint of phallus-worship is clear, though the two 
panegyrics of Lord Siva, one by God Brahma ( W . 47-55) and 
the other by the sages of Daruvana ( W . 63-91) show that our 
Purana pays the greatest respect to Lord Siva. 

The remaining chapter is a glorification and explanation 
of the elements of Pasupatism as follows: 

(i) The Pasupata vow is based on Yoga and was chro- 
nologically promulgated at first. The Varndsrama- 
dharma is a later creation by god Brahma (VV. 

(i) Bath in holy ashes is essential. Holy ashes are the 
semen of god Siva and they reduce to ashes all the 
sins of him who besmears himself with it. It has 

•For details vide Bliasarvajiia's Ratnatlka on Haradatta's Ganakdrikd 
pp. 18-19. cf. KP. 11.39.15-17. 

Introduction xlvii 

a protective influence against all evils. A person 
whose self is purified by applying the ashes and is 
self controlled is liberated (W. 106-115). 

Skanda — Kdrt tikeya 

The Purana does not explain the Kumara-Vidya and the 
yogic significance of the legend of the Saivite god Skanda-Kart- 
tikeya. Bd. P. (II.iii.9.22-51) gives the legend as follows: 

Indra being afraid ofthe child that would be born of Siva 
and Uma requested Agni (the omnipresent Fire-god) to disturb 
their sexual intercourse. At the appearance of Agni, Uma 
naturally got up and the Semen of Rudra was spilt on the ground. 
Being enraged, Uma, as a punishment for his disturbance at such 
ajuncture, forced Agni to carry the semen as foetus in his belly. 
Finding it unbearable, he requested the river Gariga to carry it. 
Gafiga also was too much tormented to bear it and discharged 
it. His birth was welcomed with joy by all divine beings. The 
wives of six Saptarsis (except Vasistha's wife ArundhatI) fed him 
and the god manifested six mouths to suck them and came to be 
known as Sanmukha (Six-mouthed). He is the defeater ofthe 
enemies of gods and hence is called Skanda. He was brought up 
by six Krttikas (Pleids) and hence was known as Kdrttikeya. 
When he yawned, a javeline (Sakti) came out of his mouth. 
God Visnu gave him two birds, a cock and a pea-cock. It is 
noteworthy that Kushan seals from the 1st to 3rd cent A.D. 
represent Karttikeya holding a javeline and a cock. He was 
anointed as the commander-in-chief of the army of Devas. A 
seal ofthe 5th Cent A.D. from Mathura represents him as seated 
on a peacock and being installed by god Brahma and Siva (?) 
as the leader of Deva army. Our Purana does not record his 
marriage with a girl called Devasena as in Mbh. Vana 229. 
Being a destroyer ofthe army of enemies of gods he is called 
Skanda. Another remarkable factor is that his army consists of 
goblins and evil spirits (Pramathas and Vindyakas) in addition to 
Devas. This supports the tradition which explains his names 
Mahasena and Kumara associated with diseases like demon- 
cough (as in Pdraskara Grhya Sutra) and his permission to the 
Mothers to be evil spirits (Mbh. Vana 220.22). 

Skanda's inability to intervene in the scuffle between 

xlviii Brakmanda Parana 

Parasurama and Ganesa in which Parasurama smashed the tusk 
ofGanesa and his performance of the role of a reporter of the 
incident to ParvatI (Bd.P.II.3.41.32-55 and ibid 42. 1 -10) is not 
creditable to the commander-in-chief of the Deva army. 

A cult worshipping the image of Skanda, was in vogue at 
the time ofPataiijali (1st Cent A.D.) and the names of Skanda 
were adopted by the rulers of the Gupta dynasty. The name 
Subrahmanya is not applied to Skanda in our Purana (and also 
in the Mbh.) 


Ganesa, the elephant-headed god whose images are found 
all over Eastern Asia has an honourable place even among 
the Buddhists as a later development of the Vedic Brahmanas- 
pati. Our Purana notes two exploits of this leader of the Ganas 
of god Siva. The benevolent Ganesa is the son of Uma. When 
Parasurama went to Lord Siva to report his exploit (the killing 
of Sahasrarjuna) Siva and Uma were in their privacy. Ganesa 
and Skanda were guarding the door of that private apartment. 
Ganesa prohibited Parasurama from immediate entrance. When 
he was forcing his way in, Ganesa lifted up Parasurama, whirled 
him in all the different worlds and placed him on the ground 
again. Being over-powered thus by Ganesa, Parasurama hurled 
the axe given to him by Lord Sarikara. In order to respect the 
axe of god Siva, Ganesa allowed a tusk of his to be cut down 
( n.iii.42 . 1-5). ParvatI became offended at this act of Paras- 
rama and remonstrated with lord Siva for his favouritism to 
Parasurama as against his son Ganesa and wanted to leave Siva's 
house with her children. Ultimately Lord Kisna and Radha 
consoled her and brought about a rapproachment between ParvatI 
and Parasurama {ibid. 

The second episode (Bd. P. H. 3.67) is not creditable both 
to Siva and Ganesa. Siva's mother-in-law did not approve of 
his unconventional ways. Uma, Siva's spouse felt insulted and 
straightway urged Siva to seek residence elsewhere. Siva selected 
VaranasI, the capital of Divodasa. Siva commissioned Ganesa 
named Nikumbha or Ksema or Ksemaka) to get VaranasI 
vacated for his (Siva's) residence. Ganesa (i.e. Nikumbha) 
appeared in a dream to a Brahmin Mankana and asked him to 

Introduction xlix 

instal his image at tlie outskirt of tiie city (nagaryante). Mankana 
obeyed and Ganesa went on giving munificent gifts according 
to tiie wislies of all liis worshippers. 

At last the fame of the deity as a dispenser of all desires 
including sons, gold, longevity— in fact everything reached king 
Sudas. King Sudas who was issueless directed his senior 
queen Suyasa to worship Ganesa and pray him to grant her a 
son. In spite of her repeated services, Nikumbha purposely 
did not grant her the boon. "The god is benevolent and muni- 
ficent to my subjects but is ungrateful enough to grant me nothing 
in spite ofour rich worship, meals etc. This is no god but an evil 
spirit (Bhttta). I shall destroy the shrine of this Ganapati". 
(ibid. VV. 51-54). In his desperation the king destroyed the 
shrine ofNikumbha-Ganesa. Nikumbha got a fine excuse and he 
cursed that the city of VaranasI be totally deserted. When 
VaranasI became vacant Nikumbha reported the matter to god 
Siva who came to live there with his spouse. (ibidW. 55-62) 

God Siva alone knows the moral justification ofthis act. 
Ksemaka alias Nikumbha was really a Raksasa. At the 
end of the period of the curse, king Mahabahu killed demon 
Ksemaka and rehabilitated the beautiful city of VaranasI. 
The curse motif for the desertion of VaranasI by Divodasa is 
used in the Harivamsa, Brahma and Va P. but it records it as a 
phase in the conflict between Haihayas and the kings of VaranasI 
(Pargiter AIHT., p. 263). 

Epithets of Ganesa 

During reconciliation ofParvatI, Krsna explains the signi- 
ficance of various names of Ganesa: 

(1) Ganesa— The commander-in-chief of the various 
powerful tribes (groups) of Pramathas. 

(2) Lambodara : He contains within his belly all the past, 
present and future Brahmandas. 

(3) Gajdnana : When beheaded, the head of an ele- 
phant was substituted on his torso in its place. 

(4) Bhdlacandra : When the moon was cursed on the 
4th day of a fortnight he held the moon on his forehead. 

1 Brahtnanda Parana 

(5) Surpakarnaka— When the fire-god, being cursed by 
Saptarsis (Seven Sages), was on tiie point ofextinction, lie rekind- 
led it by (tlie flapping of) his ears. 

(6) Vighna-ndsa — Before the battle with Asuras, gods 
worshipped him and he warded off all their impediments. 

(7) Ekadanta Due to chopping off one tusk by Parasu- 

(8) Vakra-tunda : In the future creation his snout 
will be bent. 

Since the Tenth Kalpa, Ganesa got priority of worship 
before all gods. Krsna further gives the boon that all auspicious 
rites such as Jdtakarma (consecratory rites after birth), Garbhd- 
dhdna, in proceeding on a journey to holy places or on trade or 
business missions or military expedition. Ganesa will be 
worshipped first and the undertaking will be successful*. 

The Parasurama episode is revised and enlarged. The 
above 'boons' show that the cult of Ganesa was well-established 
and the eminent position given to him in Hindu Pantheon 
dates prior to the final redaction of this Purana. 


Our Purana identifies Visnu with the Brahman. As the 
enlightener and revealer ofthe Guna Rajas he becomes Brahma, 
the creator, and ofthe Tamas, he becomes Kala, the destroyer, 
and that of Sattva, he stands separate as a sustainer of the 
universe (Bd. P. L i.*4-7). It means that on the Lower Plane 
Brahma, Visnu and Rudra are the representatives ofthe gunas 
Rajas, Sattva and Tamas (Ibid. I. i. 4. 6-8). They are the three 
states ofthe Brahman (ibidW. 17-19). Visnu is called a thou- 
sand-headed Purusa who is threefold according to gunas, four- 
fold according to Vyiihas (manifestations). He is Adya (First), 
Aja (unborn), Ndrdyana (causing sleep i.e. perfect rest of Naras), 
omniscient, the divine Om (ibidW. 20-30). 

"It is this great god who incarnates for the sake of gods to 
Aestvoy Adharma And to establish Z)A!flrma (II. ill. 72. 64., 73.69-70). 
Another reason attributed to Visnu's descent is the curse of Sage 
Bhrgu. When the Asuras took shelter in the hermitage ofBhrgu, 

*Bd. P. 11. iii. 42.30-44. 



Indra, Visnu and other gods attacked them. Bhrgu's wife 
rushed forward and ordered Indra and others to get out, other- 
wise she would burn them down by her power of Penance. At 
the instigation of Indra, Visnu killed her. The sage Bhrgu 
cursed Visnu to take birth as a human being seven times and in 
their presence restored his wife back to life (ibid 7 2.W 116-147). 
The original Purana had ten incarnations ofVisnu, three 
divine and seven human. But later accretions added two more 
to the divine incarnations and one more (that of Pramati) to 
the human incarnations. The serial Nos. in Roman figures in 
the table below indicate the original numbering of the Purana. 



Name of the 








Prthu the Son 


of Vena 
Varaha (?) 



Name of his Preceptor 
and other details 

Son of Dharma 

God Brahma himselfbe- 
came the sacrificial priest 
of Prthu's yajiia. 
Born within the Ocean 
when gods were in dis- 

For slaying Hiranya- 

Begged ofBali, while he 
was performing a sacri- 
fice, three paces ofland. 
Bali gladly donated it 
when Vamana assumed 
a refulgent Trivikrama 
form, deprived Bali of 
his kingdom ofthe three 
worlds, bound down 
Bali and confined Bali 
and his tribe to Patala. 
And gave the kingdom 
of three worlds to Indra. 
(firf.iUI.iii. 73. 70-86. 


Brahmanda Purana 








He enumerates the following seven incarnations ofVisnu 
I human beings. 

Period Name Details 

10th Tretayuga Dattatreya 

15th Treta 

19th Treta 

24th Treta 

28th Dvapara 


28th Dvapara 

— end period 

Future Incar- 
nation: Kalki 
or Visnuyasas 

In the 25th 
Kalpa at the 
end ofKali- 

His preceptor's name 


His preceptor, Utathya. 

Preceptor Visvamitra, 
Annihilated Ksattriyas. 


Son of 

Rama, Son of Preceptor Vasistha 

Dasaratha Exploit : Killing of 

Veda-Vyasa Preceptor Jatukarnya 

son of Parasara 

Krsna (Va- Preceptor Gargya and 

mana) son of Sandipani. Killed Dai- 
Devakl (Aditi) tyas Kamsa, Salva, 

and Vasudeva Jarasandha, Naraka, 

(Kasyapa) in cut off Bana's 1000 
Vrsni family arms. Annihilated Kurus, 

established Dharma. 
Will be born Preceptor Yajiiavalkya; 

in the Family with his army he will 
ofParasara, conquer and extermi- 

son ofDeva- nate Mlecchas. 


Visnu formerly Exterminating living be- 
called Pramati ings for 25 years. People 
in Candramas also will kill each other, 


usurp properties of 
others and in the twilight 
ofKali age the number 
of people will dwindle 
down; with the dawn of 
Krta age happy period 
will prevail (cf. Mt. P. 

Introduction liii 

This list ofVisnu's incarnation shows a fluid state when 
new accretions were made to our Text. That the number of 
incarnations is ten is the firm belief of the author who enumerates 
them as 2nd, 5th etc. But some additions were made later as in 
the case ofPramati, the so-called tenth Incarnation ofVisnu. 
The verses are obviously adapted from Mt. P. 143.61-65, even 
when the 10th incarnation Kalki alias Visnuyasas is already 

The standard list often incarnations ofVisnu now-a-days 
does not include King Prthu, Mandhata, Dattatreya, Vyasa. 

The cause of non-mention of the Boar-incarnation is per- 
haps due to its detailed treatment in I. i. 5. 1-27. There too, 
Visnu whose abode is waters (Narayana) is described as sleeping 
on the vast expanse of Cosmic Waters and he wished to lift 
up the submerged earth and assumed the form ofYajna-Varaha. 
As the notes on that chapter (I.i.5) show, the concept ofYajiia 
Varaha is a continuation of the Vedic tradition presented here 
in Puranic form. 

Rama, the son ofDasaratha, the 7th incarnation ofVisnu 
is cursorily treated in a few verses (Il.iii.64. 192-197) recording 
his killing of Ravana and good government for 10000 years. 
Not a word about his defeat of Parasurama though Krsna is 
made to predict it formerly (II. iii. 36. 30-33). 

The author of our Purana is an ardent devotee of Krsna 
or rather of the Radha cult. Even when Parasurama got the 
secret missiles from god Siva, he is made to go to Agastya and 
learn from him Krsna's eulogy called Krsna- Premdmrta (the 
nectar in the form of Krsna's love). * When Parasurama recited 
the hymn, Krsna, the pastoral god with a flute, manifested him- 
self to Parasurama** (The IX incarnation ofVisnu favouring 
an audiance to the VI incarnation of the same god !) Parasu- 
rama glorified Krsna in Vedantic terms applied to the Brahman 
(W. 15-24). Krsna blessed him with success in his mission to 
kill Sahasrarjuna who is an incarnation of his disc Sudarsana 
and the slaughter of Ksattriyas. He disappears promising him 

*Bd. P. II. iii. 36 . The Iiynin is a list of 108 epitliets (W. 1 6 - 4 1 )of Krsna. 
.>*Op. Cit. Ch. 37. 

liv Brahmanda Purana 

to deprive ofhis martial power in iiis incarnation as Dasarathi 

Krsna and Radlia are siiown to be greater than god Siva 
and Parvatl. Wlien ParvatI tiireatened to leave the house due to 
Siva's inaction against Parasurama, Siva meditates and invokes 
Lord Krsna who comes with Radha. Radha is shown to have 
brought about a reconciliation between Parvatl and Parasurama. ** 
Radha is not known to the authors of Harivarhsa and the Bhaga- 
vata Purana. But the pastoral Krsna, the Lord of Go-loka 
(Cow's heaven) and of Gopis (Cowherdesses) manifests himself 
with Radha and Sudaman. Parasurama's eulogy of Radha 
(Op. Cit. 43.8-9) especially the epithets used: R&sesi (the chief 
figure, sovereign of Rasa dance), rasikesvari (Goddess of the 
aesthetes) and the mother of Ativirdf (extremely Superior being), 
the mother of the great Being in whose pores ofbody the cosmic 
eggs shine. 

These show that Radha has attained the status of the high- 
est deity in public mind. Buddha is not regarded as Visnu's 
incarnation. The epithet is applied to god Siva (Il.iii.72. 177). 
More important is the declaration of the identity of Siva and 
Visnu, Radha and Uma by Radha herself: "You (Uma) and 
I are one. There is no difference between us. You (Uma) are 
Visnu and I am Siva who has duplicated in forms. 

In the heart of Siva, Visnu has assumed your form and in 
the heart ofVisnu, Siva has assumed my form". (Op. cit. 42. 

The Synthesis of Saiva and Vaisnava cults was the mission 
of the Puranas and Bd. P. is not an exception. 

As compared with the passages, Krsna's biography in the 
description of Vrsni dynasty (II. iii. 7 1.195-265) is practically 
the same as in the Bh. P., but our Purana notes one good act of 
Kamsa — He did not kill Nanda's daughter who was brought as a 
substitute for Krsna. He magnanimously says to Vasudeva, 
"Just as she is your daughter, she is mine too. I won't kill her". 
And the girl grew up in Vrsni family (II. 3. 72. 219-220). 

•Op. Cit. 37.26-33. 
**0p. Cit. 42.18-56. 

Introduction Iv 

One more point is the mention of the Vyiiha theory. The 
four manifestations of Sankarsana, Vasudeva, Pradyumna and 
Aniruddha. * 

"Closely connected with the incarnations ofVi?nu is the struggle bet- 
ween Suras and Asuras- 'Suras' were so called as they accepted Sura (goddess 
wine) when she emerged while churning the ocean, 'Asuras' preferred to be dry 
teatotaller and did not accept her. Hence A-sura. Suras (gods) committed 
ungodly acts and Asuras showed super-human magnanimity. The first three 
common rulers ofboth Suras and Asuras were Hiranyakasipu, Bali and Prah- 
lada and they ruled for ten yugas (II. iii. 72. 88-92). Our Purana indicates that 
Devas and Asuras were cousin-tribes. "There was great friendship between 
the Devas and Asuras. For a full period often yugas, the universe was uninter- 
rupted. The Devas and Asuras abided by the behest of Asura Indras (II. iii. 
72.69). Hiranyakasipu, Bali and Prahlada were the three Asura Indras (Note 
the order of succession in Bd. P. (Op. Cit. 72.68-92). But due to the mischief, 
fraud or aggression of Devas, twelve battles were fought between them in the 
Varaha Kalpa and Visnu's incarnation was involved in some. 


Xarasimha and Hiranyakasipu. 

Vamana's fraud — Bali was cheated and deprived of his empire and 
confined to Patala. 

Churning of the nectar, Daityas cheated by Visnu asMohini. Prah- 
lada was defeated by Indra. 
V Tarakamaya battle — Abduction of Brhaspati's wife Tara by Candra. 

As Brhaspati's cause was espoused by Devas, Asuras supported 
Candra — Indra killed Virocana. 
VI Adi-baka. The conflict between Vasisjha and Visvamitra (But the 
sages only fought in the form of birds). 
VII The light for Tripura — Siva massacred Asuras. 

VIII Andhakara — Devas and men jointly defeated Daitya, Asura and 
Raksasa alliance. 

IX Vrtra — Visnu joined Indra and killed Vrtra and his allies. 

X Dhvaja — Vipracitti and his younger brother assumed Dhvaja form 

by Maya — Indra penetrated a hundred thousand Dhvajas and 
killed him. 
XI Halahala — No apparent cause. 
XII King Raji surrounded by the gods defeated Daityas (II. iii. 72. 72-88). 


No. oj 







Ivi Brahmanda Purana 


Although there is a big section of40 chapters (IV.iii.5-44) 
called Lalitd Mdhdtmya appended to the Bd. P., it is apocryphal. 
The concluding verses ofCh. 4 of the Upasamhdra pdda (III.iv.4. 
41-73) state that all the sages of Naimisaranya, the performers 
of the sacrificial sessions, went to heaven, gives the genealogy 
ofthe teachers ofthe Bd. P. who handed down the Text and the 
Phala-Sruti —the merit accruing from listening to the Bd.P.— 
That clearly shows that the Bd. P. ended here. 

The section on Lalitd Mdhdtmya starts with a ne-wMahgald- 
carana (benedictory verses)and a new pair of interlocutors, and 
the contents— manifestation ofGoddess Lalita to kill the Asura 
Bhanda, her marriage with Kamesvara (Siva), glorification 
ofthe goddess Mahapadma and Kamaksl etc. — show that 
it is an independent work. 

If Lalild-mdhdtmya is treated as an integral part of the Bd. 
P., Sakti-worship with all its Tantric details must have been 
prevalent at the time ofthe inclusion of the Lalita-Mahatmya 
in Bd. P. It is not so much of Radha but rather Krsna cult (with 
its Tan trie aspect as in NP. Chs. 82-83) that is emphasized in 
Bd.P. (e.g. It is Bhakti in Radha's eulogy by Parasurama II. iii. 
43.8.ff). [See Tantrism also]. 

The Sun-worship 

There are references to the Sun-worship or propitiation of 
the Sun-god. Thus Yajiiavalkya ireturns — "vomits back" — 
Yajurveda to his teacher Vaisampayana, propitiates the Sun- 
god who confers on Brahma-rati (Yajiiavalkya) Yajur-mantras, 
after assuming the form of a horse (l.ii.35. 23-26). Hence white 
Yajurveda is called Vdjasaneyi Samhitd. The story of Satrajit 
receiving £>yamantaka gem from the Sun-god (II. Hi. 71. 21-33) 
shows how generous the Sun-god is to his devotees. 

As in other Puranas, in the Bhuvana-Kosa portion — in 
Bd.P. there is mythical astronomy describing the position, dimen- 
sions of the Sun-god, his chariot and -paraphernalia of gods, 
sages, Gandharvas, celestial damsels, serpents, demons, the twelve 

Introduction Ivii 

sun-gods presiding over eacii montii, tiie different colours fie 
assumes in eacli season, his function to burn down tlie Universe 
at tlie end of Kalpa. Can we regard tliis mytliical astronomy 
as a part oftlie Sun-worsliip, as we can say about it in the Bhavisya 
Purdna where Maga Braiimins are found worsliipping the Sun ? 

An Obscure cult 

There is an obscure cult called Godharma or the Cult of the 

In II. ill. 74. 53-58 the Bull of god Siva explains to sage 
Dirghatamas : "We do not distinguish between what should or 
should not be eaten or drunk or with whom one should go (co- 
habit) . No sin is committed by us". Dirghatamas followed 
it and was cured of his blindness and fear of Age and death by 
Surabhi, the Divine Cow. He came to be known as Gautama as 
his Tamas (blindness) was removed by a Cow.* This is a 
crude description of the Vrata poetically described by 
Kalidasa in Raghuvamsa. (II. 1.25.) 

Non-Vedic religions 

There are indirect references to Jainism, Buddhism 
Kapalikas and Ajlvakas (called Ajlvas). They are alllcalled 
nagnas 'nudes' as they are not covered by the Trinity ofVedas 
(II. iii. 14.34-36, 39-40). In the description of Kali Age, the 
ochre-coloured (Buddhists), the nirgranthas (Jains) and Kapali- 
kas are bracketed with the "merchants" of the Veda and holy 
places ( 

The Purana strongly opposes animal sacrifices. In the 
Treta Yuga sages declared to Indra that the slaughter of animals 
in a sacrifice was not dharma. Hirhsd (Injury to animals) can 
never be dharma. Sacrifices are to be performed with Seeds which 
are three years old (unproductive)". When king 'Uparicara' 
(Heaven-moving) Vasu disagreed with this principle of non- 
injury, he fell down and sank to Patala ( This is 
the Upanisadic thought-current and need not be traced to 
Jainism or Buddhism. 

The institution ofBhiksus is not limited to Jains or Bud- 
dhists so the dasalaksanaka dharma 'Dharma characterised by Ten 

*gava hrta-tamah so'tha Gautamah samapadyata / II. iii. 74. 94 

Iviii Brahmanda Purana 

rules of discipline' in 1.27.177-179 are meant for Brahmanical 

It is not certain whether the anikitatd-vdda in I.ii.8.64 
should be attributed to Saiijaya Belatthiputra, although it can 
be taken as a brief unscientific statement of Syadvada. 

The classification of living beings as Aupapattika, Mdraka 
(III. iv. 2. 192-93) is common to Jainism and Brahmanism. 

But much more convincing evidence is regarding the 
derivation of the name Bharata from Bharata' the son of (Jain 
Tlrthaiikara)Rsabhaborn ofNabhi andjMerudevT ( 

Vedyardha (1.2.15) is a hypersanskritisation of mount 
Veyaddha met in Jain Pkt. literature. But very little information 
is preserved about non-Vedic Section of this Purana. 

V. Dharma-Sdslra — Ancient Lores — Science of Music 

The mention of a Bhavisyat Purana and quotations from 
Puranas on matters pertaining to Dharma Sastra in the Apas- 
tamba Grhya Sutra(\\.9.24.6;; 11,9.23.3-6) show that 
materials ofDharma Sastra came to be incorporated in Puranas 
since the 5th Cent. B.C.^ In my introductions to KP.p.xliv, 
NP. pp. 52-53, 1 pointed out how Puranas were looked upon as 
authorities on Dharma Sastra by mediaeval Nibandha writers. 
Though the special feature of Dharma Sastra in Bd. P. may 
appear to be Sraddha to which 879 verses (Il.iii.Chs. 9-20) 
have been devoted, there are some more topics like the duties 
of different Varnas and Asramas (I. ii. 7. 132- 185; I. ii. 29. 89. 90 
I.ii.31), the denunciation of animal sacrifices (I. ii. 30-16-48). 
One, however, wonders how this attitude to ahimsd is to be recon- 
ciled with the promised fruits for non-vegetarian articles of food 
to be served at Sraddha (Bd.P. 19.2- 1 1). But Bd.P. is not the only 
work which prescribes such diet in Sraddha. Manu III. 267-72, 
Yajiiavalkya 1.258-60, Mbh. Anusdsana Ch. 88, Kdtydyana 
Srdddha-SUtra (Kantfika 7-8), KP. II. 20. 40-42, Mt. P. 17. 31-35 
do the same and specify the period Pitrs are gratified with the 
flesh of a particular animal. 

1. Tasmat tu Bharatam varsam lasya namna vidur budhah / I.ii. 14.62a.. 

2. Intro, to NP. pp. 6-8. 

Introduction lix 

The topic of Sraddha is so compreiiensively discussed that 
it covers the following topics ofDharma-Sastra viz. Holy places 
of Pilgrimage (II.iii.Gh. 13), Dana (ibid.Ch.)6), Tithis and 
Naksattras (ibid. Chs. 17 & 18), though the emphasis is on its 
suitability to Sraddha. 

As I have discussed these topics in details in my annotations 
giving cross references to various works on Dharma Sastra I 
do not repeat them here. But I may state that all the details of 
Sraddha such as relative superiority ofpeople partaking of the 
feast in Sraddha (II. ill. 9. 66-76) among whom Yogins have a 
special place ofhonour (19.29, 49-52, II. ill. 9. 70; metal pots to 
be used in Sraddha, offering oTPinolas, Agni karana 'establishment 
of fire' ( 11) rites ofpurification, distinguishing features of 
appropriate and inappropriate features in the ritual ofSraddha; 
eschewing the sight of naked ascetics, atheists etc, (Op. Cit. Ch.l4) 
the test of Brahmins attending Sraddha (ibid ch. 15) etc. are 
found practically the same in Smrti and Purana works (see 
notes on the various chapters). 

The classification of Pitrs into seven as in Va.P.73, Pd.P. 
Srsti 9.2-4 shows a later accretion. The superstition of food- 
pollution by the sight of non-Vedic ascetics Sankhyas, Saivas 
like Karusas etc. (19.43-44)is found in Gautama Dh.S. 15.25-28, 
Manu 111.239-42, KP. II. 22. 34-35 VP. III. 16. 12- 14 to mention 
a few. 

There is some contradiction in the tests ofthe Brahmana 
invited for Sraddha (ch. 15) where Bd.P. instructs that Brah- 
mins should not be tested (V.7) and also gives qualifications of 
invitation-worthy Brahmins. 

It is not understood why Orissa, Telangana and North 
Sindh were regarded as unfit for performing Sraddha (14.31- 
33). Not that the contradictions mentioned above are limited to 
Bd.P. ('virfe annotations on the relevant topics). That is a charac- 
teristic ofliterature ofgrowth (like Puranas) where, due to lack 
of critical editing, both old and new portions are allowed to 
remain despite their non-agreement. 

In spite ofthese, Bd.P. was looked upon as an authority 
on Dharma Sastra. For example, Mitdksard on Yajnavalkya 
111.309 and Smrticandrikd I.p.l 18 quote Bd.P. to support the 
purificatory rite ofbathing along with one's dress ifone happens 

Ix Brahmanda Purana 

to touch Saiva, Pasupata or Lokayata (Materialists). Apararlca 
quotes 75 verses from Bd.P. (out ofthem 43 are on Sraddha.) 
Smrti Candrikd quotes about 50 verses on Ahnika and Sraddha. 

Ancient Lores in Bd.P. 

The author ofthe Bd.P. is not exact in information about 
our ancient works: Thus (i) there is a difference in the total 
number of Mantras in different Vedas as stated in Bd.P. Lii.35- 
70-81 and the actual Vedic Texts. 

Name ofthe Veda Total No. as per Total No. in the Svd- 

Bd.P. dhydya Mana'ala (Sata- 

valekar) edition. 

1. Rgveda 8635 10552 

(The same in CVS 
fCarana Vyuha SUtra] 

2. Samaveda 8014 1810 

(CVS supports (The only 75 Saman) 
this) in these 

3. Adhvaryava (Black 12000 12330 

4. Vajasaneyl (White 1900 3988 
Yajurveda) (Katyayana 

supports this) 
8880 when Suk- 
riya and Khila 
Mantras are 

5. Atharva Veda 6026 5977 

2. In statements about Rsis (Sages), their lineage, the 
Sakhas (Branches ofthe Vedas), there are a number ofdiscre- 
pancies between Bd.P. and CVS. (vide annotations on 
Chapters 32-35). The uncritical nature of the text can be a 
cause for some, but the number of discrepancies is too large to 
be explained that way. 

Introduction Ixi 

3. Brdhmana Texts 

Out of the ten different characteristics of the Brahmaha 
Texts, Bd.P. I. ii. 34. 63-64 explains Purdkrti 'a precedent, an 
instance where another did something of the same kind', and 
Purd-kalpa 'what happened in the past ages, changing the mean- 
ing after considering the context.' 

4 . Mimdmsd 

On Pflrvamlmamsa Sutra II. 1.33, Sahara quotes Bd.P. 
I. ii. 33.47-48 as the characteristics or function of Brahmanas*. 
In Bd.P. we find mention ofAyurveda, Jyotisa, 
Arthasastra, Hetu-Sastra (Science of Logic.) 

Science of Music 

There are seven notes (Svaras) viz. Sadja (Sa), Rsabha 
(Si), GdndhSra (Ga), Madhyama (Ma), Pancama (Pa), Dhaivata 
(Dha) and Nisdda (Ni). There are three Gramas (basic scales). 
Grdma means the group of seven notes. The Puranas mention 
three Gramas viz. Saq*ja-grAma, Madhyama-grdma and Gandhdra- 
grdma—The Sa-scale, the Ma-scale and the Ga-scale. These have 
Sa, Ma and Ga as the starting notes. Thus the Sa-^ca/e would have 
notes : Sa, Ri, Dha, Ni. The Ma-scale would have the notes 
Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa, Ri, Ga. The Ga-scale which fell into disuse 
— "went to heaven" — would have Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa, Ri. 
The number of Srutis (the Micro-tones) in the Saptaka fixed by 
Bharata is 22. The ''ruii-intervals were distributed in the notes 
as follows : 

Sa scale : A Sa, 2, Ri, 2 Ga, 4 Ma, 4 Pa, 3 Dha, 2 Ni- 22 
Ma scale : 4 Ma, 3 Pa, 4 Dha, 2Ni, 4 Sa, 3 Ri, 2 Ga-22 

* Hetur nirvacanarh nindd praiarhid samiayo vidhih / 
Parakriyd Pardkalpo Vyavadhdrana-Kalpani 

Upamdnam daSaite vai vidhayo Brdhmanasya lu \\ 
\. The note is based on the translation and annotations ofCh. 61. 29-35 
and Ch. 62 by Prof. Dr. G. H. Tarlekar. The Sk. text of Bd.P. is extremely 
corrupt. Prof Tarlekar has devoted his life to the study of ancient Indian 
music. With the help ofVa.P. and other texts on ancient Indian Music he 
has tried to emend and translate these verses- I am grateful to Prof. Tarlekar 
for his help in the matter. 

Ixii Brahmanda Parana 

MSrchand was the gradual ascent and descent of the seven notes 
of the basic scale. As the Marchands started from each note of 
the scale, there were seven Marchands of each scale. Thus the 
murchanas of the three gramas numbered twentyone. 

Tana is like Murchand in which one or two specific notes 
are dropped. When one specific svara (note)is dropped it is called 
Sadava Tana (one consisting of six notes) and when two specific 
notes are dropped, it is called Auduva Tdna (One consisting of 
five notes). According to Puranas, there were twenty Tdnas 
of Madhyama-grdma, fourteen of Sadja-grdma and fifteen of 
Gandhara grdma. Thus the number of Tdnas of three gramas is 
fortynine — in Pre-Bharata (Ndtya Sdstra) State of Indian 
Music. The Puranic concept of Tana is different from that of 
the present day. 

The Text enumerates the names of 31 Tdnas only in their 
corrupt forms, but they do not throw any light on their nature. 
But they disclose the names of two ancient authors on Music. 
Bhlmasena (with reference to the Tdna Ndgarapriyd—a form 
reconstructed from the obscure form Ndgardtdnayapriydh in the 
text, and Narada. 

Very obscure names of murchanas and their presiding deities 
are given (in 61.43b-53b). Only a critical edition of the text 
will help to clarify it. 

Alankaras in Music 

As the whole chapter on Alarikaras (Ch.62) is full of 
corrupt readings and obscurities, readings from Ch. 87 of Va.P. 
are taken as the basis and Sahgita Ratndkara, though much later 
in date than Bd.P. or Va.P., is used as it preserved some of 
the Puranic traditions (But it was found to be of little use). 

Alankdras are to be spoken of along with the Varnas (move- 
ments ofnotes such 'steady', 'ascending' etc.). The Varnas are 
(1) Sthdyin (Sa, Sa, Sa), (2) Arohin (Sa, ri, ga etc.) (3) Avarohin 
(Ni, dha, pa) and (4) Saiicdrin (Sa ri sa ri ga etc.) The author 
enumerates four alankdras such as Sthdpani, Pramdda, Apramdda, 
promises to explain them but the explanations are not found in 
the text. The treatment is very scrappy and obscure. He is 
however right when he emphasizes the use of the right Alankdra 

1. Based on II.iii.62 . 

Introduction Ixiii 

at the right place (62.24-26). The author gives the local varieties 
ofsongs such as Madraka, Aparantika (62.31-36). 

About Tolas, Bd.P. gives two even measures (caturasra— 
of four beats and eight Mdtrds) and Tryasra — of four beats and 
six Mdtrds). 

Lastly, he mentions three Vrttis viz. Citrd, Vrtti and Dakfind. 
The Vrttis are styles of rendering songs with accompaniment. 
In Citrd, the music ofstringed instrument was prominent and the 
song subservient. In Daksind, the song was prominent and instru- 
mentation subservient and in the Vrtti, both were employed 
equally (vide A'afya ^a^W-fl (Baroda)Vol. IV, pp. 100-101, Sangita 
Ratndkara V.10-16 and VI. 165- 167). 

V I . Religion and Philosophy in Bd. P. 

Veddnta : 

In the Mangaldcarana (benedictory verses at the beginning 
of the Bd.P.), the author pays obeisance to the omnipresent Self- 
born Deity called Lord Hari who in his threefold form represen- 
ting rajas, sattva and tamas, creates, sustains and annihilates the 
Universe.' He possesses three gunas and is yet devoid of them. 
He is endowed with unparalleled knowledge, detachment, 
superhuman power and dharma. Resorting to Yoga he created 
the world of mobile and immobile beings (Li. 1.1-7). Later 
the creation of the Universe from Prakrti is called a Vivarta (of 
Brahman) and not Parinama of the Saiikhya (l.i.3.24). The 
Brahman has neither beginning nor end. It is unborn, subtle, 
incomprehensible, beyond both Sat and A-sat (existence and non- 
existence) (I.i . 3.9-II). It is the source of the world. 

In concluding the Purana (III.iv.4.7 1 -73) he pays homage 
to that Primordial Deity whose description is like that of the 
Purusa in the Purusa-Sukta (RV.X-90). It is the Puranic way 
of presenting the Vedanta. 

Sdnkhya : 

Kapila, the founder ofthe Sankhya school is said to be one 
of the Seven Sons of god Brahma and a brother of Asuri and 

1. Visnu assumes these forms. I.i. 4. 6-8. 

Ixiv Brahmanda Parana 

Paiicasikha — other ancient teachers of this school and Kapila's 
followers (III. iv. 2. 272-274). He is cMcd Paramarsi (I.ii.32.86) 
as intellectually he comprehends what is still unmanifest, simul- 
taneously with its manifestation. This epithet is preceded by 
the description ofthe evolution ofthe Universe (ibidW. 71-76) 
which is the same as in I.i.Ch.s 3, 4 & 5. Bd.P. uses Isvara- 
krsna's terms and process of evolution of the Universe in the 
Sdrikhya Kdrikd e.g. the state ofequilibrium of Gunas, the creation 
oiMahat, Ahamkdra (Cosmic Ego), the elements (Bhutas , Sense- 
Organs but it posits the presence and power ofVisnu for this, 
while Isvarakrsna is an atheist. The Gunas — Sattva, Rajas and 
Tamas are personified by Visnu, Brahman and Rudra. This is 
Theistic Sahkhya probably posterior to Isvarakrsna (circa 
300 A.D.). 


Yoga as a philosophy is not directly discussed in the Bd. P., 
but the importance ofYoga is stressed everywhere. Visnu crea- 
ted the world through his power ofYoga |(I.i. 1.1-7 . In inviting 
Brahmanas for Sraddha, a Yogi has a iprecedence over learned 
Brahmanas (II.iii.9.70; 15-25). A guest at the time of Sraddha 
should be received as 'masters ofYoga move in different forms 
to guide people in Dharma' (ibid V. 9). The path of Yoga 
through Pranayama, Pratyahara etc. is regarded as 'undoubtedly 
the means to Moksa' (II. ill. 13.138-139) 


In Bd.P. II. ill. 34. 37-41, we are told that due to lack of 
Bhakti, Parasurama was unable to master the Krsna-Kavaca. 
There Bhakti is classified as follows: 

(i) Unamd— The best one. The devotees in this class are 
Siva, Narada, Suka, Ambarisa, Ranti- 
deva, Maruti, Bali, Bibhisana, Prahlada, 
Uddhava and last but not the least Gopis 
of Braj. Many of these Bhaktas are in- 
cluded in Ndrada-Bhakli-SUtra 83 but that 
Bhakti-Sutra rates the Bhakti of Gopls 
as the Sinceremost. 

Introduction Ixv 

(ii) Madhyamd: The middle class. Vasistha and other 
sages, Manu and the like of him and 
(ill) Prdkrta — Common. Of ordinary people, 
Kanistha (lowest) 


The anachronism ofbringing in Krsna (and. Radha) in 
Parasurama legend shows its interpolatory nature. But it is 
the Tantric cult in which Krsna and Radha are used for Mantra, 
Kavaca etc. that is important here. God Brahma advises Parasu- 
rama to secure them from god Siva (II. ill. 32. 37-39). 

The whole chapter (ibid 33) is Tantric. The Mantra is 
the core of Tantra-Sastra and Krsna-Mantra of 10 syllables 
given to Parasurama is : 

Gopijanavallabhdya Svdhd 

The sage ofthis Mantra is Sadasiva; Paiikti is the metre; Krsna 
is the deity. And its utilization is for the achievement of every- 
thing (33.3-4). 

The Mantra is followed by Kavaca (Protective charm with 
mystical syllables) called Trailokya-Vijaya (33.6-27) imploring 
Lord Krsna to protect different parts of the body everywhere, 
under all circumstances. Accompanied with mystic syllables 
like Oin Hrim a number of epithets of Krsna express his close 
association with Radha. 

Later, a Stotra, called Krsndmrta Stotra, a series of 108 
epithets of Krsna reported to have been recited by Sesa, is nar- 
rated by Agastya to Parasurama (36.16-50). The epithets cover 
all the episodes in the life of Krsna and the importance ofthis 
Stotra is described at the end of that Chapter. 

Parasurama recited the Stotra and when Krsna manifest- 
ed himself, he devoutly prayed him with another Stotra (37. 

When Lord Siva implored Krsna to appease the wrath 
ofgoddess Uma at hacking down the tusk ofGanesa by Parasu- 
rama, both Radha and Krsna appear and bring about a peace, 
Parasurama is shown to praise them in Vedantic terms inter- 

Ixvi Brahmanda Purana 

mixed with Purahic episodes (II. ii. 43, W.8-10). Tliese Stotras 
may not be Tantric, but tliey siiow tiie influence ofRadiia cult. 
Gf. NP.I.Chs. 80, 81, 82. 

Tiie section on Lalitd Mdhdtmya starts witli a new Marigald- 
carana (benedictory verses) and a new pair of interlocutors, and 
the contents — manifestation of Goddess Lalita to kill the Asura 
Bhanda, her marriage with Kamesvara (Siva), glorification of 
the goddess Mahapadma and Kamaksl etc. — show that it is an 
independent work. But if Lalitd-Mdhdtmya is treated as an 
integral part of the Bd.P., Sakti-worship with all its Tantric 
details must have been prevalent at the time ofinclusion of the 
Lalita-Mahatmya in Bd.P. 

Other points 

A few more points are remarkable : 

(i) Ahimsa — Though animal sacrifices are condemned on 
the ground of Ahirns a (non-injury) which is regarded as 'The 
gate-way to Dharma' (I.ii.30.35) arid though non-retaliation is 
recommended for sages aspiring for Moksa ( 
it is not a blind Ahimsd. Tor Bd.P. (1. 11.36. 188) states "If by 
killing one, many can lead a happy life, there is no sin, major or 
minor, in killing him". 

(ii) Non-covetottsness : The tirade against Trsnd (covetous- 
ness) in the traditional verses ascribed to King Yayati (II. ill. 
68.96-103) need not be attributed to Buddhism as this revulsion 
is expressed in Mbh. Vana l-TiG, Sdnti 174-46 and in other Puranas. 

(ill) Free-Will and determination : Bd.P. (I. ii. 8. 61-62) raises 

the point whether one succeeds in one's efforts due to his Daiva 

(destiny), effort or Svabhdva and decides that a combination of 

Daiva and human efforts yields fruit. Cf IVIbh. Sdnti 238.4-5 

and Mt.P. 220.8 for similar views. 

VII The Parasurama Legend 

The Legend of Parasurama and his exploits in killing 'the 
thousand-armed' Karttavlrya Arjuna and 'de-Ksattrising the 
earth' twentyone times, is a favourite topic of Purana-writers 
as can be seen from the Bh. P. IX. 15 & 16, Pd. P.VI. 241, Mt. 

Introduction Ixvii 

P. 43, 44 Sk. P. (Reva Khanda 218). The legend deserves 
special attention as our Purana has devoted 37 chapters (chs. 
21-58) of the Upodghdta Pdda and shown his connection with 
Sagara, King of Ayodhya and encounter with Rama, the son of 
Dasaratha of the same Ayodhya house (though both Sagara 
and Rama (circa 2350 B.C.)' were born many generations later) 
and with the reclamation of land from the Sea from Gokarna 
(in'Karnatak) to Cape Comorin, in the South. 

The basic incident of the legend took place in the hoary 
antiquity (circa B.C. 2550)' and there is no unanimity in the 
account of the Puranas.' The bare facts of the case appear as 
follows : 

(1) Jamadagni's royal reception to King Karttavlrya. 

(2) Raid on Jamadagni's hermitage and manhandling 
him by officers of Karttavlrya. 

(3) Parasurama's killing Karttavlrya in retaliation. 

(4) As a revenge, Karttavlrya's sons killed Jamadagni. 

(5) Twentyone battles in which Parasurama defeated 
Haihaya allies. 

Our Purana magnifies Parasurama as an epic hero. The 
story begins after the Srdddha-Kalpa (procedure of performing 
Sraddha) as follows : 

With the permission of his father, Parasurama visits his 
grandfather Rclka and then his great-grandfather and so on 
till he visits Bhrgu the founder of his family. Bhrgu advises him 
to propitiate Lord Siva and obtain from him his missiles (Ch. 21). 
Accordingly Parasurama performs penance on the Himalayas 
to propitiate Siva (Ch. 22). Siva, disguised as a hunter tests 
Parasurama and is satisfied. He imparts the knowledge ofsecret 
missiles to Parasurama for killing demons, but advises him to 
go on pilgrimage and perform penance to attain ability to handle 
these weapons (Chs. 23 and 24) Parasurama kills a tiger in a 
Himalayan cave and saves a Brahmin boy safe and uninjured 

1. Vedic Age, p. 292. 

2. Ibid, p. 283. 

3 See below : Was Karttavirya a villain ? 

Ixviii Brakmanda Purana 

and hence the boy is named 'Akrtavrana'. He becomes his perma- 
nent companion. Both of them return to Jamadagni's hermitage 
(Rama's home) (Ch. 25). 

Karttavlrya of Haihaya dynasty visits Jamadagni's hermi- 
tage and gets a royal reception and comfortable night-halt to 
all his men and officers due to the power of Jamadagni's cow 
(Kamadhenu). On his departure, the Haihaya king is insti- 
gated by his minister Candragupta to confiscate the Kamadhenu. 
While Parasurama is away, Candragupta returns and in the 
scuffle that follows Jamadagni is killed. The Kamadhenu flies 
away in the sky. Candragupta returns with the calf to the king 
(Chs. 26-29). 

Parasurama's return and Renuka's lamentation beating 
her breast twenty-one times. Parasurama's vow to annihilate 
Ksattriyas twentyone times. Bhrgu visits the hermitage and 
revives Jamadagni. (From Bhrgu's visit and resuscitation of 
Jamadagni to the end ofCh. 39, the Bd. P. adds new material 
(out of which some is anachronistic, not found in older Puranas). 

Parasurama consults god Brahma and discusses the strategy 
to kill Haihaya. Brahma directs him to god Siva. Parasurama 
approaches Siva, propitiates him and gets the secret of the 
perfect missile (Chs. 31-32). 

The protective mantra (Kavaca) is called Trailokya-Vijaya 
(conquest ofthe three worlds) (Ch. 33). The story of the male 
and female deer illustrating the fruit ofthe hymn called Krsna- 
premamrta (Ch. 34), Parasurama goes to Agastya's hermitage 
and listens from him the hymn Krsna-Premamrta (Chs. 35-36). 
Krsna, the future 8th incarnation of Visnu, manifests himself 
to Parasurama (the 6th incarnation of Visnu, and orders him 
to annihilate Ksattriyas 21 times and in the 24th Treta Yuga, 
Krsna will incarnate as Rama (the 7th incarnation of Visnu) 
in Raghu family with his 4 Vyuhas and deprive Parasurama 
of his divine power. Bhargava sends a challenge to Karttavlrya 
and kills him but he, being an incarnation of the Sudarsana 
discus ofVisnu, reassumes his original form (Chs. 36-40). 

After carrying out his vow Parasurama goes to Siva to 
report his exploits but is prevented by Ganesa to enter, as Siva 
and ParvatI were taking rest. Parasurama strikes Ganesa with 
his axe and cuts his tusk. ParvatI strongly complains against this. 

Introduction Ixix 

to Siva and wants to leave for her father's house but is concili- 
ated by Radha. Radha is eulogised by Parasurama. (This shows 
the predominance ofRadha-cult when this part of the Bd. P. 
was interpolated despite its anachronic import). Returning to 
his father's hermitage, Parasurama reportes his revenge on 
Karttavlrya. Jamadagni advises him to perform penance for 
twelve years in atonement for his blood-shed. Parasurama de- 
parts and in his absence sons of Karttavlrya kill Jamadagni and 
Renuka too dies heart-broken. After completing his penance 
for Twelve Years Parasurama learns how his father was killed. 
He recalls his divine charioteer and advances against Haihayas, 
Karttavlrya's son Vltihotra hides and saves his life. Parasurama 
repeats the slaughter ofKsattriyas twenty-one times. In Kuru- 
ksetra, he fills five tanks with Ksattriya blood and performs 
Sraddha ofhis Pitrs. His manes appear in the sky, command 
him to desist from blood-shed and perform penance. Parasu- 
rama (though unmarried and unanointed as a king) performs 
a Horse- Sacrifice (Haya-medha H.iii. 47. 45-53) and gives to 
Kasyapa all the earth except Mahendra Mountain reserved for 
his residence. Thereafter, he quietly performs penance there 
(Chs. 41-43). 

The Sagara episode (Chs. 44-50)intervenes here as follows: 
After Parasurama's retirement, Haihayas organise them- 
selves and in alliance with warlike tribes like sakas, Hflnas and 
others they assail Bahu the king of Ayodhya, the ally ofBhar- 
gavas. Bahu flies and dies near Aurva's (Bhargava's ) hermi- 
tage* This intervention of Sagara episode is for explaining why 
Parasurama returns to active life and reclaims the land from the 

Parasurama is approached by Brahmanas of Gokarna as, 
due to the excavation of the earth by Sagara's sons, the Sea 
engulfed and drowned the holy place. Parasurama accompanies 
them and requests the Sea-god to recede and vacate the holy 
place Gokarna. Varuna, the Sea-god, does not respond. Parasu- 
rama angrily fixes an arrow to his bow to evaporate the whole 
ocean. Then only Varuna appears and concedes to vacate. 

•In fact it was a fight for tlie control of Indo-Gangetic plain between 
kings of tlie nortli, the allies ofBhargavas and the Haihaya kings. 

Ixx Brahmanda Purana 

Parasurama takes his ladle and facing the north throws it and 
it goes and forms the sflrparaka Tirtha (Nala-Sopara in Thana 
District of Maharashtra). Thus Parasurama reclaims a strip 
of land six hundred Yojanas in length (Chs. 57-58).' 

As compared with older Puranas, this legend of Parasu- 
rama brings in many new elements (as recorded above). The 
sources of these new extra episodes are obscure. But the legend 
of Parasurama as amplified in the Bd. P. becomes the source of 
newer versions in later Puranic works like the Sahyddri Khania, 
Datta Purana, Kerala- Mdhdtmy a and the like. 

Some works like Parasurama-Kalpasutra, Jamadagnya-dhanur- 
veda are attributed to him. 

The Parasurama legend raises a few problems ofhistorical 
importance. We have to grope for the answer, as Parasurama 
probably belongs to the 3rd millenium B.C.' We shall try to 
ascertain the facts which could be deduced from the conflicting 
Puranic evidence: 

( 1 ) Who were the Bhargavas ? 

The name Bhrgu (GK. Phrugus) leads one to believe 
that they came from Phrygia in West Asia.' This migration must 
have taken place before the Vedic period. The Vedas credit the 
Bhrgus to have brought the fire from the heaven and that they 
were performers of Soma-Sacrifice.* They seem to be a martial 
people who participated in the famous Dasarajiia war (RV. 
VII. 18.6). They explored the technique of the use of firein war, 
as a Bhargava sage Aurva is said to have been dissuaded by his 
Pitrs (probably elderly people of his clan) to desist from per- 
fecting his fire-missile.' They were advanced in medicine and 

1. Vide Pargiter AIHT (Ancient Indian Historical tradition), pp. 

2. C. 2550 — 2350 B.C. is regarded as Parasurama period in Vedic Age, 
pp. 283-288. 

3. A. J. Karandikar states tliat Romans were a Bhargava people who 
migrated to the West after the fall ofTroy — vide MahdbhdratdcT P&rsvabhumi) • 

Intro, pp. 2-6. 

4. Macdonnel — Keith — Vedic Index, vide reference to Bhrgu and other 

5. Mbh. Adi. 178.14-22. 

Introduction Ixxi 

surgery and hence the Sanjlvani Vidyd (The lore of re-suscitating 
the dead) is attributed to them. Sukra, a Bhargava preceptor 
of Asuras, is credited to have been restoring the 'dead' Asuras 
to life and gods sent Kaca, the son of their preceptor Brhaspati, 
to learn that lore from him.' Our text (Bd.P.) records that 
Bhrgu brought back to life Jamadagni (II. iii. 30. 57-58). Some 
of them were Atharvan priests. Manu, a Bhargava was a law- 
giver. They were experts in arts and crafts as they are mentioned 
as chariot-buildjers\ The word 'Bhargava' came to mean a 
handicraftsman, a potter/ archer, architect— And we can't 
presume that all of them could be Brahmanas. 

They were on the coast of Gujarat at the time of Parasu- 
rama, as his father is associated with Bhrgukaccha (Broach) 
from which they migrated to Madhya-desa due to the pressure 
of Haihayas'. 

(2) Was Parasurama a Brahmana ? 

Nobody has raised this point. But in Mbh.Adi.58.5-6, 
we are told that when all Ksattriyas were slaughtered by Parasu- 
rama, Ksattriya ladies went to Brahmanas and the children born 
from them were the Ksattriyas of the new generation.* If this 
matriarchical system was then the accepted custom, Jamadagni, 
the son ofa Ksattriya Princess must be regarded as a Ksattriya. 
He married Renuka, a Ksattriya Princess of Ayodhya and 
Parasurama is a full-blooded Ksattriya and not a Brahmana 
at all. The story of Rclka's wife (Jamadagni's Ksattriya mother) 
eating up a portion of Caru charged with a specific mantra 

1. Op. at. 76.12-18. 

2. RV.IV.16.20.X-39.141. 

3. Mbh. Adi. 190.47,191.1. 

4. Pargiter, AIHT. ch. XVII. 

5. tada nihksattriye loke Bhargavena krte sati / 
Brahmanan Ksattriya rajan sutarthinyo' bhicakramuh" 
tebhyasca lebhire garbhara Ksattriyas tah Sahasrasah / 
tatah susuvire rajan K?attriyan viravattaran // 

-Mbh. Adi. 58.5-6. 

Ixxii Brahmanda Purana 

meant for Rclka's mother-in-law, the queen of Kanouj', is obvi- 
ously intended as an apologetic explanation of the martial 
character of Parasurama, though a Brahmin. The fact is that the 
Patriarchical system was well-established in the days of Mbh. 
But to justify the refrain in the old ballad on Parasurama (which 
the Mbh — a Bhargava version— assimilated) 

tri-sapla-krtvah vasudhdm 

krtvd nihksattriydm Prabhuh / 

-Mbh. Santi 49.63. 
the Ksattriya ladies were said to have been constrained to adopt 
the Niyoga method for the continuation of their families. To 
credit a man with span of active military leadership for twenty- 
one generations is historically absurd. And it shows the hollow- 
ness ofthe refrain, if it is taken literally to be true. And a com- 
plete genocide of Ksattriyas is not implied by the Puranas as 
shown below : 

The main point is that Parasurama was regarded as a 
Brahmana by the Mbh. and Puranas which took for granted 
the patriarchical system. 

(3) Was Kdrttavirya Arjuna a Villain ? 

No. He was the greatest King of the Narmada region. 
Even the Mbh. which is supposed to have been influenced 
(revised ?) by Bhargavas* states that he was a pious king, res- 
pectful and friendly to Brahmanas, full of compassion to the 
needy — a thoroughly religious prince"'. The NP. Ch. 76 & . 
77 deify him and his Mantra and Kavaca are regarded as very 
effective. Puranas tell us that he was blessed with a thousand 
arms by Dattatreya. He was the sovereign ruler who conquered 
the earth and donated it as daksind. 

The only fault committed by him was the raid on Jama- 
dagni's hermitage when he and his entourage were given a royal 

1. Op. at. Santi 49.9-28, also Anusasana, Ch. 4. 

2. V. S. Sukthankar — "The Bhrgus and the Bharata, A] Text historic 
study" ABORI. XVIII. 1-76. (1936) 

3. Arjurtas tu mahdtejd ball nityark samatmakah .1 
Brahmanyasca Jaranyasca data SUraSca Bkdrata jj 

-Mbh. -Santi. 49-44. 

Introduction Ixxii i 

reception by Jamadagni. Arjuna was a king of Maliismatl. 
Jamadagni was a prominent Biiargava wiiose iiermitage was 
either in or on tlie border of Arjuna's kingdom. He knew 
iiow powerful was tlie Biiargava clan, their matrimonial relations 
with his rival kings of Ayodhya, Kanauj (Kanyakubja) etc. 
Politically it was not desirable to allow such an inimical centre 
either in or near the borders ofhis kingdom. For many years 
Bhargavas turned inimical since when his tax-collectors haras- 
sed them and many fled for life, though they were on friendly 
terms during his father's reign. No sane ruler should allow such 
an economically powerful inimical centre near his kingdom even 
though he be given a rousing reception and treated with sump- 
tuous banquets etc. 

But he did not raid the Asrama. Even the pro-Bhargava 
Mbh. — an Itihdsa (Record offacts) — does not hold him respon- 
sible for taking away the calf of Jamadagni's cow (not the cow 
as stated in other Puranas) but his sons did it without his knowledge. 
This is the oldest pro-Bhargava account of the cause of Parasu- 
rama's action. Our Purana attributes consent of the king to his 
minister Candragupta's plan ofcarrying away the cow, but Mbh. 
recognizes Arjuna's ignorance and not even his assent on the 
matter, though that was the cause of his death. The Mbh. 
however attributes his death to Apava Vasistha's curse which 
turned the heads ofhis sons. 

Other Puranas offer different versions: The Bh. P., a 
Vaisnava Purana, attributes the order oftaking away the cow to 
king Karttavirya (IX. 15.26). Pd. P. (VL241. 30-38) tells us that 
when king Karttavirya attempted to seize the cow, she by the 
dint ofher power defeated his army, went out of sight and app- 
roached Indra. The frustrated king, mad with rage, killed the 
sage by the blows ofhis fist. i SK. P. V (Reva Khanda) Ch. 218 

tasya putra... .Jamadagni — dhenvas te vatsam aninyuli / 
ajiiatarii KartavTryena Haihayendrena dhimata // 
tannimittamabhOd yuddham Jamadagner mahatmanah // 

-Mbh. Santi 49.45-47. 
sva-sainvarh nihatarh drsfva so'rjunah Krodha-murchitah j 
musfina tadayamdsa Bkdrgavarh dvijasattamam // 
tdditas tena bahuSo ( ) vikaldngah prakalpitah j 

Papdta sahasd bhumau mamdra dvija-sattamah 1 1 

-Pd.P. VI. 241. 37-38. 

Ixxiv Brahmanaa Purana 

describes the scuffle between Jamadagni and Karttavlrya for 
the cow (Kamadhenu) in which Jamadagni is killed (26). 

The lack of unanimity in the account of the Puranas is 

VIII Historical Tradition in Bd.P. 

Although as a Maha-purana, Bd.P. has treated the dynas- 
ties ofVaivasvata Manu, the Solar and Lunar races etc., this 
Purana like the Mt. (50.57-89, 271-273), Va. 99. 250-435 and 
Bs.P. (Bhavisya 3.1.3 & 6) Puranas, presents eight successive 
dynasties of the rulers of Magadha since the Bharata War.*" 
It mentions not only the total number of years covered by each 
dynasty but also the number of years each king (of every dynasty) 
reigned — details not given for any other kingdom. It is obviously 
due to the political importance of Magadha as a seat ofimperial 
power while the Puranas were in the formative stage. The 
author of Bd.P. assumes that he writes the Purana in the reign 
ofSenajit ofthe Brhadratha dynasty of Magadha (a contempo- 
rary of Adhislmakrsna ofthe Paurava dynasty and Divakara of 
the Solar dynasty of Ayodhya and uses future tense to all the 
kings of all the dynasties who ruled after them. The details of 
dynasties that ruled over Magadha since the beginning ofthe 
Kali Age are as follows: 

/ The Bdrhadratha Dynasty* 

(Bd.P. II. ill. 74. 107-121) 

Jarasandha-^Sahadeva (killed in the Bharata War)-*- 
Somapi (58)-*-Srutasravas (67)**-*Ayutaya (26 )''Niramitra* * * 
(100)->-Suksatra (56) Brhatkarma (23) -> Senajit (The 

'Present ruler' for Bd.P.) 

•Although Bh.P. IX. 12.9-16; 22.34-49; XII. 1.2-36 yP.IV.21 ;22,23,24 
deal with the same topic. Bd., Va. and to some extent Mt.P. form a group. 
Hence 1 have taken them together. Bs.P. is probably their Chief source. 

•The Arabic figures in brackets after the name of the king denote the 
number of years ofthe reign of that king. 

* * * As such a long period is not normally possible, some petty or insigni- 
ficant rulers preceding him are not mentioned and a consolidated period is 
probably alloted to his reign. 

Introduction Ixxv 

Future rulers : Srutaiijaya (40)->Ripunjaya (35)-*- 
Suci (58)->Ksema (28)->Suvrata (64)->-Dharmanetra* 

(58)-»Susarma (38)->-Drdhasena (58)-*Sumati (33)-*-Sunetra 
(40)-*Satyajit (83)->Visvajit (25)-*Arinjaya(50). 

These 22 Barhadratha kings ruled for 1000 years. 

II Pradyota Dynasty 
(Op.Cit. W.122-127a) 

According to Bd. P., Sunaka (Pulaka in Mt.P.) a minister 
of King Ariiijaya (V.L. Ripunjaya) killed his master and install- 
ed his son Pradyoti on the Magadhan throne. The following 
is the list of rulers of Pradyota dynasty: 

Pradyota (23)->-Palaka (24)->Visakhayupa (50)->-Ajaka 
(21) ->-Nandi vardhana (20). 

Thus the five kings of Pradyota dynasty ruled over Ma- 
gadha for 138 years. 

This account in the Purana is misleading. Pradyota or 
Cauda Pradyota, Vasavadatta's father and Udayana's father- 
in-law ruled from UjjayinI as has been attested by Bhasa in his 
plays and also in the Mt.P., while describing future kings.' 
This Pradyota was a contemporary of Bimbisara of Magadha 
according to Pali records and there is no reliable evidence to 
presume a Pradyotad ynasty in Magadha.' 

III Sisundga Dynasty 
(Op.Cit. 127b- 135a) 

Sisunaga of VaranasI vanquished the Pradyota rulers and 
his son shifted his capital to Girivraja. The following were the 
rulers : 

Sisunaga (40)-»Kakavarna, shifts his capital to Girivraja 
(63)-*Ksemadharman (20)->-Ksattraujas (40) ->-Vidhisara 

•Installed as a king when he was only five years old. 
1. Brhadrathefvatikfu vitihotresvavantisu / 

Pulakah Svaminarh hatvd svaputram abhiseksyati \\ 

-Mt.P. 271. 
2. The Vedic Age, p. 329. 

Ixxvi Brahmanda Purana 

(Bimbisara) (38) ->Ajatasatru (25)->Darbhaka (Darsaka) (35) 
-*Udayin, the founder ofKusumapura (modern-Patna) to the 
south of the Ganga (33)->-Nandivardhana (40)->-Mahanandi 


There is a discrepancy in the total period of this dynasty 
viz. 360 years (V. 134) — actually it amounts to 377 years. 

The Puranas (including Bd.P). have distorted history. 
Vidhisara i.e. Bimbisara (Seniya in the AMg canon) occupied 
the throne of Magadha immediately after Arifijaya and that 

Sisunaga came a few generations (after and not before Bimbisara'. 

IV Nanda Dynasty 
(Op.Cit. W. 139-143) 

Mahapadma (Nanda), The son of Mahanandi from a 
Siidra woman, exterminator of all Ksattriyas, the sole emperor 
(ekardt, ekachattra) ruled 88 years — 8 sons one after another ruled 
for 12 years. 

Total period ofNanda dynasty 100 years. 

V Maury a Dynasty 

(Op.Cit. W. 144-149) 

A Brahmin Kautilya 'will' uproot Nandas and instal 
Candragupta Maurya as the king. 

Candragupta (24)-»-Bhadra-Sara (Bindusara) (25)-> 
Asoka (36)->Kulala (Kunala) (8)->Bandhupalita (8) ->Indra- 
Palita (10)->Devavarma (7 -»Satadhanu (8)->-Brhadratha (7). 

The number of regnal years of Bandhupalita and Sata- 
dhanu are given as per emendation in DKAP. 29. Though Bd.P. 
records 9 Mauryan kings, Mt.P., VP. and Bh.P. state that the 
total number of these kings as 10. 

VI Sunga Dynasty 
(Op.Cit. W.149-156a) 

Puspa-mitra (Pusya — 0), (60 years)-»Agnimitra (8)-> 
Sujyestha (7) -Wasumitra (10)-*Bhadra (2)-*Pulindaka (3) 
->Ghosa (3)-*Vajramitra (7)->Bhagavata (32)''-Devabhflmi 

1. Ihe Vedic Age (ISVB), p. 328 and The Age of Imperial Unity, pp. 18-22 

Introduction Ixxvii 

Other Puranas agree that Pusyamitra, the commander of 
the army ofBrhadratha Maurya uprooted him but credit him 
with a rule of36 years and not 60. Thus 10 Suhga kings are said 
to have ruled for 112 (Satam purnarh dasa due ca) years in Bd.P. 
V. 156a but actually the total amounts to 142 years. 
VII Kdnva Dynasty 
{Op.Cit. VV. 156b- 159) 
As the last Sunga king Devamitiawas dissolute, his minister 
Vasudeva overthrew him and killed him. There were five kings 
in his dynasty as follows : Vasudeva (5)-*Bhumimitra (24)-> 
Narayana (12)-*-Susarman (4). 

These Kanvayana kings ruled for 45 years. 
VIII Andhra Dynasty 
(Op.Cit. W. 160-170) 
Bd , Va, Bh. and V. Puranas agree that there were 30 kings 
in this dynasty but actually give only 16, 25, 23 and 24 names. 
The fullest list of30 kings is in the Mt. P. Bd. P. gives the rulers 
in this dynasty as follows : 

Sindhuka (Simuka) (23)-*Krsna, brother of Sindhuka 
(10)->Santakarni (56)-»-Apolava (12)-s-Patuman (24)->Anis- 
takarma (25)->-HaIa (1) (5 according to the text adopted in 
DKA.p.41)->-Pattallaka (5)->-PurIsabhIru (v.l. 1. Purikasena) 
(21)->Satakarni (1 )->-Sivasvati (28)->GautamIputra (21)-> 
Satakarni (1) ->Sivasvati (2o) -»-GautamI-putra (21) -'^Yajnasrl 
Satakarni (29) -> Vijaya (6) Dandasrisatakam (3) 

->PuIomari (v.l. Pulomavi) (7). 

Bd.P. states that the 30 kings of this dynasty will rule for 
456 years (Samdh iatdni catvdri pancdsat saf tathaiva ca) V. 170. 
The number of kings enumerated is 16 and the total years of their 
rule amounts to 262. 

The total span of these dynasties of Kali age is given as 
follows : 

1050 years : From the birth of Parlksit to the coronation of 
Mahapadma Nanda* 
836 years : From Mahapadma Nanda to the end of the 
Andhra Dynasty. 
The period is re-stated with reference to Saptarsi era years. 

•That means the Bharata War took place in the 15th Cent. B.C. 


Brahmanda Purana 

814 years : From Pratlpa to Parlksit 
1050 years • From Parlksit to Mahapadma Nanda 
836 years : Mahapadma to the last of Andhras. 

2700 years. 

Thus from Pratlpa to the end of the Andhras comprised a 
complete cycle of the Saptarsis (Great Bear). 

Our Purana presents this much historical data from the 
beginning of the Kali Age to the end of the Andhra dynasty. 
Other great dynasties like the Solar race and the Lunar race are 
not adequately treated. 

After the description ofthe Andhra dynasty, Bd.P. enume- 
rates some local dynasties with the total number of Kings per 
dynasty : 


of Kings 

the Dynasty 

7 Andhras (Prob. Andhrabhrtyas) 

10 Abhiras 

7 Gardabhins 

10 Sakas 

8 Yavanas 
14 Tusaras 

13 Gurundas (Mlecchas) 

11 Maunas 

Total No. years of the 
dynastic rule 

300 years. 

67 years. 

72 years. 
380 years. 
160 years. 
500 years. 
300 years. 
300 years. 

After these, Kilakila clan will rule, after whom Vindhya- 
sakti (300 A.D.) will rule for 96 years (?) Vindhyasakti, the 
founder of Vakataka dynasty was a Brahmana of Visnu-vrddha 
gotra and 96 years is probably not the reign-period but his life- 
span*. Vindhya-Sakti's son Pravira i.e. Maharaja Pravara- 
Sena I (death circa A.D. 325) who is credited to have performed 
not only Vajapeya sacrifices but four Asvamedhas.** 

It shows that on the back-drop of Mleccha rule he cham- 
pioned the cause of Brahmanism. 

*The Age of Imperial Unity, p. 219. 
*»Op., cit. p. 220. 

Introduction Ixxix 

The Naga dynasty of Vidiid 

The Naga dynasty ofVidisa is recorded only in Bd.P. and 
Va.P. but not in Mt.P. 

Tlie following is the line of kings — 

Sadacandra Son of Sesa Naga)-»-Candramsu-»-Nakhavan 
-> Dhanadharman-vBhutiman. 

Bd.P. does not mention the Gupta dynasty. Bd.P.II.iii.74. 
195 which corresponds to Va.P. 99. 383 reads Sapta-variisaj&h 
instead of Gupta-vamsajdh* as in Va P. 

IX. ne Date oftheBd. P. 

Like the Mbh. and other Puranas, Bd.P. has assimilated 
a number of modifications, interpolations etc. during the course 
of its transmission from the days of Krsna Dvaipayana Vyasa. 
We can fix the date (s) of the different parts of the text, the 
general date being that of its last redaction. 

Bd.P. states that it was composed during the reign of 
Barhadratha king Senajit (II. ill. 74. 1 13) — a contemporary of 
Paurava king Adhislma Krsna and king Divakara of Ayodhya. 
Adhislmakrsna was the fourth in descent from Parlksit. Bd.P. 
states that a period of 1050 years elapsed from the birth ofParlksit 
(the Bharata War) to the coronation of Mahananda (ibid The coronation of Mahapadma Nanda took place in 
382 B.C. This means the Birth of Parlksit took place in 1432 
B.C. * *. Pargiter's assumption of950 B.C. as the date ofthe Bha- 
rata war (AIHT, pp. 179-183) is not acceptable in view ofthe 
unanimous tradition of the Puranas. The Vedic Age (p. 273) 
accepts 1400 B.C.. as the date ofthe Bharata War. Now Adhi- 
slmakrsna was the fourth in descent from Parlksit***. If 1432 
B.C. be the date ofthe birth ofParlksit, a period of 100 or 125 

*I however believe (in tlie absence ofMSS. evidence) that it should 
be regarded as an open question. 

**or in 1397 B.C. ifthe reading in the Purana be taken as lOlSas is 
done in the Vedic Age, p. 273. S.K. Chatterji. Selected writings, p. 140 
(Villas, Delhi 1978) locates Parlksit in the middle ofthelOth Cent. B.C. and 
Ray Choudhari in 900 B.C. Political History of India Jrom the Accession of 
Parlksit to the extinction ofthe Gupta Dynasty^ p. 9. 

* * *Pariksit ->Jananiejaya->SatanTka — yAsvamedhadatta-yAdhtsima- 


]xxx Brahmanda Purana 

years must have elapsed between Parlksit and Adhisimakrsna. 
Thus the narration ofBd.P. in the Naimisa forest in the reign of 
Barhadratha king Senajit took place circa 1300 B.C. according 
to the Bd.P. 

As a Purana is mentioned in the Atharva Veda XI. 7. 24; 
XV. 6. 10-11 and in Apastamba Dharma Sutra; II. 9. 23. 3-6, 
we need not doubt the existence of the nucleus ofBd.P. in that 
early period. 

But the present text is definitely later both in language and 
contents as can be seen from the following : 

(1) The Sk. language ofthe text is much more modern 
than Atharvaveda and Apastamba Dharma Sutra. As the various 
etymologies* (noted in annotations) show, people have forgotten 
the root-sense of the words. It means Sk. has ceased to be a 
language of common parlance. 

(2) The list of "future kings" in Bd.P. II. ill. 74 describes 
the Andhra dynasty (3rd cent A.D.). The evidence given by 
Pargiter in DK, p. 53 is sufficient to show that Gupta dynasty is 
mentioned in Bd.P. II.iii.74. 195 though the printed edition 
records the reading: Sapta-vamsajdh instead of Gupta-vamsajdh 
in the corresponding verses in Va.P. 99.383. The following 
verse is the verse in question. 

anu-Gangd Praydgam ca Sake tarn Magadhdms tathd / 

etdn jdnapaddn sarvdn bhoksyante Gupta- (Sapta-Bd.P.)Vamsajdhj 

Bd.P.II.iii.74.195 and Va.P. 99. 383. 

The verse describes correctly the region ruled by Guptas. But 
now the mention of Guptas in Bd.P. is accepted and Pargiter's 
claim (DKA 53-54) that contemporary dynasties of the early 
fourth Century A. D. in Va.P. and Bd.P. is not that controversial. 

(3) The mention ofBhimasena and Narada on Chs. on 
Music shows that this portion may be located between 400-600 
A.D. The same applies to the mention of Vararuci and Natya 

(4) Chapters on Parasurama legend show the strong 
influence of Radha-Krsna cult in its Tantric aspect (vide Supra 

Vide the Appendix to this note. 

Introduction Ixxxi 

Tantrism in Bd.P.). Tantrism was very popular between 8th 
to 11th Cent. A. D. in East India. And it was during that period 
that Radha cult flourished in that region. NP. 109.19 mentions 
the legend of Parasurama in its table of contents of Bd.P. But 
we cannot say definitely whether the anachronic Radha-Krsna 
element is implied in NP. As NP. itself contains the Tantric 
worship etc. ofRadha-Krsna (Chs. 80, 81 and 82), Bd.P. might 
have these chapters even before the NP and the NP. may be 
presumed to imply the existence of these chapters before it. 
As most ofthe contents ofBd.P. (except those on Lalita Mahat- 
mya) are recorded in NP. 109, Bd.P. definitely belongs to the 
pre-NP. period (700-1000 A.D.) 

(5) The Javanese version ofthe Bd.P. does not contain 
the chapter on Vamsanucarita section ofthe Bd.P. Prof. J. Gonda 
attributes this to the lack ofinterest ofthe Indonesian translator 
in Indian dynasties. But when the Indonesian translator sum- 
marises or translates the major portion ofthe Bd.P., he would 
not have disregarded the Vamsanucarita portion had it existed 
in his Sk.Ms. It must have been an incomplete copy which 
reached Indonesia in the early centuries ofthe Christian era. 

In spite ofthe interpolatory portion, the Bd.P. is one of 
the oldest Puranas as it follows the old Catuspada structure and 
its main body belongs to the pre-NP. period (700-1000 A.D.). 

Appendix to the date ofthe Bd. P. 

Some etymologies 

The author of the Bd.P. takes pleasure in etymologies 
just to serve his purpose and pleasure. Although most of them 
are discussed in the annotations, here are a few specimens : 

1. nara 'a man' <na4-vTr —; 

2. ambhas ' w a t e r " '^ b h a 'tos hine'— 1 . 1 .5. 133 

3. Rudra from y/ru— and y/dru (i.2.9.78). Normally it is 
derived from y/rud— 'to cry' 

4. Deva "AV— to play; also -y/div— to shine 
'a god' 

5. raksas 'a demon' -y/raks— to protect 

6. Gandharva y/dhi<dhay 'to drink' I.ii.8.41 









Ixxxii Brahmanda Purana 

1 . Pulaha : 'Kesair lavaih samudbhutah / 

'Born of hair' — II. iii. 1.45 

8. Vasistha — 'possessor of VastC (wealth) or 

'VasV self-controller II. iii. 1.46. 

9. MedinI 'The earth' — medas 'fat' 

'overspread with the fat of Madhu and Kaitabha' 


10. Kubera<Au (bad;+6e»-a (body) II. iii. 8. 44. 'ugly' De- 
God ofwealth form-bodied 

11. Hetu\/han<.to kill (the argument) 
'cause', 'the middle Term in Logic' 

*sj hi — to go (meaning arrived at) I.ii.33.49. 

12. Caraka • 'A Class of Brahmanas' < y/car— (performed 
atonement for Guru's Brahmahatya) I, ii.35.27. 


Contents of the Brahmdnda Purdna 

[Arrival of Suta Romaharsana at the sacrificial session at 
Kuruksetra — Requested by sages thereof, to recite the Purana- 
Suta recites the Brahmdnda Parana beginning with its Contents.] 

1. Obeisance, obeisance to the Self-born deity consisting 
of the quality of sattva on (the occasions of) annihilation, 
creation or sustenance (of the universe) . Obeisance to the self- 
born deity of three-fold forms viz. Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. 

2. Victorious is Lord Hari who sustains the worlds, who 
is unborn, who is omnipresent and possessed of the (three) 
qualities yet is (also) devoid of them. 

1. 'The present Purina is called the Brahmanda (Bd.P.), as god Brahma 
narrated it with special reference to Brahmanda'. The term Brahmanda 
connotes a mixture of ancient Indian concepts about Cosmography, Cosmo- 
logy and Cosmogony. In the Narada Purdna (NP.) 109.1, it is said to be an 
ancient Purana dealing with the events of the Adi-Kalpa. It contains a number 
of verses and chapters common to the Vdyu Purdna (Va.P.) which led Kirfel 
to propose a theory of common origin of the Bd.P. and Va.P. (Purdna Panca- 
Laksaria). Perhaps the wording of the Kurma Purdna(K.P.) 1.1.15 might have 
led him to thin!: so, but it misled M. Ali to believe that 'The geographical 
section of this Purana (Bd.P.) appears to be a late copy (about 1030 A.D.) 
of the Vayu with slight alterations and modifications introduced by the co- 
pyist.' (Geography ofthe Purdnas P. 8.) But the statement in the Bd.P. and the 
N.P. about the oral transmission ofthe Bd.P. makes it clear that this is an 
independent work with Vayu as a narrator of this Purana and it need not be 
confused with the Va.P. 

The problem however will be discussed in the Introduction. But I must 
acknowledge that the text ofthe identical and similar verses in Va.P. and 
Bd.P., helped me to emend or correct a number of printing mistakes in the 
Bd.P. which would have otherwise remained obscure. 

4 Brahmanda Purana 

3. (I seek refuge in god) Brahma, the creator of the 
world, who is omniscient, unvanquished, who is the lord of 

(everything) past, present and future and who is the real 
Master of all. 

4. Four things are to be resorted to by the good — namely, 
the unparalleled knowledge and detachment, and super-human 
power and virtue (found in full form in case) of the lord of the 

5. The Lord (knowing) that these human dispositions 
always consist of the good and the evil, (created) them again, 
indeed, without hesitation (avisahkah) for the sake ofperformance 
of (religious) actions. 

6. The creator of the world who knows full well the 
reality about the world and is conversant with Yoga, resorted 
to Yoga and created all living beings mobile and immobile. 

7. I am desirous of knowing the Puranic narrative and 
so I seek refuge in the mighty Lord (the creator of the universe), 
the witness ofthe worlds and the supreme all-pervading Ruler. 

8. That Prajapati (Lord of all creatures). Lord (Brahma) 
recounted to Vasistha', the entire Purana that is on a par with 
the Vedas and the main theme of which is the real state ofthe 

9. The holy sage Vasistha taught to his grandson, Paras- 
ara, the son ofSakti, this sacred (Purana) which is the nectar 
of the knowledge of reality. 

10. The holy lord Parasara, at first, taught sage Jatu- 
karnya this divine Purana that is on a par with the Vedas. 

1. W.8-17 give the line of transmission oftlie Bd.P. as follows : God 
Bralima — sage Vasistha — Parasara — Jatukainya — Dvaipayana (Vyasa) — 
Silta Lo(Ro)maharsana. An important point to note is the missing link of 
Yayu here. N.P. 109.35 states : 

Vyaso labdhva tatai'caitaty 
That is according to N.P. Jdtukarnya — Vayu or Prabhaiijana — Vyasa, is the 
proper Parampard (line of oral transmission.). This lacuna is however indi- 
rectly supplied in V.36b below where the Windgod (Matarisvan) is stated to 
be a narrator. Another point is the emphatic claim ofthe Purana to a status 
equal to the Veda. And the third point is about the main object of the Purana 
viz. to explain the real state or reality of the world (Loka-taltva, VV 1-8, 12 


1. 1. 1. 11-17 5 

11. After learning the Purana, the learned Jatukarnya' 
transferred the knowledge of the supreme, eternal Brahman 
to Dvaipayana^ 

12. Dvaipayana was delighted thereby. That self-contro- 
lled sage passed on the kuowledge of that extremely wonder- 
ful Purana the content of which was the knowledge of the real 
state of the world. 

13-14. For the sake of propagating it in the worlds, he 
taught this Purana which is (highly esteemed) like the Vedas 
and which contains many topics, to Jaimini, Sumantu, Vaisam- 
payana, Pailava who was the fourth among, them and Lomahar- 
sana the fifth.' He (Lomaharsana) was (otherwise called) Siita. 
He was humble, righteous and pure. His modes of narration 
were extremely wonderful. 

15-17. After learning the purana, Lomaharsana became 
humbler. He became extremely intelligent and virtuous. He 
was approached and questioned by a sage like you (?) (regard- 
ing matters of mythology etc.) He had the most excellent self- 
control. Along with (the other) sages, he used to bow down to 
the sages after circumambulating them. He was endowed with 
great devotion. After acquiring learning, he became satisfied 

1. Jatukarnya or Jatukarna was a self-controlled sage — a member of 
Yudhisthira's Court (Mbh. Sabha.4. 14). One wonders why the Mbh. and 
other Puranas do not furnish more details about him who taught this Purana 
to Dvaipayana Vyasa. Secondly, Parasara teaches this Purana to Jatukarnya 
and not to his own son Vyasa. 

2. Dvaipayana — The son of Parasara and Satyavati, popularly known 
as Vyasa (the arranger) due to his classification of the floating traditional 
Mantras into four Vedas. He was named Dvaipayana as he was kept in an 
island in the Yamuna. 

nyasto dvlpe sa yad bdlas 
tasmdd Dvaipdyanah smrtah 

-Mbh. Adi 63.86 
In the Pali canon also, we are told that one of the eight ways of naming 
a person is his geographical residence. 

3. Vyasa seems to have taught this Purana (presumably others also) 
to his five disciples but Jaimini, Sumantu, Yaisampayana and Pailava 
(Paila) took interest in the Veda, leaving the preservation of the Puranic 
Lore to Suta Lo( Ro)maharsana. According to Va.P.1.16, he is called 
Romaharsana as he made the hair of his audience bristle by his eloquent 

6 Brahmana 'a Purana 

and went to Kuruksetra.' He (humbly) approached the pure 
sages who were performing the elaborate-sacrificial session. 

18. The performers of the Satra met Romaharsana (i.e. 
Lomaharsana) with great humility. He excelled them in intel- 
lect (but) as laid down in the scriptures', (he bowed down) 
duly to them. 

19. On seeing Romaharsana then, all those sages were 
extremely pleased. They were glad and their minds became 

20. They worshipped him with all necessary requisites 
of hospitality, such as Arghya (Materials ofworship), Pddya 
(water for washing the feet) etc. He paid respects to all the 
sages. He received the permission of the king (?). 

21. After permitting him, the sages enquired him of his 
health. He approached all those sages (individually) (consider- 
ing them to be) the eternal Brahman, the great splendour. 
When the assembled persons indicated their consent, he sat on 
a beautiful well-covered seat. 

22-23. Whenhe had taken his seat, all the sages of praise- 
worthy, holy vows, well-disciplined according to (religious) 
rules, and of calm and concentrated minds, became delighted 
and surrounded him who was an observer of great (religious) 
vows. With deep love (and reverence), they spoke to him (as 
follows) : 

24. "Welcome *to you, O highly fortunate one. How 
glad are we, the residents of this place, to see you, the best of 
sages, of excellent vows, hale and hearty, O intelligent one ! 

1. This Purana is (re-)narrated at Kuruksetra where sages held a 
sacrificial session. 

2. This Suta is not a Brahmin. He is the Pratiloma offspring of a 
Ksattriya father and a Brahmin mother vide Gaut.Dh.S.4. 15, Baudhayana 
(1.9.9) and Smrtis of Mann (10-11), Yajiiavalliya (1.93). Hence this for- 
mality on his part. In Y.21, the term of greeting him is anamaya and not 
kuSala used in the case of Brahmanas. According to Gautama Dharma Sutra 

(Gaut. Dh.S.) VV. 37-38, guests of Brahmana, Ksattriya, Vaisya castes 
should be respectively greeted with the words Kusala, anamaya and drogya. 
Manu also (11:127) prescribes : 

Brdhmanam kusalam prcchet Ksattra-bandhum andmayam 

I.I.1.25-37a 7 

25. Thanks to you the performer of meritorious holy 
rites. I no longer consider this earth a void, O Siita, you are the 
disciple of that noble-souled sage Vyasa. 

26. You are intelligent and you are always worthy of his 
blessings. You are fully epuipped with the good qualities of a 
genuine disciple. You are learned and educated. Since you are 
worthy of being blessed, O holy lord, you have understood the 

27. After having attained vast knowledge, you are free 
from doubts in every respect. O wise one, it always behoves you 
to recount to us, everything that we ask you. 

28. We wish to hear the divine story of the Purana that 
is on a par with the Srutis and that is full of righteous topics. 
This has already been heard by you from Vyasa." 

29. On being requested thus by the sages then, the 
excessively intelligent Suta, endowed with humility, offered an 
excellent reply full ofmodesty thus : 

30. "Whatever intellect I possess is due to the service I 
rendered to the sage. It is certainly true that my (intellect) 
should be utilised for serving (others). 

31. That being the situation, O excellent Brahmanas (I 
shall recount) whatever is possible for me. It behoves you to 
ask questions on any topic which you desire to know." 

32. On hearing his sweet utterance, the sages again 
replied to Suta whose eyes welled with tears (ofjoy). 

33. "You are particularly well-versed in the details (of 
this topic). You have seen Vyasa personally. Hence you explain 
the origin ofthe world completely.' 

34. We wish to know who was born in which family. (We 
wish to know the details of the family and ancestry of the 
kings, sages etc). Kindly recount the wonderfully diversified 
creative activity of Prajapati during the days ofyore". 

Thus was the excellent and noble-souled Romaharsana 
requested after offering him due hospitable reception. 

35-37a. That excellent-most Siita narrated everything 
in detail and in due order. 

1. This is indicative of the title 'Brahmanda Purana'. 

8 Brahmanda Pur ana 

Suta said : — 

"O excellent B rah m anas, I shall recount in due order 
that sacred story which Dvaipayana, who was pleased with me, 
had narrated to me. O B rah m anas, I shall expound the 
Purana that had been related by Matarisvan' (the wind-god) 
on being asked by the noble-souled sages of Naimisa forest.^ 

37b-39. A Purana is characterised by five topics\ Viz. 
Sarga( Primary cveauon), Pratisarga (Dissolution and Recreation), 
Varhsa (Lineage of Kings etc.), Manvantaras (the regions of 
Manus or Manu -periods) and Vamsdnucarita (chronological 
description ofkings and sages). 

The first pdda (section) (of this Purana) is called Pra- 
kriyd-Pdda (section on rites). In this section there is the summing 

1. It means the Wind-god did not teach it to Dvaipayana. Secondly 
the present text is a of the Purana narrated at Naimioaranya. 

2. This is modern Nimsar at a distance of 20 miles from Sitapur and 
45 miles to the NW. of Lucknow. The word Naimisa is derived from two 
different words (1) Nimisa 'the twinkling of the eye' and (2) Nemi — 'the felly 
of a wheel'. According to (1), this place came to be called Naimisa as Visnu 

killed an army of Asuras within the twinkling of an eye at this place (vide 
Sridhara on Bh.P.I.1.4 where he quotes V.R.P. as his authority). According 
to (2) which is accepted here in infra, god Brahrna, to ensure a sacred 
place for a sacriHce for sages created mentally a wheel which went on running 
till it reached the vicinity of the Gomati river near which its felly broke down 
and it stopped. The sages who followed it to that place accepted it for their 
sacrificial session. This popular etymology from Nemi is endorsed by Va.- 
P.I.2.8, Devi Bh.P. 1.2.28-32 where it adds that Kali cannot enter that place. 

It was at this place that Rama performed his horse- sacrifice (V.R. 

Although there was another Naimisaranya in Kuruksetra (vide Chan- 
dogya Upa. 1.2.13 and Kd(haka Samhitd 10.6) and although the Aryan expan- 
sion was from the West to the East, the Naimisaranya on the Gomati appears 
to be the 'birth-place' of Puranas. 

3. The five characteristics of a Purana as found in y.37b and 38a 
(which should have formed one continuous verse as is found in other Puranas) 

are mentioned in AP.1.14, BS. P. 1.2. 4-5 BV. P. IV. 133.6, GP. 1. 215. 14, 
KP.I.1.I2, SK. P. VII. 2. 84 and VP. III. 6. 25. Amara Simha (5th Cent. A.D.) 
has recorded this verse in his Amara Kosa 1.6.5. Although these characteristics 
have been unanimously accepted as essential parts of the Puranas, 'The Purana 
Texts that have come down to us hardly conform to this definition" (Ike 
Hist, and Culture ofthe Indian People Vol. Ill P. 292). If the original Purana texts 
conformed to this description, the present texts ofthe Puranas must have been 
revised or mutilated during their transmission. 

I.I. 1.40-47 9 

up of the story; the other sections are Anusaiiga (Consequence), 
Upodghdta (Introduction) and Upasamhdra (Conclusion). Thus 
the four sections are briefly mentioned by me. 

40. I shall narrate them in detail later on and in the 
proper order. At the outset, the Purana among the sacred 
scriptures, was heard by Brahma.' 

41. Thereafter, the Vedas came out of his mouths. Simi- 
larly, the Vedaiigas (ancillary subjects), the Dharmasastras 
(Law codes), the sacred rites and holy observances (also came 

42. Then the decision' "I will create( the entire universe) 
beginning with Mahat (the Great Principle) and ending with 

ViSesa (the particular creations of worldly objects)" by the 
unmanifest cause which is eternal and of the nature of Sat 
(Existent) and Asat (Non-existent). '^ 

43-44. The golden (Cosmic} Egg and the excellent birth 
ofBrahma^ The Avarana (The covering 'sheath') ofthe Egg 
(was) the ocean. The (covering) ofthe waters by the Tejas 
(the fiery element). The (enclosure of the Tejas) by the gaseous 
element. Then the encircling of the gaseous element by the 
Ether. Its covering by Bhdtddi (Ego). The Bhutddi is encircled 
by Mahat (The Great Principle) and the Mahat is encircled by 
Avyakta (The unmanifest one). 

45. The Egg itselfhas been described as situated within 
the (enclosure ofthe) elements. The appearance of the rivers 
and the mountains"is described here. 

46. There is the description of all the Manvantaras and 
theKalpas. The narration ofthe tree of Brahman. The birth of 
Brahma is then recounted. 

47. After this is the description of the creation of the 

1. The Furana-writers claim their priority in creation and hence 
superiority to the Vedas. That some tract of literature called Purana existed 
at the time ofthe Atharva Veda is clear from AV.XI.7.24, XV. 1.6, but the 
tall claim of being heard by god Brahma before he heard any sastras before 
the creation of the Veda is historically hardly justifiable. 

2. W. 42-44 treat briefly the evolution of the universe obviously on 
the basis of Sankhya system. As the following topics are given as table of con- 
tents their special explanations will be given in their respective chapters. 

10 Brahmunda PurSntt 

subjects by Brahma. Here the Avasthds (situations) are descri- 
bed, of god Brahma whose birth is unmanifest. 

48. The occurrence oftheKalpas; the stabilisation of 
the Universe; Hari's lying down in the waters and the uplift of 
the Earth. 

49-50. The particular (description) ofthe cities etc., the 
classification of castes and stages of life. The positions of the 
stars and the planets and their transit from one Zodaical sign 
to another and the abode ofthe Siddhas and their distance in 
yojanas in details and the allocation of places in the heaven to 
men of auspicious conduct. 

51. The narration of (the different species of) trees, 
medicinal herbs and creepers. The two paths viz. of the Devatas 

(deities) and ofthe sages are (then) described. 

52. The creation and manifestation ofMango and other 
trees. The origin of animals and human beings is (then) 

53. The definition as well as its total components of 
Kalpa are mentioned. Then the nine types of intentional 
creations by god Brahma are described. 

54. Three ofthe intentional creations (are mentioned 
in details). The arrangement of the worlds. The origin of 
Dharma etc. from the limbs ofBrahma. 

55. (The description of) the twelve that are born again 
and again in the Prajakalpa; Pratisandhi (the period of transi- 
tion) between two Kalpas is mentioned. 

56. The origin of Adharma due to god Brahma's enve- 
lopment by Tamas and the creation .of Purusa from his 
(Brahma's) body with preponderance of Sattva guna. 

57. Similarly, (the birth ofSatartipa) and the birth of 
the two sons, viz. Priyavrata, Uttanapada as well as that of 
the auspicious Prasiiti and Akrti (Akiiti) . 

58. Those who had rid themselves ofsins and are well 
established themselves in the three worlds are glorified. After- 
wards the birth of twins in Akflti from Ruci, the Prajapati. 

59-60. The auspicious births ofDaksa's daughters from 
Prasflti. Then the procreation by the great-souled Dharma 
from Daksa's daughters like Sabda (rather Sraddha as in. 

I.I. 1.61-69 11 

Vdyu P.), a race characterised by Sattva-guna and was (as if) 
the dawn (?) ofhappiness : As well as the race of Adharma 
(Evil) from Hirhsa (Violence) characterised by Tamo-guna and 
inauspicious ness. 

61. The description of the creation of subjects by Bhrgu 
and other sages, where-in the lineage ofthe Brahmana sage 
Vasistha is recounted. 

62. The birth of the progeny of Agni from Svaha is 
recounted there. Thereafter, the birth of subjects ofthe two 
types of Pitrs in Svadha (is also mentioned). 

63-64. In the context ofthe description of the line of 
the Pitrs, the curse of Daksa by Mahesvara, SatI and Bhrgu 
and other intelligent ones, (is mentioned). So also the return 
curse uttered by Daksa. The protest against the enmity by 
Rudra of wonderful feats, because defects were seen is 

65. In the context of Manvantaras, Time (with its units) 
is recounted in detail. The auspicious characteristics ofthe 
daugher ofKardama, the Prajapati. 

66. The details ofthe sons of Priyavrata are described 
there. Their appointment on different continents and lands 
severally (are recounted). 

67. The narration of the creation of Svayambhuva 
(Manu). So also the description ofthe Varsas (sub-continents) 
and rivers and their different types. 

68. How thousands of the different continents com- 
prise the group of seven Dvlpas. The detailed description of 
the Mandala (Encircling zone) of JambQdvTpa and the ocean. 

69. The magnitude and extent ofthe Jambfldvlpa, the 
ocean and the mountains, is mentioned in the form of Yojanas 

('Yojana= 12 Kms). The following seven mountains,' viz. 

1. The mountain system ofthe Puranas as recorded here is repre- 
sented under the following names today: 

(i) Himavan — The great Himalayan Range. 

(ii) Hemakuta — Ladakh — Kailash — Trans- Himalayan chain. 

(iii) Nisadha — Hindukush — Kunlun chain. 

(iv) Meru — The Pamirs. 

(v) Nila. 

12 Brahmanda Parana 

Himavan, Hemakuta, Nisadha, Meru, Nila, Sveta and Srngin, 
are glorified. 

70-73. The distance between pairs of these, the girth, 
height and extent of these mountains, all these are mentioned 
is so many Yojanas. The inhabitants of these mountains are 
recounted. Bharata and other sub-continents are described, 
alongwith the rivers and mountains therein. How they are 
inhabited by the mobile and the immobile living beings. Jam- 
budvlpa and other islands (continents) are surrounded by 
seven oceans. Thereafter the golden earth and Lokaloka 
(mountain) is described. These worlds have definite extents 
and magnitudes, consist of seven continents. 

74. Rupa (form, colour) etc. are described because they 
are also made alongwith the Prakrtas (effects of the Prakrti). 
All these are partial transformation of the Pradhana. 

75. The movement, extent etc. of the sun, the moon 
and the earth are succinctly yet completely stated (without 
leaving out anything of importance). 

76-77. The dtmerttions are mentioned. The extent of 
these is mentioned in so many Yojanas. Mahendra and other 
splendid and sacred (mountains) on the summit north of the 
Manasa lake (are described) along with the present beings 
that are in possession of them and that identify themselves with 

The sun's movement above these, like a firebrand moving 
in a circle, has been mentioned. The characteristics ofNagavIthi 
and Aksavlthi are mentioned. 

78. The description of the two kasthas (kosflta—avcnspTmi) 
quarters (or courses of winds), the two Lekhas, horizons (or 
Lekhas — deities) and the zones in Yojanas; of the Lokaloka 
(mountain) of the twilight, of the day and of the Visuvat 

(vi) Sveta — Nura Tau — Turkistan-Atbashi chain 

(vii) Srngin or Srrigavan — Kara Tau — Kirgliiz-Ketman cliain. (For 

details vide M.Ali — Geog. of the Puranas Cli.III) 

Tile progressive contraction of Bliarata up to 1947 A. D. blinds us to the 

fact that a large part of what is Central Asia today was an integral part of the 

Bharata of the Puranic world. 

I.I. 1.79-89 13 

79. The Lokapalas (guardians of the quarters) who 
stay on it in the four quarters are described. The southern and 
the northern path-ways of the Pitrs (manes) and gods (are 

80. (The goal) of householders and those who renounce 
(i.e. sannydsins) dependent on Rajas and Sattva (is mentioned). 

The region of Visnu where Dharma and others are stationed 
is mentioned. 

81. The movement of the sun and the moon as well as 
that of the planets and luminaries is described. It has the 
efficacy of according auspiciousness as well as inauspiciousness 
to the subjects. 

82-83. The chariot of the sun built by Brahma him- 
self for the sake ofa dwelling unto the sun is mentioned. 
The chariot whereby the lord goes to his abode from the heaven 
is presided over by the Devas, the Adityas, the sages, the Gan- 
dharvas, the Apsaras, the Gramanis, the serpents and the 

84. The Rasa (juice) that exudes from the chariot 
evolved out of the essence of the waters, is mentioned : The 
waxing and the waning of the moon caused by Soma are 

85. The movement ofthe chariots of the sun and others 
begins from Dhruva (the pole star). The heavenly porpoise at 
the tail end of which the pole star is stationed is also described. 

86. All the constellations of stars along with the planets 
wherein the gods of meritorious acts have their abodes are 

87. The thousand rays ofthe sun, the asylum of rain, 
chillness and heat, the different classes of rays with reference 
to names, functions and places of operation — (all these are 

88. The magnitude and the movement of the planets 
depending on the sun are mentioned. The origin of the Mahat 
(Great Principle) from the Pradhdna, the characteristics of 
which are compared to SL dancing girl. 

89. The narration of the greatness of Pururavas, the 
son of Ila. The greatness ofthe Pitrs of two types as well as 
that of the dead. 

14 Brahmanda Parana 

90-91. Then the Pa j-vans (important days in the transit 
of the moon such as first quarter, full moon, last quarter. New 
moon) as well as the Sandhis (junctions), of the Parvans are 
narrated. The great blessing of the two types of Pitrs by 
means ofSrdddha; the Pitrs who have gone to the heaven 
and those who have had a downfall. Their number and extent 
ofYugas as well as the Yuga called Krta are described. 

92. The introduction and commencement ofagricultural 
activities etc. as means oflivelihood in the Tretayuga as a 
result of the lowering of standards; the establishment of castes 
and stages of life based on Dharma (duty). 

93. Establishment of the institution of Yajfia*. The 
conversation ofVasu and the sages; the downfall of Vasu — all 
these are recounted * *. 

94. The penance is praised and so also the situations 
of the Yugas entirely. The succinct description of the Dvapara 
and Kali ages. 

95. Manvantara is recounted and its number (of years) 
is narrated according to human calculation. This alone is the 
characteristic feature ofall Manvantaras. 

96. The past, present and future Manvantaras are 
recounted. So also is the definition of Pratisandhdna (Period of 
transition between two Manvantaras). 

97. The past and the future (reigning members) in the 
Svayambhuva (Manvantara) are recounted. The movement of 
the sages is mentioned. So also the way of the ifnowledge of 
Kala (Time). 

98. The extent of the number of Durgas (fortresses) and 
the commencement and the different professions for livelihood 
in the Yugas ; the birth and characteristic features of the 
emperors in the Treta. 

• This verse = Va.P. (Vayu Purana) 1.111, but it reads Tajha-Pravar- 
tana. This is the proper reading and hence accepted, as Vajra-Pravartana is 
baseless and hence probably a misprint. 

** The text translated above: Sabdatvarh ca Pradhdnat tu Sviyambhuvam 
US Manum is confusing. This verse = Va.P. 1.112 which however gives a better 

PraSndndm durvacastoam ca svdyambhuvam rtt Manum / 15 

99. The birth of Pramati; the diminution by Angulas of 
the living beings in the Kaliyuga — these are mentioned. 

100. The enumeration of the different Sakhas (Branches) 
of the Vedas; the importance of the disciples ; the seven types 
ofVdkyas (sentences) and narration of the spiritual lines of the 

101. The characteristic features of the sons of charioteers 
and those of the Brahmanas (are described) in full. The classi- 
fication of the Vedas by the noble-souled Vedavyasa (is also 

102. The narration of the Devas and the lords of subjects 
in the Manvantaras ; the due order of the Manvantaras and the 
knowledge ofKala (Time): all these are recounted. 

103-104. The grandsons ofDaksa ; the splendid progeny 
of his beloved daughter; the children procreated by Brahma 
and others and the children begot by the intelligent Daksa; the 
Savarna Manus who had resorted to Meru are also recounted 
here. The description of the creation of subjects by Dhruva, 
the son of Uttanapada. 

105. The creative activity ofCaksusa Manu, the descrip- 
tion of the prowess of the subjects; the act of milking the earth 
by the lord (King Prthu), the son ofVena. 

106. The special mention of the vessels, milks and 
calves; (the fact) that this earth had already been milked by 
Brahma and others. 

107. The birth of Daksa the intelligent Prajapati from 
the ten Pracetasas in Marisa as occurring through equal part 
of everyone of them is described. 

108. The lordship over the past, present and future 
things of Mahendras is recounted. The Manus and others who 
are covered with Manu narratives will be described. 

109. The detailed creative activity ofVaivasvata Manu 
is recounted. The origin of Bhrgu and others in the Vestures* 
of Brahma and others is narrated. 

110. As distinguished from the splendid Prajasarga 
(creation of the subjects) ofCaksusa Manu, the creation through 

* Va. P. 1.128 reads Brahma-Sukrat 'from the semen of god Brahma'. 

16 Brahmanda Purana 

meditation by Daksa in tlie Vaivasvata Manvantara is 

111. Narada, the mental son of Brahma, engaged the 
extremely powerful sons ofDaJcsa in convex sation and destroyed 
them and was cursed (as a result). 

112. Thereupon Daksa begot the well-known daughters 
named Vairinas.* The birth ofMarut in the noble lady Dili 
in the course of the continuous blowing of the wind.** 

113. The seven times seven (49) groups of Maruts are 
recounted here. They acquired Devatva (state ofbeing Devas) 
because of their staying alongwith Indra. Their residence is the 
shoulders (?) ofVayu (?). 

114-115. The origin of the Daityas, Danavas, Yaksas, 
Gandharvas, Raksasas, ghosts and evil spirits, of the 
Yaksas, birds, creepers etc. is ' recounted. The origin of the 
Apsaras is narrated in great details. The entire sphere of the 
sun is described and also the birth of the elephant Airavata. 

116. The birth ofVainateya (Garuda) as well as his 
installation as a K ng (of birds). The detailed narratives of 
the (races of) Bhrgus and the Angiras are recounted. 

117. The detailed description of the progeny of Kas- 
yapa, Pulastya, noble-souled Atri and sage Parasara. 

118. Three girls in whom the worlds are stabilised are 
glorified. The detailed description of Iccha*** ofAditya (is 
found) thereafter. 

119. The story of Kinkuvitj is mentioned. The an- 
nihilation ofBrhadbalas by DhruvaJ is mentioned. Iksvaku 
and others are glorified briefly. 

120. The creation of the king Nisi etc. is mentioned in 
detail along with Palanduharana etc; the story of the king 
Yayati's race: 

* begot from Virini— VS.P.l . 131 . 

** Va.P. 1.133, reads: Mirul-Prasada. 

***To be amended as lid as in Va.P. 1.141 as there is no person called 
Iccha in this context in (he Purunas. 

f (Viiikuksi in VA.P.) 

X Va. P. 1. 14 lb- 142a reads: 'The destruction of Dhundhu, Iksvaku 
and others ending with B hadbala are described ? Dhruva is not credited with 
destroying Brhadbalas, vide PE. (Puranic encyclopaedia on Dhruva & Brhadbala.) 

1. 1. 1. 121-131 17 

121. The description ofYadu'srace and the detailed 
narration ofHaihaya after Krodha.* Afterwards the details of 
the race are mentioned. 

122. The greatness of Jyamagha and his creation of 
subjects is recounted. So also ofDevavrdha, Andhaka and 
noble-souled Dhrsti. 

123-124. The lineage of Animitra; the false accusation 
of the two Vaisyas;** The ascertainment and the acqui- 
sition of the jewel by the intelligent Satrajit; in the course of 
the creation of progeny by the saintly King Devamldhvan, 
the birth and story of the noble-souled Stira is mentioned. 

125. The wickedness of Kariisa and the birth of 
Vasudeva Visnu of unmeasured splendour in DevakI, due 
to the unification of the families (?)*** 

126-127. Afterwards the creative activity of the sages; 
the description of the creation of the subjects; when the war of 
the Devas and the Asuras started; a woman was slain by Visnu 
while protecting Sakra from death and a curse was obtained 
by him from Bhrgu. Bhrgu resuscitated the divine mother of 

128. Due to the concurrence of the Devas and the 
sages twelve battles were conducted.' Narasimha and others, 
the destroyers of sins are glorified. 

129. The propitiation ofSthanu (Siva) by Sukra by 
means ofsevere penance. Sarva eulogised by him who was cut 
oif (krtta) for boons. ^ 

130-131. Afterwards the material activity of the 
Devas and the Asuras is recounted. When the noble-souled 
Sukra was attached to JayantI, the intelligent Brhaspati, 
assuming the form of Sukra deluded Asuras for which act 
Sukra cursed Brhaspati. f 

* This should be Krostu And not Krodha vide Va. P. 1.144. 
** Va P. 1.146. (in identical verse) reads: Vifiior divyabhiSarh- 
sanam, 'The divine eulogy of god Visnu'. 
*** Va. P. 1.148 reads: 'ekantena'. 

1. Va. P. 1.151 (identical with this verse) reads: Twelve wonderful 
battles between gods and demons. 

2. Va.P. 1.152 readsiVaraddnaugha-lubdhena 'extremely desirous ofgetting 

f The corrupt text has resulted in this confused version. It should 
be as Va.P.l. 153- 154 reads: 

18 Brahmanda Parana 

132-34. The greatness ofVisnu is narrated. It is express- 
ed at the birth (i.e. incarnation) of lord Visnu. Tur- 
vasu who was the younger brother of Yadu was the grandson 
(of Sukra) .Ann, Druhyu and others as well as their sons (who 
were) the kings are described. The descendants of Ann were 
noble-souled. Excellent kings among them are fully described. 
They had plenty of wealth and their splendour was much. 
Atithya (hospitality) to a Brahmanical sage is classified into 
seven as resorting toDharma. 

135. There the curse of Brhaspati by the poets' (?) is 
described. The fame ofHara's (Hari's) family is slightly tou- 
ched. Santanu's prowess is explained. 

136. In the concluding portion, the future kings are 
recounted. The description ofthe groups of lords, yet to come, 
is given in detail. 

137. The description of the annihilation of all, when 
Kaliyuga expires at the end ofthe Bhautya manvantara (?). 
The annihilation is divided into Naimittika (at the end of a 
Kalpa) Prdkrtika (after two pardrdha years when Brahma dies 
and Atyantika (when the individual soul merges in the 

138. The re-absorption and dissolution of all living be- 
ings in various ways is described. Andvrsti (absence of rain) and 
the terrible Samvartaka fire ofthe sun (are mentioned). 

139. (The description oi Prdkrtika Pralaya is described 
in the Samkhya system of philosophy. Then Brahman (is ex- 

Jayantya saha saktt tuyatra Sukre mahatmani / 
Aswan mohaydmisa Sukrarupena buddhimdn \\ 
Brhaspatis tu tarn Sukrah saSdpa sumahi&dyatih Jj 
'When the noble-souled Sukra was attached to Jayanti, the clever 
Brhaspati, assuming the form of Sukra, deluded Asuras for which act Sukra 
cursed Brhaspati' 

The story ofthe love-affair between Sukra and Jayanti and her subse- 
quent marriage with him are mentioned in other Puranas vide P£ p. 355, 
PGK p. 365. 

1. The corresponding verse in Va. P. 1,158 is as follows: 
Bdrhaspatyarh tu surabhir yatra Sdpam ihdnudat j 
Kirtanam Jahtiu-vamSasya Santanor vlrya-sabdanam // 19 

plained) particularly. The description of the seven worlds 
beginning with Bhij. 

140. The definition is explained by means of Para, 
Parardha and Apara (?) of the Brahman. The fixation of the 
extent and magnitude ofBrahma(?) in so many Yojanas. 

141. Here the hells of the sinners such as Raurava etc. 
are mentioned. The ultimate sequel of all living beings is deci- 
sively fixed. 

142. The description of the worldly existence through 
the Pratisarhsarga (secondary creation) of Brahma. The move- 
ment upwards or downwards as dependent on virtue or evil has 
been mentioned. 

143. The annihilation of great BhiJtas (elements )in every 
Kalpa. The miseries are innumerable. Even god Brahma is 
not eternal. 

144. The wiclcedness of worldly pleasures, the pain in 
the course ofworldly existence.' The inaccessibility of salva- 
tion (except) through Vairdgya (absence of passion) because 
defects are seen. 

145. (One) abandons the Sattva (living beings) whether 
manifest or unmanifest and is established in the Brahman. 
Since multiplicity is seen, the idea ofpurity (ofthe world) 

146. Then (the devotee) becomes afraid of the three 
types of Tdpa (distresses) arising from Riipa and Artha (forms 
and objects).^ He then becomes Nirahjana (unsullied). After 
obtaining the bliss of Brahman, he is not afraid of anything. 

147. Again the creation by another Brahma as before, is 
recounted. The Vikriyas (changes) ofthe universe such as crea- 
tion and annihilation are described. 

It was Surabhi (the heavenly cow) which uttered the curse; the 
family ofking Jahnu is glorified. 

1. Sathhara emended as SamsarUy otherwise it would mean 'Fain of 

2. The corresponding verse in Va.P. 1.171 gives a better reading: 
tatas tdpatrayatlto nirupakhyo nirahjanah y 'Then he transcends three types of 
miseries and he is called formless and free from blemishes (pure)'. 

20 Brahmanda Purana 

148. The activities of tiie living beings tiiat are born and 
tiie fruits (tiiey obtain) are described. Tlien tlie creation 
of the groups of sages is described. It is destructive of sins. 

149-150. The appearance of Vasistha and the birth of 
Sakti. His grasping of the bone of Saudasa' as brought about 
by Visvamitra. The birth ofthe eminent Parasara from Adr- 
syantl. The holy lord, the great sage was born of Pitrkanya and 
the holy sage (Parasara). 

151. The birth of Suka. The hatred towards sage 
Visvamitra ofthe intelligent Parasara along with his son. 

152-154. The collection of Agni (fire) by Vasistha with 
a desire to kill Visvamitra. The (hindrance to it) by lord 
vidhi (Brahma) who was the well-wisher of Visvamitra as well 
as by the intelligent lord Girnaskandha' (?) for the sake of a 

With the blessings ofSarva (Siva), the saintly lord Vyasa 
split one Veda of four quarters into four Vedas. Many 
branches of the Vedas were evolved by his disciples and their 

155-159a. (Defective text) They did not tremble in mak- 
ing practical use ofthe Vedas. When they were seen by Svaya- 
mbhu (Brahma) those excellent sages desirous of Dharma and 
wishing to get a holy place, asked him. The lord who wished 
for their welfare told them like this : "The nave of this wheel 
is excellent. Its beauty and splendour is divine. It has seven 
spokes. It is incomparable and praise-worthy. As it rolls down, 
all ofyou follow it alertly, watchfully. Then you will reach a 
place where this is broken. That place where the rim of this 
wheel is broken is a holy land. It should be considered 

1. Saudasasthi-grahascasya in this text is contrary to facts. It was Sau- 
dasa (King Kalmasapada as a demon) who devoured Sakti (Vasisfha's eldest 
son) at the instigation of Visvamitra. Hence the better reading is in Ya.P. 
in the. corresponding verse l-175a viz. Saudasan nigrahas tasya Visvamitra- 
kftena ca j 

2. Va.P. 1.178a reads: Cirna Skandena dhimatd 'It (The Veda?) was 
divided by the intelligent Lord Skanda for the sake of its continuity*. 

3. A popular etymology of ftTaimifdranya vide note 2 p. 8. 

I.I.I. 159b-171 21 

After saying this to all those sages, he became invisible. 
159b- 160. The sages of Naimisa forest performed a 
Satra there taking only Tava (barley) as their food along with 
the water ofGanga. 

161. When Saradvan died, he was resuscitated, as the 
sages ofNaimisa forest were endowed with great kindness. 

162. They made this earth boundless. They brought 
Krsna as king. With great pleasure, and hospitality, the king 
was received and honoured duly. 

163. Svarbhanu, the cruel Asura, came within the Satra 
and abducted the king. When the king vanished, the sages 
followed him. 

164. They saw him protected by a Gandharva and abid- 
ing in the village named Kalapa.' Again the Yajfia was 
begun by the great sages. 

165. On seeing everything golden, he had an argument 
with them in the Satra that lasted for twelve years and 
performed by the sages of Naimisa. 

166-167. Yadu was installed by them even as they were 
arguing. After the son of Yadu, Ayuta was born in the forest. 
They concluded the Satra and began to worship Vayu. 

This is the Krtyasamuddesa (enumeration of contents of 
the Purana). The part of the Purana has been described. 

168. The Purana comes to light in this order alone. 
Even a great topic is understood easily if mentioned briefly. 

169-170a. After mentioning the brief outline, I shall now 
narrate the details to you. Ifa person, after conquering the 
sense organs, learns this first Pdda (section) very well, there 
is no doubt about it that the entire Purana has been under- 
stood by him. 

170b-171. O Brahmanas, he who knows the four Vedas 
with their ancillary subjects and the Upanisads must increase 
his knowledge ofVeda through Itihasas and Puranas. The 

1. A village in the Himalayas near Badarikasrama where Maru 
and Devapi, the last kings of the Solar and Lunar races respectively performed 
penance to reappear again as kings of Ayodhya and Hastinapur after Kalki. 
-De, p. 74. 

22 Brahmanda Purana 

Veda is afraid of a man of incomplete knowledge saying "O 
this man will strike me."' 

172-174. Repeatedly learning this chapter that had 
been directly mentioned by the self-born lord Brahma one shall 
never lose sense after getting into an adversity. He will attain 
such a goal (hereafter) as is desired by him. 

Since this had been (in existence) before also (Purd api), 
it is remembered as Puranam." He who understands the ety- 
mological interpretation ofthis, is rid of all sins. 

Hence, listen to this summary. Narayana creates the world. 
It is on that occasion of creation when he makes this entire 
Purana. It does not remain at the time of annihilation. 

The Legend of Naimisdranya 

[Greedy King Pururavas killed while confiscating the 
Golden altar : Prince Ayu installed as King: sages conciliated] 

1-3. Those sages who considered the austerities as their 
wealth asked Suta once again: — "Where did that Sattra (sacri- 
ficial session) ofthose persons ofmiraculous deeds take place ? 
How long did it continue? How was it performed ? How did 
Prabhanjana (the Windgod) recount th? Purana ? Recount 
it in detail as we have great eagerness to hear it". 

Thus urged, Stita replied the following auspicious words 
(narrative) : 

1. =Mbh. Adi. 1.267b-268a. This is the traditional stand of Puranas 
regarding their indispensability. It is justifiable to some extent as they pre- 
serve the unbroken Brahmanical tradition from the Vedas and are some-times 
useful in interpretation as in Ahalyayai jdrah (Satapatha or Viivarupam 

jaghanendrah (Satapatha etc.). 

2. A popular etymology of the word Purana. 

1. 1. 2. 4-12 23 

4. "Listen to the narration as to where those self- 
possessed ones performed the excellent Sattra, how long it 
continued and how it was performed. 

5-7. Desirous of creating the universe formerly, he 
(Brahma) discharged (everything) to those who performed 
the Tajiia, They performed the highly meritorious Sattra for 
a thousand years. 

Brahma himself became the Tapogrhapati (Lord of the 
penance house). Ida accepted the status ofthePatei (wife of 
the sponsor of the sacrifice). The intelligent Mrtyu of great 
splendour performed the Sdmilra rite (the act ofkilling the 
sacrificial animal) in that Sattra of those noble souls. The 
Vibudltas (Devas) stayed there for a thousand years. 

8. The place where the rim of the whirling Dharmacakra 
(wheel of righteousness) broke down became well known as 
Naimisa on account of that event. It is a place well-worshipped 
by the sages. 

9-10. It is the place where the holy Gomati river is 
resorted to by Siddhas and Caranas. The Gomati had a 
daughter in a trice and that is the Rohinl. 

Sakti became the eldest son of the noble-souled 
Vasistha and ArundhatI ofexcellent brilliance* (?) 

11. It is the place where King Kalmasapada and 
Sakra** met Sakti. It is the place where enmity broke out 
between Visvamitra and Vasistha. 

12. It is the place where sage Parasara was born of 
Adrsyantl. Against his knowledge, Vasistha had to court 

1. Vide Ch. 1, p. 8 note 2. It appears that the Bd.P. regards Nimsar 
near the Gomati as the original Naimisaranya. 

* The text: Sutayatradanam uttamatejasah is confusing. Va.P.2.10 in 
identical verse reads: 

Sakti-jyesflidh samabhavan Vasisthasya mahatmanah j 
Arundhyatydh sutd yatra satam utlama-Ujasah jj 
'There a hundred sons of excellent brilliance of whom Sakti was the 
eldest, were born of the noble-souled Vasistha from Arundhati" 

, ** Va.P. 2. II (identical with this No. II — verse) reads: 'saplah' 
for Sakrah. It means: It is a place where king Kalmasapada was cursed by 

2. Paras'ara, while in his mother's (Adrsyantl's) womb, was such a 
great Vedic scholar that he surpassed his grandfather Vasistha (Mbh. Adi- 


24 Brahmanda Parana 

13. The expounders ofBrahman thought ofa mountain 
in Naimisa at that spot. Since they were born (rather— performed 
sacrifice— Va. P. 2. 13) in Naimisa, they are remembered as 

14. The Sattra of those intelligent persons lasted for 
twelve years, when the Valorous Pururavas Was ruling over 
the earth. 

15. We have heard the report that, even when he en- 
joyed eighteen islands over the. ocean, Pururavas was never 

contented with thejewels, due to his covetousness. 

16. Urged by a divine messenger, Urvasi made love to 
him. He sponsored this Sattra in the company of Urvasi. 

17-19. While King Pururavas ruled, the sages of the 
Naimisa forest performed the sacrificial session.* The Gariga 
conceived a brilliant foetus from the Fire-god. She deposited 
it on the mountain and it was transformed into gold. God 
Visvakarma himself, the god of great imagination who evolved 
the world, entered that sacrificial session of those sages of 
unbounded (immense) lustre (and) transformed the premises 
and enclosure of the sacrifice into a golden one. 

20-21. Pururavas, the son of Ida came a-hunting to that 
region. Seeing that extremely wonderful enclosed place of the 
sacrifice made ofgold, his wisdom was overcome (lit. struck 
down) by avarice and he began to seize it. Thereupon the 
residents ofNaimisa became very much infuriated against the 

22-23. The angry learned ascetics (who were devoted 
to penance) urged by the Devas hit him with Kusa grasses, 
charged with thunderbolt. Pounded by the adamantine Kusa 
grasses that king cast off his mortal body.' The son of Urvasi, 

* satre emended as satram (as in Va.P. 2.17, an identical verse). 

1. This account of Pururavas* death recorded here appears to be correct 
historically. Pururavas was a chief from trans-Himalayan region — Ilavrta 
varsa, the region round Mt. Meru bounded by Mt. Gandhamadana on the 
west and Malyavan on the east. He established his kingdom at Pratisthana 
(modern Jhusi near Allahabad)and founded the famous Lunar dynasty. His 
greed for wealth and his attempt to plunder the sacrificial session is recorded 
in the Mbh. Adi. 75. 20-23. As he came there a-hunting (and not with an army 

1. 1. 2. 24-31 25 

fought there on the ground.' 

24-26. Ayus, the righteous ruler of the earth whom 
they call the noblesouled father ofNahusa, obtained a high 
priority among those who got purificatory bathin the principal 
sacrifice of that sacrificial session. Having pacified the King 
that way, the sages, the knowers ofBrahman, who themselves 
were the murtis (idols) of the calves of the cow in the form of 
the earth^ (?), began to perform the sacrificial session. In 
this sattruy the noble-souled ones observed celibacy. 

27-31. They observed Brahmacarya as in the case of 
Visvasrjs (creators of the universe) formerly, when they were 
desirous of creating the universe. The king became endowed 
with the lustre ofthe sun and the fire. He shone like Indra 
with the sages and others around him, such as the anchorites 
Valakhilyas fond oftheir friends, Marlcis; the unborn sages^ 
They worshipped the Devas with hymns of praise and houses 
(?) and the Pitrs by means ofthe holy rites befitting the Pitrs. 

for conquest), it is more probable that he was overwhelmed by the sages and 
got killed in the scuffle. The sages* curse and the bringing of fire from the 
heaven etc. described in the Mbh. is obviously a white-wash by its author as 
the episode concerned the founder of the Lunar dynasty to which Pandavas 
belonged. The sages wisely installed his son Ayus who, like a farsighted states- 
man trying to consolidate the newly- founded kingdom, extended his patro- 
nage to the sacrificial session. The Bd.P. version is supported by Va.P. 

1. The text: aurvaseyais tatas tasya yuddham cakre nrpo bhuviy is syntactically 
not correct. Moreover Ayu, the son of Pururavas and UrvasT who succeeded 
him is not known to have fought with the sages. 

Va.P. 2. 23b (a corresponding verse reads:) 

aurvaieyark tatas tasya putrarh cakrur nrparh bhuvi 'Then they made 
his son born of UrvasT the king over the earth'. 

2. For Prtkvi vatsdtma-murtayak in this text, cp. Va.P.2.26(a correspond- 
ing verse reads): (satram drebhire karturh) yatkdvad dharma-bhutaye 'according 
to prescribed rites for the prosperity of Dharma'. 

3. The reading of these stanzas in Va.P.2.27/29a. : 

Vaikhdnasaih priya-sakhair Vdlakhilyair maricikaih J 
anyaiica munibhir jus (am surya-vaisvdnara-prabkaih Ij 
(28b — the same as 28b in Va.P.) 

Sambhdrais tu Subhair juspam fair evendra-sado yathd jj 
(The sacriflcial session) was attended by Valakhilyas and other sages 
brilliant tike the sun, the fire and by auspicious (holy) multitudes of Pitrs, 
•Caranas, as in the assembly of Indra). 

26 Brahmanda Parana: 

They duly worshipped the Gandharvas and others in 
accordance with their species. While propitiating, he remem- 
bered the Gandharvas and others. Thereafter, in other 
holy rites the Gandharvas sang Soman hymns; the groups of 
Apsaras danced; the sages spoiic words of wonderfully 
variegated letters and of splendid form. 

32. The learned scholars chanted Mantras etc. They 
defeated their opponents by means of copious objections. 

33-34. The sages were, great erudite scholars. They 
were experts in words, meanings and logical arguments. 
Nothing was seized from them. No Brahmaraksasas entered the 
place and spoiled the Yajha. Neither the Daityas nor those 
with weapons with feather attached to them came there. There 
was no occasion for expiatory acts and there was no poverty. 

35. Due to the combination of efficiency, intellect 
and steady activity, the injunctions were duly carried out 
resulting in blessings. Thus the Sattra (sacrificial session) of 
those learned persons continued for twelve years. 

36-38. That sacrifice of the sages residing in Naimisa 
was like that of the thunderbolt-bearing Indra. The elderly 
heroic and other Rtviks' performed the Jyotistoma sacrifices 
separately. Riding on the backs (ofhorses?), they concluded 
all the sacrifices after distributing ten thousand (coins) as 
monetary gifts. After concluding their Yajiia, all of them asked 
Vayudeva (the wind god) the great lord of unmeasured 
vitality, O Brahmanas, what I have been asked by you all. 
Urged (by them) the lord mentioned to them, the matter of 
his own race. 

39. (Lord Wind) was the disciple of the self-born deity. 
He has perfect control over the sense organs. He sees every 
thing directly. He is endowed with the eight pov/eis Animd 

(minuteness) and others. He is equipped with subtle limbs. 

40. He sustains all the worlds by means of rains along 
with the winds blowing obliquely. The branches, the seven 

1. Va.P.2.36 reads: Bhrgvadyd rsayo dhiyd: 'intelligent & self possessed 
sages like Bhrgu & others. 

2. Ya.P.2.36 reads: Prsthagamanam 'wlio went after tliem*. 27 

boughs, have been borne by him. (? the seven types of wind 
are probably alluded to). He protects the mobile and the 
immobile beings all round. 

41-43. In his realm the seven times seven (fortynine) 
Maruts are stationed. 

He is extremely powerful and he performs the Sattra of 
the Siitas with three Vyuhas' (circular or other types of arrays) 

He holds the remedies ofthe fiery embodied beings. The 
five functional organ airs, viz., Prana and others sustain the 
body filling it with its innate activities. The wind has ether 
(dkdsa) as its source of origin. It has two qualities. It is end- 
owed with the qualities of Sabda (sound) and Spar.Sa (touch). 

44. He has been called Vacorani (source of origin of 
speech like the Arani which is the source of fire) by persons 
who are clever in the science of sound and phonetics. With 
soft and gentle speech, he appeared to delight the sages. 

45. O learned ones, conversant with the Puranas, O 
Brahmanas, well disciplined in the Icnowledge of the Puranas, 
the lord (wind) recounted the story in a speech befitting the 
basis which is the Purana. 

46-48. All these narrations, O excellent Brahmanas, are 
in accordance with what had transpired. This is an excellent 
great principle of the world of the sages. This Purana has 
been formerly recounted by Brahma. It contains excellent 
wisdom ofthe deities and the sages. It destroys all sins. I shall 
narrate it in detail its contents in due order. ^ 

1. Va.P.2.41 reads: Yyuhasrayanaih bhutanarh — 'Bhutas (beings) 
who depend on the Vyiiha (body)'. 

2. W. 36-48 show that this Purana (Bd.P.) was formerly narrated by 
god Brahma originally. His disciple, the Windgod recounted it to sages of 
Naimisaranya on the occasion of the Sattra of twelve years duration. 

28 Brahtnanda Parana 


Description of Evolution of the Universe : The Creation of 

SUta narrated : 

1. Listen to their divine story that rids one of all sins. 
It is being narrated by me. It is wonderfully variegated. It has 
many topics (under discussion) ; it is esteemed by the Vedas. 

2. He who retains this (in mind) permanently or listens 
to this frequently maintains his family (or propagates his race) 
and he is honoured in the heavenly world. 

3. Listen to the topic being recounted in the manner it 
had been heard and it had occurred. Listen to the five Tdrds 
(stars)* that are five in number. Listen to this narrative that 
is conducive to the increase of the fame of the ancestors. 

4. The glorification of all these persons of meritorious 
deeds and of everlasting fame is conducive to wealth, fame, 
longevity and heaven. It destroys enemies. 

5-7. I bow down to Hiranyagarbha, the lordly Purusa 
who is unborn, who is the first creator of subjects, who is the 
most excellent one, through whom the Kalpa has been com- 
petent to have its characteristics; through whom the fire has been 
capable ofbeing a purifying factor; and who is the self-born 
Brahma administering all the worlds. After bowing down to 
Brahma, I shall recount the excellent creation ofliving beings, 
that begins with Mahat (the great First Principle) and ends 
with Visefa (special created things),' that has its own charac- 
teristic features and diversities, that has five authorities 
(testimonies) ; that calmly rests in the six ones (?) and that 
which is presided over by Purusa. 

8-9. Through concentration ofmind, I shall describe to 
you the excellent creation ofBhiitas. Avyakta (the unmanifest 

* For the above reading (VtSva-tata ca yd paiica), Va.P.4.7a (a corres- 
ponding verse) reads : vistardvayavam tesdm '(Listen to the narration of) the 
detailed parts (of the Furana). 

1. The Sankhya theory of evolution of the universe is accepted in 
Puranas. Compare the account of creation of the Brahmanda in NP. 
1.3. 1-45; 42.1-115; Bh.P. 111.20.12-53; KP.I.2.3 ff.; AP. 17.2-16. 29 

one) which is of the nature of Sat and Asat (Existent and non- 
existent) is the eternal cause. Personswho discuss and ponder 
overthe Principles (reality) call itPradhana and Prakrti. It is 
devoid of odour, colour and taste; it is without the qualities of 
sound and touch. 

10. It is the source of origin of the universe; it is the 
great Bhuta (living entity); the supreme and eternal Brahman. 
It is the (cosmic) body of all living beings; the unmanifest one 
has become so. 

11. The Brahman has neither beginning norend; it is 
unborn and subtle; it has three G««as, it is the source of origin 
and place of ultimate merging and rest. It is Asdmpratika (does 
not belong to the present time), it is Ajneya (i.e. cannot be com- 
prehended. It is the Brahman which is beyond Sat and 

12. This entire dark world was pervaded by his Atman 
(soul). As the Gunas were in a state of equilibrium, this world 
full of darkness had not yet been evolved. 

13. At the time of creation, Pradhdna is presided over by 
Ksetrajna and since the Gunas become uneven (due to loss of 
their equilibrium), the great Principle (Mahat) was evolved. 

14. That Mahat (Great Principle) is subtle and at the 
outset it was enveloped by Avyakta. The Mahat wherein there is 
a predominance of Sattva Guna displays Sattva guna alone. 

15. It should be known as Mahat on account of its 
Sattva quality. That is remembered as its sole reason. The 
Linga (Sarira) (i.e. the internal bodyor the psychic mechanism) 
alone is evolved and it is presided over by Ksetrajna (individual 

16. Sarhkalpa (Wishful thought) and Adhyavas&ya (Deter- 
mination) are remembered as its two functions. With a desire 
to create he who is beyond measures, creates the great creation. 

17-18. (Defective Text)' Virtue etc. and the elements 
are the causes of the principles of the worlds. The mind in the 

1. The text from verse 17-28 is corrupt and the corresponding text 
of the Va.P. Ch.4 has little in common with these verses and is of no help in 
interpretation. Hence reconstruction of emendations could not be hazarded. 
But Va.P. 4.76b-79 bear some correspondence to Bd.P.I.i.3.24-27. The Va. 

3 Brahmanda Parana 

great Atman is Brahman. The discrimination ofwicked know- 
ledge is through Tsvara (Lord). The Prajfiasandhi (thejunction 
of intellect) is everything that is under possession. Reconsiders 
all living beings through Sankhydyatanarasmis (?) (the rays that 
are the abode ofthe number ?). Therefore the lord attains the 
desired fruit. 

19-20. The Manas (Mind) is called Bhoktr (Enjoyer) and 
Trdtr (Protector) and it remains as separated soul. (The Mahat 
is so called) because it falls within the collection of principles 
and it is great in magnitude. The Mahat principle is remem- 
bered as one having physical body that is greater than the 
remaining Ganas and Tattvas (Principles). The mind is called 
Manas because it thinks or considers the division (or 
separateness) or it is thought of as a part. 

21-22. The (individual soul) is remembered as Purusa 
because of its relationship with 5'fl/ (the Existent i.e. the 
Brahman) byway of enjoyment of worldly pleasures. Also the 
supreme soul is called Brahman because it is Brhat (very huge) 
and because it causes all the living beings to increase in size 
(Brmhanatva). (It is possible) because it is the basis of every- 
thing. It is defined as Brahma because it causes the living 
beings to increase in- size and because it fills all the bodies with 

23. The Purusa understands all the Bhavas (beings and 
things) separately. It is through it (i.e. Purusa) that the Brah- 
man achieves all its tasks (lit. doing of the work) at the outset. 

24. Know that the Prdkrta (the creation of Prakrti) is 
the Vivarta (transformation) (ofBrahman) .^ The Ksetrajna is on 
a par with Brahman. Indeed it is called the first embodied 
being and Puripurusa (the ancient person). 

p. verses may be summarised here as follows: 'The Ksetrajna called Brahma 
who awoke in the egg of Prakrti (Cosmic egg) is the first embodied being and 
he is called Purusa (one lying in the abode of the cosmic egg.) This god 
Brahma, the first creator of Bhdtas (elements or beings) existed first. This 
four-faced HIranya-garbha appeared at first In this (cosmic egg). Both at 
the time of creation and re-creation (after destruction), he is the Ksetrajiia 
called Brahma. 

I. This purana supports Vivarta-vada as distinguished from Parinama- 
.nada in explaining the Brahma-world relation. 

1. 1. 3. 25-33 31 

25. That Brahma is the primordial creator of the living 
beings, that existed at the outset.' 

26-27. That Hiranyagarbha with four faces appeared in 
the An4a (Cosmic egg). In the primary creation as well as in 
the secondary creation, the Ksetrajiiais on a par with Brahman. 
The (Individual souls) are asked alongwith the Karanas (sense 
organs). They abandon (them) alongwith the dissolutions. 
Again they assume physical bodies during the junctions of the 

28. (Defective text) Those five (?) who are enlightened 
may take away the water of the depression (pit) ofthat noble- 
souledone who uplifts the golden Meru. (?) 

29-31. These seven worlds are well established in this 
cosmic egg; the whole earth along with the seven continents, 
the seven oceans, the great mountains and thousands of rivers 
-are established in the very same cosmic egg. These worlds are 
situated within (the cosmic egg). This universe is within the 
cosmos. Everything is established in that cosmic egg — viz. the 
moon and the sun along with the stars, planets and the wind 
as well as the mountain Lokaloka. 

32.* The waters are externally surrounded by the Tejas 
(fiery element) ten times as big as themselves. The Tejas is 
externally surrounded by Vdyu (wind) ten times as big as 

33. Vayu is externally surrounded by the Nabhas {^thct) 
ten times as big as itself. In the same manner the entire ether 
is externally surrounded by Bhtitadi (the Aharhkara or ego). 

1. From this verse onwards the Prakrta sarga, the first creation of god 
Brahma, is described. It takes place without pre-planning or is unpremedi- 
tated (abuddhipurva) ' like the sudden flash of lightning' as the Bd.P. puts it. 
While the Vaikrta creations (five in number) are planned — buddhipurvaka. 

* From this verse the elemental sheaths that envelop the cosmic egg 
are enumerated. As verses 29-38 in Bd.P. here and Va. P. 4. 81-91 are identical, 
we can substitute the missing line in Bd.P. 32. by Va.P. 84a as follows: 
adbhir daia-gunabhis tu bdhyato' ridam samavrtam j 

'The cosmic egg is enveloped from outside with (the sheath of) ten 
times (larger) water'. 

This additional line is essential to make up the number seven of these 
Prakrtic sheaths mentioned below in verse 34 as: 

ebhir avaranair andam saptabkih prdkrtair vrtam j 

32 Brahmanda Pur ana 

34. The Bhutddi is enveloped by Mahat and the Mahat is 
enveloped by Pradhdna. The cosmic egg is thus enveloped by 
the sc\ en Avaranas (coverings) pertaining to the Prakrti. 

35-37. Thus willingly these Prakrtis (evolutes of Prakrti) 
are stationed ready in destroying mutually. They stand ready 
at the time ofcreation; they sustain mutually and theydevour 
mutually. Those Vikdras (effects) abide in the Vikdrins (causes) 
by way ofthe supporter-supported relationship. The Avyakta 
(the unmanifest one) is called Ksetra and Brahman is called 

Thus the Prakrta Sarga (creation of the Prakrti) (has 
been explained). It is presided by Ksetrajiia. ~. 

38. This is the first creation and it is unprem/dned. It 
appeared just like the lightning. Undoubtedly he who factual- 
ly understands this birth of Hiranyagarbha shall become long- 
lived, famous, blessed and intelligent. 


Constitution 'of the world (The Cosmic Egg) 

[The creation due to disequilibrium of gunas — the three states of 
the self-born god Brahma — Description ofKalpas] 

Suta said : 

1. When the unmanifest one is stationed within itself 
and when the effect (universe) had been withdrawn, the Pra- 
dhanaand Purusa remain with their similarity of characteristics 

2. These two have Tamas and Sattva gunas. They are 
stationed on a par with each other. Hence they are said to be 
mutual pursuers. They are not excessive (in the manifestation 
ofthe Gunas). 

I.I. 4. 3-11 33 

3. Laya (Dissolution) should be understood to occur 
when Gunas are in equilibrium. It is called creation when 
there is predominance (of one Guna over the other.) 

The Sthiti (Sustenance) was at the time when Sattva was 
predominant. Certainly, the lotus is stationed at the top (?) 

4. When Rajas closely follows and stations itselfin Tamas 
and Sattva, it is the Rajas that causes the other things to 
function in the same way as in the case of the water causing the 
seeds to function. 

5. The Gunas assume inequality and they become stabi- 
lized casually. It should be known that three (divinities) were 
born out of the Gunas which are agitated. 

6. They are eternal, extremely mysterious; the souls of 

everyone and embodied; the Sattva qualilyls VisiiuTthe Rajas 
is Brahma and the Tamas is Rudra, the Prajapati. 

7. Visnu the enlightener and revealer of the Rajas 
becomes Brahma, and attains the status of the creator. It is 
from him'^that being of great vitality'^that the variety of creation 
of the worlds, takes its origin. 

8. Visnu as the enlightener and revealer of the Tamas 
stands separate in the f£om of Kala (Time) .("Vfc S <' /«. '• ~j 

Visnu as the enlightener and revealer ofthe Sattva stands 
separate assustenance (i.e. one who sustains). 

9. These alone are the three worlds; these alone are the 
three Gunas; these alone are the three Vedas; these alone are 
the three sacred fires. 

10. These have mutual inter-association; these are 
mutually attached; they exist by mutual help and they impel 
inter se. 

11. These are mutually coupled; these are mutually inter- 
dependent; these do not become separated even for a moment; 
they do not abandon each other. 

1. Though this Purana accepts the Saiikhya theory regarding the crea- 
tion ofthe universe being due to the imbalance ofthe three Gunas, the personi- 
fication ofthe Gunas in Brahma (Rajas), Visnu (Sattva) and Rudra (Tamas) 
is the puranic way of presentation for the understanding ofthe process by the 

34 Brakmanda Parana 

12. As a result ofthe unevenness of the Gunas, the Pra- 
dhana begins to function at the time of creation. At the outset 
it begins to function (from that Avyakta) of the nature oi Sat 
and Asat and presided over by Adrsfa (the unmanifest). 

13. The pair Brahma and Buddhi (Cosmic intellect) tools 
their origin simultaneously from that (Pradhana) ofthe nature 
of Tamas and unmanifestness*. The Ksetrajiia (and) that 
which is (also) named Brahma (was born from that pair). 

14. Fully equipped y^'ithKdrya (effect?) and Karana (the 
instruments; the sense-organs) Brahma appeared (existed) at 
the outset. He was unparalleled in lustre, intelligent, unmanifest 
but excellent enlightener (revealer). 

15. (Defective text). He is the first embodied being 
stabilised in retention. He is endowed with unequalled know- 
ledge and absence of passionate attachment. 

16. On account of his being unmanifest and because he 
had licpt (everything) under control, since these are three 
Gunas and because all evolved beings are interdependent, 
(Brahma attains) whatever he desires mentally. 

17. The self-born deity has three states : 'i^e, has four 

: >ie ha 

faces as Brahma as Kala (God of Death) he is Bhava, the 
destroyer; (as Visnu) he is the Purusa with thousand heads. 

18. As Brahma, he creates the worlds; as Kala, he 
annihilates them; as Purusa, he is indifferent : these are the 
three states ofthe selfborn deity.' 

19. As Brahma, he possesses Rajas exclusively; as Kala 
he has Rajas and Tamas and as Purusa (i.e. Visnu) he is 
exclusively Sattvika; — this is the position ofthe Gunas in the 
case of the self-born deity. 

20. Brahma has eyes like lotus-petals*; Kala has the 
lustre ofcoUyrium eversince his origin. Purusa islotuseyed with 
the form ofthe supreme Atman. 

* Va.P.o.23: From that (Pair of Brahma & Buddhi) was horn Ksetrajiia 
designated as Brahma, full of tamas and unmanifestness. 

1. The trinity of gods carrying out the functions of creation, susten- 
ance and destruction of the universe but the three states of one and the same 
self-born deity. 

* Kamalapatrdksa should he emended as Kamalapatrdbha as in Va.P.5. 
31b, as it is the description ofthe complexions of three deities. 

1. 1. 4. 21-29 35 

21. He is single. He is two-fold. He is three-fold. AgairT 
he is multifold. The lord of Yogins makes and un-makes the 
physical bodies. 

22. The physical bodies adopt different kinds of shapes, 
activities, colours and features. Since he has the pastime of 
remaining threefold in the world, he is called Triguna (one 
that has three Gunas). 

23-24. Since he is divided into four, he is glorified as 
Caturvyuha (one with four arrays). Since at the end of a Parar- 
dha, the lord lies down (sleeps) ; since the lord enjoys the 
pleasures of the world, since all living beings always take rest 
(lie down) normally and comfortably in him, he is defined as 
Atman, He is Rsi because he goes everywhere and since the 
lord enters the physical body. 

25. He is Sarva (all), because he is the master of all; 
he is Visnu because he permeates everything. He is Bhagavah, 

(since) he devoured the Bhavas (living beings). He is Ndga 
because no Agas (i.e. sin) abides in him. 

26. He is Parama, because he is extremely delighted. 
Since lie hasDevatva (state of being God), he is remembered 
asOM. He is Sarvajiia (omniscient) because he knows every- 
thing perfectly. He is Sarva because everything originates from 

27. Brahma causes the sleep (i.e. perfect rest) of Naras 
(men), hence he is remembered as Narayana. He functions 
after dividing himself into three. He is Sakala (having the full 
complement ofdigits and parts). 

28. By means of the three (Gunas), he himself creates"," 
devours and protects. The Prabhu (Lord) himself became 
Hiranyagarbha at the outset and manifested himself. 

29. Indeed he is Adya (First, foremost) and Svavasa 
(having himself under control). He is remembered as Aja 
because he is not born. Hence he is defined a.s, Hiranyagarbha in 
the Puranas. 

1. The author of Bd.P. seems to be fond of giving popular etymologies. 
The etymologies of Triguna, Caturvyuha, Atma, Rsi, Visnu, Narayana etc. 
are interesting. Some of these are however grammatically correct e.g., Visnu 
— vis — 'to pervade', rsi — r 'to go'. 

36 Brahmunda Parana 

30. He is selfborn and receding (?), lie is Kala and tlie 
foremost among all the castes. It is not possible to specify him 
exclusively in the course of hundreds of Manu's years.* 

31. The Parardha of Brahma is remembered as being 
reckoned is so many Kalpas. He has another period of the same 
duration and he wakes up at the end of that period. 

32. Thousands and crores of years that had been the 
abode of Kalpas have passed by. As many are yet to come. 

33-34. The Kalpa that is current now, is Varaha, know 
ye all. It is the first Kalpa and it is the present Kalpa. The 
Kings should govern till thousand Yugas are completed. 


The Creation of the Universe 

[The Boar incarnation ofVisnu — Primary and secondary crea- 
tion — creation of gods, sages and their dissolution]. 

Sri SUta said : 

1. At the beginning, the waters were present everywhere, 
on the surface of the earth. When this (visible world) had 
been annihilated and when the winds had become quiet, 
nothing could be known. 

2. In that vast ocean-like expanse ofwater,' when the 
whole world consisting of mobile and immobile beings had 

* For VarndgrataSy Va.P.5.46b reads Varsdgrajas. If this is accepted as 
emendation, tlie verse would mean: "It is not possible to calculate even with 
hundreds of Manvantaras as a unit of the time etc. 

1. Ekdmava — Also called Mahdrnavay agddha stabdha salila, or Salila 
only, Yuganta-toya in Mt. P., HV., Bh.P. VP. and other Puranas. This pri- 
meval watery flood expresses the infinite unmanifest cause — the Kdrana Brah- 
man as explained by Nilakantha (on HV.P. 3.9.1-4) 1/2 from which all life 

1. 1. 5. 3-10 37 

perished, the only entity present there was that lord Brahma 
with thousand eyes and thousand legs.' 

3. At that time Brahma named Narayana lay asleep in 
the waters. He had a thousand heads. He was the Purusa with 
golden colour and was beyond the ken of the sense-organs. 

4. Prohibited* (?) on account ofthe excess of Sattva, 
he saw the empty world. In this context, as regards Narayana 
they cite this sloka (verse). 

5. Waters are called Ndras (because) the waters are 
indeed the children of (Nara) (Man) ; the waters are his place 
of resort. Hence, he is remembered as Narayana.' 

6. (Defective text). He remains meditating for a period 
equal to a thousand Yugas. He performs meditation on a 
(lotus) with golden petals in order to reach the ideal state of 

7. Like a glow-worm at night during the rainy season, 
Brahma moves about here and there in the water, stoopingdown 
with his face turned downwards. 

8-9. After knowing that the great (universe) had gone 
deep into that vast expanse"oTwater, he-thought of uplifting 
the earth with steadiness of composure. Then he thought ofthe 
other eightfold cosmic body (as evolved by) Omkara, in the 
beginnings of Kalpas as before. Then the great soul thought of 
his divine form. 

10. On seeing that the earth had sunk into the water 
he thought — "what form shall I assume and uplift the 
earth ?" 

comes into being. yP.I.2.22 states tliat tliis Ekarnava doctrine is very ancient 
and Brahma-vadins liave elaborated it to explain the process of creation and 
dissolution. Mt.P. 182 identifies Narayana with Maharnava. 

1. Cf. Furusa-sukta (RV.X.90.1). 

* nisiddha in the text is illogical. ya.P.6.4 (an identical verse) reads: 
Prabuddha 'awakened' by the dominance of Sattva. 

2. The usual derivation of Narayana found in other Puranas also but 
for a different derivation vide supra 4.28"! -/ 

** Va.P.6. reads : naiiarh kdlam updsya sah / 

Sarvaryante prakurute Brahmatvarh sarge-kdrandt II 
'Having passed the night-time in sleep, at the end of the night, creates 
god Brahma for the creation ofthe universe'. 

38 Brahmanda Parana 

11. He remembered the form of a Boar' that is suitable 
for the aquatic sports. It was invisible* unto all living beings. 
It is of the nature ofspeech termed Brahman. 

12. Its girth was ten Yojanas (1 Yojana=12 Km) and 
the length was a hundred Yojanas. It resembled the dark 
cloud, in complexion. It had a rumbling sound like that of 
the clouds. 

13. It had a huge body like a great mountain. It had 
curved fangs, white, sharp and terrible. It bore resembl- 
ance (in lustre to) lightning and fire. Its brilliance was like 
that ofthe sun. 

14. It had thick long and round shoulders. It used to 
walk with the (steady) steps of Visnu. The region of its hips 
was raised up (well-developed) and stout. It was honoured with 
the characteristic features of a bull. 

15. Assuming this inimitable form of a boar, Hari entered 
the nether worlds for uplifting the earth. 

16-22. (The description of Tajiia-vdrdha) .' The conclu- 
sion on the Diksd (initiation) and Isfi (sacrifice) were his 
curved fangs, the Kratu (sacrifice) was his tooth.' TheJahu (the 
crescent-shaped wooden ladle) was his mouth;. the fire was his 

1. VV.8-11 remind «f Tait.Brahmana which states 

apo va idamagre salilam dstt / 

tasmin prajapatir vayur bhatva 

acarat j sa imam apaiyat _/' tdrh 

vardho bhatva'harat // 
Puranas elaborated this statement in the full-fledged description of the Boar- 
incarnation of Visnu. nde Bh. P. 111.13 17-33, Mt.P.Chs. 246-248; VP.1.4. 
1-52, Mbh. Sabha 37.29 ff. and Bd. P. mfra Ch. 8. 1-10. 
* adhrsyam 'unassailable' in ya.P.6.11. 

2. This poetic description ofthe Divine Boar in Yajiia terminology is 
so beautiful that not only Purana-writers but writers on Smrti worlts, Tantra 
works and even Saiil^ara adopted it. For example, vide ya.P.Ch.6 (a number 
of verses identical with Bd.P.), Bm P. 213.33-42; Bh.P. 111.13 34-39, Visnu 
Smrti 1.3-12; Saiikara on Yisnu-sahasra-nama verse 118 on Tajhdngd. 

Though it is a self-explanatory translation some expressions are explained 

3. Mt.P. 247.68 reads differently. 

Veda-pddo Yupa-ddrhffrah Krdtu-ddtitas Citi-mukhdh 

I 1.5.16-22 39 

tongue;' the Darbha grasses were his hairs/ the Brahma (one 
of the four Rtviks employed at a Soma sacrifice or vedic 
knowledge ofgreat penance was his head/ The Vedas were his 
shoulders; he had the fragrance of the Havis, The Havya, Kavya 
etc. were his velocity;' Prdgyamsa (the sacrificial room facing 
the east) was his body;^ he was brilliant; he was equipped with 
different kinds of Diksds (initiations); he was the master of 
Yoga with Daksina for his heart; he was the lord full ofSraddhd 
(faith) and Sattva (good quality) ;^ he had Updkarma (extra 
study of the Vedas by way of expiation) for his Ruci (lustre or 
taste); he h3.d Pravargya (the ceremony preliminary to Soma 
sacrifice) as his Avartabhusancfi (ornamental whorls of hair on 
his chest), the way ofthe different Cchandas (Metres) was 
his pathway; the Upanisads with their esoteric doctrines consti- 
tuted his seat. He was assisted by Maya in the capacity of his 
spouse; he had the height ofthe peak of a mountain; he had 
the day and the night as his eyes;* he had the ancillary subjects 

1. A Vedic concept. Agni (fire) is the tongue of gods with which they 
eat the food (offered in sacrifices), cf. RV. IV.5 7. 1 . 

2. darbha-romd. The rfariAa-grass spread on the altar is compared to 
the shaggy hair on the body of the boar. 

3. Brahma-sTrsah — Brahma means also the Vedic knowledge and natu- 
rally its position is the highest viz. the head. 

4. It is difHcult to understand why the velocity of the Divine Boar is 
compared to the Havya and Kavya rites meant for gods and Pitrs. Probably 
Agnihotra and Srdddha and their association with the sacrifice may be the reason. 

5. Prdgvamia-kdya — PrdgvaihSa also means 'a room in which the family 
and friends performing the sacrifice assemble.' This body (Kdya) ofthe Tajfia- 
Vardha is so much spacious as to accommodate many people. 

6. Va.P.6.2I. gives a better reading viz. mahd-sattra-mayo : Mahd- 
sattra is a long (and great) Soma -sacrifice continuing for 13 to 100 days. 
Varaha has assumed the form of a great Soma sacrifice. 

7. The Mt.P. and Sahkara read updkarmostharucakah : Whose pendant 
lower-life was updkarma (recitation ofthe Vedas). Can we take ruci for rucaka? 

8. The whorls of hair on the front of horse's chest is regarded as orna- 
mental. The same on the chest of the boar would be beutirymg. 

The Pravargya ceremony is introductory to the Soma sacrifice. In this, 
fresh jnilk is poured into a heated vessels called Mahivira or Gharma, or into 
boiling ghee (MW.P.693.U). The vapour-fumes coiling up from the gharma 
is imagined as circular whorls of the Boar's hair. 

9. Day and night represent the Sun and the Moon. They are the two 
eyes of this Divine Boar. 

40 Brahmanda Purana 

of the Veclas as the ornament unto his ears. He had the odour 
of the Ajya (ghee-offering; in the sacrifice) ; the Sruvd (the sacri- 
ficial ladle) was his snout; he had the loud pitch in chanting 
of the Sdman hymns as his voice; he was glorious, an embodi- 
ment oftruth and virtue; he was honoured by the exploits 
ofhis actions; expiation was his claw; he was terrible; he had 
the knee joints of the animals; he was the great sacrifice in- 
carnate; Udgdtd was his entrail;' the Homa was his Linga 
(symbol) ; he had fruits and seeds as great medicinal herbs'(?) 
Vddyantara* (Another disputant) was his own Sastra (sacrifice) 
( ?). Absence ofegotim as well as Soma juice was his blood. 

23. [The text in Bd.P. is corrupt. The corresponding 
verse in Va. P. 6.23 is as follows :] 

bhtitva Yajnn-varaho vai antah sa pravisat prabhuh/ 
adbhih sanchaditam flrvim sa tam asnan prajapatih 
upagamyojjaharasu apas tas ca sa vinyasan // 
'It is reported that he verily became Yajna-varaha and the 
Lord entered the waters. That Prajapati found that earth 
which was covered over with waters. Removing (displacing) 
those waters, he seized and quickly lifted it up.' 

24. He allocated the waters of the ocean in the oceans 
and those of the rivers in the rivers. After making them 
separate and equal, he gathered the mountains on the earth 
for its stability. 

25. These mountains had been burnt in the previous 
Sarga (period ofcreation) by the Samvartaka fire (i.e. fire of 
destruction at the time of universal annihilation). Along 
with that fire these mountains had got merged in the earth 

1. It is the length ofthe Sama song sung by the Udgatr which resemb- 
les the long entrail of the animal. 

2. Phala-blja-mahausadhlh. This reading though accepted in the trans- 
lation is obscure. Mt.P.,Bm.P., Visnu Smr. read Bijausadhi-mahaphalah. Mahd- 

phala is the scrotum. The idea seems to be that the herbs and plants which 
produce the seed are comparable functionally to the testicle of the Boar. 

3. This is obscure. The reading in Visnu Smr. (1.6) is Vedyantardtmd. 
It means the Vedi^ the altar of the sacrifice was the heart of the Boar. 

1. 1. 5. 26-32 41 

26. (Defective text). In that vast expanse of water [due 
to cold (saitydt — Va. P.)] .they became stored up by the wind. 
Wherever this (water solution with burnt mountains) was 
sprinkled, a mountain cropped up in each of those places. 

27. After they had been scattered, Visvakarman divided 
the worlds, oceans and mountains. He divides like this again 
and again at the beginning of every Kalpa.' 

28. He created again and again this earth consisting 
of seven continents along with the oceans and the mountains. 
He (also) created again the four worlds beginning with Bhii 

29-31. After creating the worlds, Brahma, .the self-born 
lord began the creation ofPrajas (subjects). Desirous of creat- 
ing different subjects (creatures), he created them in the 
same form as had been created before. As he meditated and 
pondered about (the forthcoming) creation preceded by 
(cosmic) intellect, Avidya unfolded itself into five forms simul- 
taneous with Pradhdna (?). These five forms were Tamasika. 
They were darkness, delusion, great-delusion, pitch darkness 
and blind darkness. 

32. Thus Avidya had five joints (Parvan).' It manifest- 
ed itself from the great-soul. Thus the creation remained 
five-fold even as he was meditating over it and identifying 
himselfwith it. 

1. The Puranic belief about the new creation of the universe at the 
beginning of a new Kalpa is that, despite the annihilation of the universe at 
the end of every Kalpa, god Brahma re-creates the universe on the same 
model of the former universe. It is succinctly stated as 

Dhata yathdpurvam akalpayat j 

2. This is the translation of Pradkina-samakdle in the Text. The unfold- 
ment of the five Parvans of Avidya simultaneously with the Sarikhya principle 
called Pradhana is confusing. Va.P.6.36 gives a better reading viz. Pradhydna- 
sama-kdlam "simultaneously with i.e. while he was meditating, there manifes- 
ted Avidya of five knots or Parvans". 

3. The five joints (Parvans) of Avidya are enumerated in 31b viz. 
Tamas, MohUy Makd-moha, Tdmisra and /4n</Aa-tamisra. These are rendered 
as ignorance, delusion, desire of enjoyment, anger and fear of death, vide 
Com. on VP.I.5.5). The concept called Avidyd is very complex. With Yoga, 
it means "undifferentiated consciousness" (J.H. Woods); Vedanta equates it 

Avith Maya. Here the cosmic aspect of Avidyd is implied. 

42 Brahmanda Parana 

33. It is surrounded everywhere by Tamas like the seed 
and the creeper within a pot.* Within and without, it is devoid 
of lustre as well as devoid of consciousness. 

34. Since they have (well) made intellect, miseries and 
sense-organs, the Ndgas (i.e. trees, creepers, plants) are glorified 
as Mukhya (Principal) creations.' Their selves have been 
covered up. 

35 Brahma, the self-born lord, was not fully satisfied in 
his mind even after seeing the evolution of Mukhyasarga 
(principal creation). He thought of creating (a fresh type of 
creation) then. 

36. Even as he was pondering over it, another creation, 
the Tiryaksrotas' (oblique-currented creation, i.e. the animal 
world) took its origin. It is remembered as Tiryaksrotas, because 
it functioned in oblique (in non-straight) ways. 

37. On account of the excess of the Tamas quality, they 
are remembered as Ajndnabahula (abounding in ignorance). 
They are Utpddyagrdhinah** (comprehending what should be 
produced). They fancy themselves wise, despite their ignorance, 

38. They possess egotism. They are proud of themselves. 
They are of twentyeight types.' The sense-organs are of eleven, 
varieties. The soul etc. are of nine varieties. 

* For Bd.P. — blja-kumbha-lald-vrtah 
(translated here) Va. P. 6. 37b reads: 

dipah kumbhavad dvrtah 

'just as a lamp lighted in a pitcher cannot emit light outside due to the 
opaque wall-like cover of the pitcher. This simile in Ya.P. is the traditional 
and more appropriate one here. For more discussion vide note 2 on P. 57 
of the translation of KP (MLBD.) 

1. This 'meditated* (Vaikrta) creation by Avidya was characterised 
by ignorance as it included immobiles (jyaga)-like mountains, trees. Hence it 
is also called Mukhya. As verse 55 below explains Mukhya means Sthdvara 


2. W. 36-40 describe the second type and stage of "meditated" 
creation viz. Tiryaksrotas. It is not that the creatures in this creation always 
move in oblique direction. But, as verse 56 below and VP. 1.5.9-11 and 22a 
explain, it includes birds and beasts which are by nature mostly ignorant and 
hence taking to wrong-ways and egotistic. This is the second stage in volution 
after the immobile one. 

Va. P. 6.43a reads: utpatha-grdhinah 'taking to wrong ways' — a better 

3. The text reads astdvirhsad-vidhatmikdh and the reading is supported 
by Va.P.6.44. But VP.I.5.11a reads: as(dvirhiad-vadhdimikah. 

1.1". 39-47 43 

39. The Tarakas and others are of eight types, their des- 
truction of power is remembered (?). They have inner light 
and all of them are again externally enveloped. 

40. They are called Firyaksrotas. They have their selves 
under control. They have three appellations. 

41. After creating the second universal creation; the 
Tiryaksrotas and having observed that type of creation, the 
(following) idea occurred in him : 

42. Even as he was pondering, the final creation of the 
Sattvika type was evolved. This third creation is tJrdhvasrotas 
upwards currented.' It is based upwards. 

43. 'Z Since they returned upwards they are called tJrdhva- 
srotas. They are of a pleasant nature with much of gaiety. They 
are not enveloped within or without. 

44-46a. They are brilliant within and without. The sub- 
jects of Urdhvasrotas are remembered as nine. They are Dhata 
(? creator) and others. They are remembered as wise ones of 
contented mind. This third creation, the Urdhvasrotas, is remem- 
bered as Daivika (Divine) i.e. pertaining to gods). 

When the divine creations of the Urdhvasrotas type had 
been created, lord Brahma became pleased. Thereafter, he did 
not ponder over anything else. 

46b-47. (Later on) the lord was desirous of creating 
another set of created beings that would be Sadhaka (aspirant 
after spiritual achievement). 

Even as he was pondering over creation and since he 
was of truthful (effective) conception, the Bhautasarga (creation 
of Bhutas, i.e. living beings) manifested itself. It was down- 

The reading is worth noting as the verses concerning the creation in VP.I.5, 
Va.P.6 and Bd.P. text under translation are common and the word Vadha 
in asiavimSad-vadkdtmakah in VP. is a technical term in Saiikhya. It means 
'weakness.' Isvara Krsna's Sdnkhya-K&rikd enumerates them as follows; 
ekddasendriya-vadhdh saha buddhi-vadhair aSaktlr uddlsfd j 
sapta-dasa-vadhi buddher viparyaydt tufti-siddhindm //49// 

1. W.42-46a describe the third Vaikrta Creation called Urdhva- 
srotas or Deva-sargay creation of heavenly beings. 

44 Brahmanda Parana 

ward — currented (arvdk-srotas)' as well as competent to achieve 
the goals of his life. 

48. Since they function downwards (i.e. on the earth, 
below heaven) they are (called Arvdksrotas. They abound in 
brilliance but were contaminated by tamas and dominated with 

49. Hence they have excess of misery. They make re- 
peated attempts. They are enlightened within and without. 
They are the mortal beings capable of achieving their goal. 

50. They are arranged into eight classes with hellish 
characteristics (i.e. such characteristic features as are conducive 
to hell). Those men with souls ofspiritual achievement are 
similar in characteristic features to the Gandharvas. 

51-52. The fifth creation, the Anugraha Sarga (creation 
of blessings) is arranged into four classes, viz. i) Viparyaya 
(Loss of consciousness), ii) Sakti (Efficiency), iii) Siddha (of 
achievement) and iv) Mukhya (Principal). 

They are born again and again, they recede and they 
(come back) to be present. The sixth creation is said to be of 
Bhatddi (elements or creatures) etc. 

53-55A. Those creatures should be known as character- 
ised by tendency to eat and obtain or grab. 

The first creation of Brahma should be known as that of 
Mahat (the great principle). The second creation is that of 
Tanmdtras. It is called Bhulasarga. 

55B. The third Vaikarika creation is called Aindriya 
Sarga (creation pertaining to the sense organs). These are the 
Prdkrta (of Prakrti) creations that are evolved with consciousness 
and foreknowledge. 

1. VV.46b-50 describe the fourth creation called arvdk-srotas — down- 
currented i.e. who function on the earth below the heavenly region. It is called 
Manusyasarga in verse 49 and in VP.I.5.23. 

2. There seems to be confusion in the present text. Here Bhutddi 
or Bhuta-sarga is called the sixth Vaikrta Creation. But in the recapitulatory 
verses below (VV.52b-58) Bhuta-sarga is given as the Second Prdkrta Creation 

(V.54a) and Vaikrta sargas are stated to be five in number 
Pahcaite vaikrtdh sargdh — 

1. 1. 5. 56-62 45 

The fourth creation is Mukhyasarga. The immobile 
creations are remembered as Mukhyas, 

56-57. The fifth one is Tiryaksrotasa creation. The 
Tiryagyonis (i.e. the lower creatures and animals) constitute it. 

The sixth creation of tJrdhvasrotas is called Daivata (per- 
taining to divine beings). 

Thereafter, is the seventh creation, that o^ ihe Arvdksrotas, 
the human beings. The eighth creation is Anugrahasarga. It is 
Sattvika as well as Tamasa. 

58. These (latter) five creations are the Vaikrta (Medi- 
tated) creation. The first three are remembered as Prdkrta (per- 
taining to Prakrti) creations. The ninth creation called the 
Kaumara (brought about by Kumara i.e. Sanatkumara etc.) 
sarga. (The eight creations mentioned before are) Prdkrta and 

59. (Defective text)* The three Prakrta creations are 
Buddhipurvas (created with consciousness and foreknowledge). 
The Vikrta creations function Buddhi-Apurvas (without consci- 
ousness and foreknowledge). Their classes pertain to the 
Brahman (?) 

60-62. Understand all of it even as it is being recounted 
in detail. He abides fourfold (in four groups) in all the liv- 
ing beings, viz by (1) Viparyaya, (2) Sakti, (3) Buddhi (intellect 
and (4) Siddhi ("see verse 51 above). He is stationed among 
immobile beings by means of Viparydsa (i.e. Viparyaya— conixa.- 
riety or loss of consciousness) ; in the lower creatures by means 
of Sakti (physical power); the human beings are with souls of 
spiritual achievement; there is Pusti** (? nourishment) wholly 
among the Devas. 

* The text is defective and Iience tlie translation is confused. Tlie 
corresponding verse in Va.P.6. 

Prakrtas tu trayah sargah krtas te'buddhi-purvakdh / 
Buddhi-purvam pravartante faf-sargd Brahmanas tu te 11 
'The three Prakrta creations were brought about wituout planning or 
pre-meditation (abuddhi-purvakdh). But the six creations of god Brahma came 
out pre-planned (with previous meditation). 
** tufti 'contentment' in Va.P.6. 69. 


46 Brahmanda Parana 

Thereafter, Brahma created mental sons on a par with 

63-65. Those (sons) of great splendour and strength 
became Nivrttas (i.e. renounced the world) on account of their 
knowledge pertaining to Vivarta (unreal appearance caused by 
Avidya e.g. the world instead of Brahman). All the three of 
them (?) addressed the name (? of the world and ceased (their 
activity) without creating the (primary) creation of the sub- 
jects or the secondary one. When they were found Viraktas 
(Devoid ofpassionate attachment) Brahma wishing to create 
other Sadhakas created those Devas who took pride in their 
positions and identified themselves with the same. Then there 
is the command of Brahma once again. Understand from me 
those Sthdnins (deities in different positions) who were in the 
condition of non-creation (Abhutasrs(i). 

66-68. They are the waters, the fire, the earth, the wind, the 
intermediate region between the heaven and the earth, the ether, 
the heaven, the quarters, the oceans, the rivers, the vegetable 
kingdom, the souls of medicinal herbs, the souls of trees and 
creepers, the winding plants, the units of time such as Kasthas, 
Kalas, Muhiirtas etc., the twilights, the nights, the days, 
the half-years, the months, the Ay anas (the period of the tran- 
sits of the sun from north to south and vice versa), the years 
and yugas. 

They take pride and identify themselves with their 
positions and currents. They are remembered as having the 
names of their respective positions. 

69. After creating the souls of different Sthdnas 
(positions), he created other beings, the Devas and the Pitrs 

by whom these subjects flourished. 

70. He created nine mental sons, viz., Bhrgu, Angiras, 
Marici, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Daksa, Atri and Vasistha. 

71. These are decisively termed nine Brahmas in the 
Purana because they were just like Brahma (in regard to the 
•creation) of all Brahma Yogins their sons. 

72. Thereafter Brahma created Rudra form out ofhis 

1. 1. 5. 73-82 47 

anger. He then created the Samkalpa* (conception) and Dharma 
(virtue) of all in all directions. 

73. Then Brahma created Vyavasdya (Energetic effort) 
the creature of the nature ofpleasure. From the Samkalpa of 
(he creator whose source of origin was the unmanifest one 
Samkalpa was born. 

74. From the Prana Daksa was created and he (Brahma) 
created Marlci from the speech and the eyes. Sage Bhrgu was 
born of the heart of Brahma whose source of origin was water. 

75. Afigiras was born of the head and Atri from the ears. 
Pulastya was born of the life-breath called Udana and Pulaha 
from the Vyana. 

76. Vasistha was born of life-breath Samdna. He created 
Kratu from the Apana. These are remembered as the twelve** 
excellent sons of Brahma. 

77. Dharma and others should be known and they are 
remembered as the first born sons of Brahma, Bhrgu and 
others who were created (later), were not expounders of 

78. These twelve sons of Brahma are to be known as the 
ancient householders. O Brahmana, these are born along with 

79. Kratu and Sanatkumara, these two lived in perpetual 
celibacy. In the previous birth*** they are elder to all. 

80. In the seventh Kalpa, these ancient Sddhakas of the 
world had already passed away. They shine (refulgently) in 
this world by means of the splendour of their own souls. 

81. Both ofthem were Yogins by nature. Those two, of 
great power, carried out the duties of subjects and love by 
superimposing the soul (on the supreme soul) by means of the 


82. He continues to be in the same state as he was in, 
when he was born. So he is called Kumara. Thereupon, his 
name Sanatkumara became well established. 

* Samkalpa and Dharma born before all. 
** Dharma, Samkalpa, Rudra and nine sages = 12. 
*** If the reading is, purvolparmau "They were born before'. 

48 Brahmanda Parana 

83. Their twelve races are divine and are endowed witli 
tiie groups of Devas; tiiey performed iioly rites; tiiey fiad 
progeny and tiiey iiad great sages ornamenting tlie race. 

84. After seeing tliose twelve Sdttsika beings born of his 
vital airs, the lord created the Asuras, the Pitrs, the Devas 
and the human beings. 

85. He created the Devas from his mouth; the Pitrs 
from his chest; the human beings from his organ ofgeneration 
and he created the Asuras from his buttocks. 

86. Carrying on his creative activities during the night, 
the lord of the Devas created souls of human beings from the 
moonlight. He created the Pitrs from the nectar. 

87. After creating the Mukhya (prominenf) and Amukhya 
(non-prominent) Devas and Asuras, he created from his mind 
the human beings and the great Pitrs who were like their own 

88. He created the lightning, the thunder and the 
clouds, the red coloured rainbows, the Rks, the Yajus Mantras 
and the Saman songs for the fulfilment of the Yajfias. 

89. The living beings, high and low, were born of his 
splendour. The creation of subjects by Brahma comprises of 
the Devas, the sages the Pitrs and the human beings. 

90. Again he creates living beings, the mobile and the 
immobile ones, the Yaksas, the Pisacas, the Gandharvas and 
all the Apsaras, all round. 

91. He created men, Kinnaras, Raksasas, the birds, the 
animals, the deer and the serpents. He created the two types, 
the mobile and the immobile, as well as the Vyaya (perishable) 
and the Avyaya (Imperishable) . 

92-94. They attain those activities created formerly by 
the self-born lord. Though created again and again, they 
betake themselves to those alone (Viz. their own previous 
characteristics) such as violence and nonviolence, softness and 
cruelty, virtue and evil as well as what is done and what is 
not done.' They know the three (entities) are not separate, 
though born of them alone as separate (?). This is thus, and 
not thus; this is neither the pair (thus and non-thus) nor the 

1. This is the inexorable Law of Karman. Even after Kalpanta, 
the Karma follows its doer immediately after the new creation of the world. 49 

non-pair (ofthus and non-thus).' People who cling to Sattva- 
guna and who view with equanimity say that Karman has 
itself as the object. 

95-97. That great lord created these five by means of 
the word Diva (Div — to shine, the heaven that sparkles). 
He caused the extension of the created five elements by way of 
names (?). 

The lord gave them names pertaining to the sages. He 
gave names to those creations among the Devas that are 
not born during the night. Thus for the reasons cited above, 
the creation of the worlds by the self-born lord was effected. 
The evolutes ofthe Prakrti beginning with Mahat and ending 
with Vifesa (particularised creations) were thus evolved. 

98-99. The cosmos has the lustre of the moon and the 
sun; it is embellished by planets and stars; it is equipped with 
thousands ofriyers, seas and mountains. It consists of different 
kinds of beautiful cities and flourishing principalities and 
territories. In this forest ofBrahma, the unmanifest one, the 
omniscient Brahma wanders. 

100-103. This grove of trees ofBrahma is born of the 
seed viz Avyakta or Prakrti (the unmanifest one). It is stationed 

1. This reminds us of tlie stance of Sanjaya-Belatthi-putta in Samaniia- 
phala-sulta (para 32) of Dlgha Nikaya (p. 51 ofthe Nalanda Edt.) 

2. VV. 100-103 give an allegorical description of the nniverse or 
Sariisara as the forest tree ofgod Brahma. The comparison with the tree and 
the universe is as follows, 

Tlie Tree The creation or Samsara 

The Seed Avyakta (Prakrti) 

•Stem Buddhi (Intellect) 

Inner hollow Sense-organs 

Branches (sakha) in the Bd.P. The Mahabhutas (elements) 

(but ankura or sprouts in Va. P.) 

[PrakaSa in Bd.P. is probably 

a misprint for Praiakka in 

Va.P. ] 

Leaves (patra) Viiesa (sense objects or particular 

Flowers Virtue (dharma) 

Evil (a-dharma) 
Fruits Pleasure and pain 

50 Brahmanda Parana 

under its blessing. It is full of stems and branches in the form 
of the intellect. The sense-organs are the inner hollows; the 
great Bhfltas (elements) are its luminaries;* it possesses leaves, 
in the form of the Visesas (particularised categories) or the 
objects of senses), Virtue and Evil are its beautiful flov^fers; 
pleasure and misery are the fruits (of this tree) ; this eternal 
tree of Brahma is the sustenance of all living beings. This 
forest of Brahma is constituted by and belongs to the trees of 
Brahma. The eternal, Avyakta (unmanifest one) of the nature 
of Sat and Asat is the cause thereof. Persons who think ofthe 
Tattvas (categories) call it Pradhana, Prakrti and Maya. 

104. Such is the Anugraha' creation. It is remembered 
as one with Brahma as the cause. The three creations pertain- 
ing to Prakrti are the creations of Brahma without the back- 
ground of consciousness or meditation. 

105-106. The six creations beginning with Mukhya are 
the Vaikrtas (pre-meditated ones) and they have been created 
with the background of consciousness. 

They function by way of Vaikalpa (i.e. through excite- 
ment). They are identified with the Brahman (?) , 

Thus nine creations^ are remembered including the 
Prdkrtas and Vaikrtas. These are the creations originating 
through mutual contact. The reason thereof has been 
remembered by the wise or learned. 

107. It is that Acintydtman (incomprehensible soul) who 
is the maker of all living beings. They (the learned) say that 
the Vedas are his head (?); the firmament is his navel; the 
sun and the moon are his eyes; the quarters are his ears, know 
that the earth constitutes his feet. 

* The word Prakdia is inapplicable to Bhutas. The reading: mahi- 
bhuta-praiakha "The tree has big branches in the form of MahabhOtas* in the 
Va.P. is better. 

I. This is called Anugraha creation as it is caused or created through 
the favour of Avyakta or Prakfti as noted in V.IOO above (tasya=avyaktasya 
•anugrahe sthitati) 

2. As noted above three are Prdkrta sargas and six are Vaikrta ones. 
This makes the total of nine creations. 51 

108. It is from his mouth (face) that the Brahmanas 
were born. From the front part of his chest the Ksatriyas 
were born. It is from his thighs that the Vaisyas were born 
and the Sfldras from his feet. All the castes were born of his 

109. Narayana is greater than and beyond the Avyakta 
(the unmanifest one); the cosmic egg is termed Avyakta, god 
Brahma himself is born of the cosmic egg; the worlds have been 
created by him. 

110. * After staying there for ten Kalpas they go again 
to the (world of) Satya. (Those who reach) the world of 
Brahma attain the goal from which they never return. 

111. With the exception of overlordship, they are on a 
par with him in regard to AiSvarya (prosperity, power to 
control etc.) They become equal to Brahma as far as form 
and object are concerned. 

112. There they stay endowed with pleasure and 
accompanied by themselves (and their possessions). On 
account ofthe inevitability"of theTnatter, it (he) expands the 
Prakrta (creation) himself. 

113-114. Then, purified on that occasion, they are to 
be directly connected with the diversity. Just as, while one 
is asleep the faculty of understanding functions without intel- 
lectual consciousness. So also their knowledge functions when 
purified on that occasion, through the withholding of 
differences, but not so in the case of Susmins (?) (lustrous or 
powerful ones). 

115-116. The causal relations between cause and effects 
function alongwith them in regard to the residents of the 
world of Brahma, who see the diversity; whose aberrations had 
receded and who stand by their own duties. They are Siddhas 
of similar (equal) characteristics, of splendid souls and are 
free from sullied state. 

117-118. As an effect of Prakrti, they possess sense- 
organs and organs ofaction. They are well arranged in their 
own souls. After establishing the soul, the Prakrti, that appears 

1. An echo from the Furusa Sukta (RV.X.90) 

* Obviously some lines are missing from the text. 

52 Brahmana'a Purana 

in multifarious forms, and tiiat seems to be different from 
Purusa, does not function. Tliereupon begins to function tfie 
creation of tliose tilings of the nature of existing cause. 

119. The contact of the Tuktas (sages ofYogic practice), 
the seers of reality should be known as Prakrti. It is the cause 
of their Apavarga (salvation) of those persons who go on a 
never to return journey of those who are not reborn. 

120-122. Due to Abhdva (Absence of rebirth) they 
go once again to Satya-Loka as though the flames have subsided. 
Thereupon, when those persons of joyous souls have gone 
above the three worlds, they by whom the Mahar-Loka was 
not reached, go along with them. When the Kalpaddha (the 
burning of the universe at the end of the Kalpa) is imminent 
their disciples stay here. 

They are the Gandharvas and others, the Pisacas, the 
human beings, the Brahmanas and others, the animals and the 
birds and the immobile beings alongwith the reptiles. 

123. While on that occasion the residents of the surface 
of the earth are staying there,' the thousand rays of the sun 
perish (?). They become seven rays and each one ofthese rays 
becomes a sun. Gradually they assume a hundred times in- 
creased magnitude and burn the three worlds. 

124-125. They burn the mobile and the immobile beings, 
the rivers and all the mountains : they had already been dry 
due to drought and absence ofrain. Now they are heated by 
those rays. Then they are completely burnt by the sun's rays 
and they become helpless. These mobile and immobile beings, 
as well as Dharma and Adharma etc. become completely burnt 
by the sun's rays. 

126-129a. With their bodies burnt and with their sins 
completely washed off at the end of the Yuga, they become 
well known (?). They are freed of their distress. (They are 
blessed) by the auspicious (stage of boundlessness). Then, after 
the night of Brahma, born ofthe unmanifest one, has dawned, 
those people becomejoined with the people of similar forms 

1. Description ofthe end of a Kalpa. 53 

and in the subsequent creation they become the mental progeny 
of Brahma. 

129b- 132. Thereafter, when the people living in the 
three worlds have become merged with the people, when all 
the worlds have been completely burned by the seven suns, 
when the earth is flooded by the rain, both in the secluded 
places and in the seas, the oceans, the clouds, the waters of 
the earth proceed ahead flowing fast lilce arrows. They are as 
though mountains called by the name Salila (water) ; when 
much water came on like this and covered this earth it became 
what is called Arnava (sea). 

133-135. (Defective text). (Water is called ^/nMas, why 
is it so ?) Since it shines (Abhdti) it is called Ambhas. The 
word Bhd is used in the sense of lustre and illumination.' The 
expanse of water has spread over everything and got into 
touch with all. It is linown by its own lustre. 

Since it stuffs the entire earth all round within itself and 
makes it extend, it is called Apatanu/ The root Tanoti means 
to extend. The waters are therefore called Apatanu. 

The word Sara indicates that which is Sirna (shattered). 
It is a root having various meanings. In that vast expanse of 
water, the waters are not shattered. Hence they are called 

136-138. In the waters, at the end ofa thousand Yugas, 
when the day of Brahma comes to a close, when it is his 
night of the same duration within the waters, when within the 
waters the earth has lost all its fires; when it is darkness all 
round with not even a glimmer of light, when the wind has, 
subsided — the lord Brahma by whom the portion of the world 
is presided over desired once again to make the division of 
this world. 

139-141. In that vast expanse of water, where the 
mobile and the immobile beings had perished, Brahma lay 
down, Brahma of thousand eyes, thousand legs and thousand 

1. Bd.P. interestingly traces ambhas 'water' to bhd — 'to shine.' It 
is "merely a popular etymology. 

2. MW. does not give a word lilie Apatanu or Upatanu. 

3. Kara na+slrna=waters^ is beyond linguistics. 

54 Brahmanda Pur ana 

heads, the Purusa ofgolden colour, Brahma named Narayana 
who was beyond the ken ofthe sense organs lay asleep. 

He became awakened due to the emergence of Sattva. 
He woke up and surveyed the cosmos that was a void. With 
the narration ofthis, the first Pada (section) ofthe Purana has 
been related. 



The Kalpas and Manvantaras 
Their Duration 

SUta said : 

1. On hearing the first Pada (section) the main theme 
ofwhich is the Prakrti, thus recounted, Kapeya (Kasyapeya in 
Va.P.) who was delighted had some doubts. 

2-3. After propitiating the Suta by means of words 
(and desirous of hearing) another story for that purpose, (he 
said) — "Hereafter O Sage conversant with the Kalpa, 
recount Pratisandhi tome. I wish to know this, viz. : the interim 
period between the two Kalpas i.e. the Kalpa that has passed 
and the Kalpa that is current. I wish to know the Pratisandhi 
(the period of transit) between these two. Indeed, you are 
sufficiently well-versed." 

4. On being thus requested by Kapeya, Siita, the most 
excellent among eloquent men, began to narrate the origin of 
the three worlds entirely. 

Suta said : 

5. Now I shall describe factually, O men of holy vows, 
the Kalpa of the past and the Kalpa of the future and the 
period of transit that is between these two. 

6. (I shall also describe) O men of holy rites, the dif- 
ferent Manvantaras in the Kalpas. The Kalpa that is current 
now is Varaha — an auspicious Kalpa. 

1. Description of Manvantaras is one of tlie main cliaracteristics of a 
Purana. We liave a description of tliese Manvantaras in Bh.P. VIII. 1.1-29. 
KP.I.51, NP. 1. 40-17-37, VP.III. 1.1-9 and others. But tliis cliapter lilte Va.P. 7 
describes the Kalpas and the interim period joining the Kalpas. A number of 
verses are common to Va.P. 7 and this chapter. 

5 8 BrahmSnda Pur ana 

7. Understand the intervening transitional stage between 
tliis Kalpa and tlie old (ancient) Kalpa that preceded this and 
passed away. 

8. When the previous Kalpa recedes without a Prati- 
sandhi (intermediate period), another Kalpa begins again with 
Janaloka and others. 

9. Two (consecutive) Kalpas have a transitional stage 
separating them mutually. All beings are completely annihilat- 
ed at the end ofa Kalpa. 

10a. The Period intervening between the end of that 
Kalpa is called* Pratisandhi.' 

lOb-U. In a Manvantara, the junctions ofthose periods 
of time called Yugas are unbroken. The Manvantaras function 
with interconnections of the Yugas. The previous Kalpas have 
been recounted briefly (?) in the Prakriya-pada. 

12-14. Each Kalpa has a Purva-Ardha (former half) and 
Para-Ardha (latter half). Therefore, when a Kalpa passes by, 
its latter half is followed by the former half of the next Kalpa. 
The other Kalpas also will follow suit with their latter halves 
increased(?). O Brahmanas, the Kalpa that is present now 
is the first among them. It has a Purva-Ardha and a Para-Ardha. 
The second one is called Para. This is the period of sustenance. 
It is remembered that the period of dissolution is thereafter. 

15. Prior to this Kalpa was the ancient Kalpa that had 
passed by at the end of a thousand sets of four Yugas along- 
with the Manvantaras. 

16-18. When the Kalpa comes to a close and the time 
of universal burning arrives (?), the Devas moving about 
in the aerial chariots, the stars, planets and the constellations, 
the moon, the sun etc. — all these meritorious souls were twenty- 
eight crores in number. Their number in all the fourteen 

* The reading: na vidyate 'The Pratisandhi does not exist between the 
past and the present Kalpa' is obviously wrong. Hence the reading of 
Va.P. 7.9 ( = this verse in Bd.P.) is accepted. 

1. This is the definition o^ Pratisandhi. In Manvantaras, the yuga period 
connecting two manvantaras is unbroken but at the end of the Kalpa, the 
universe gets destroyed-as described in VV.16 ff below. 59 

Manvantaras is the same. Therefore their total number in all 
the Manvantaras together was (14X28 = ) 392 crores. 

19. Further, in everyone oftheKalpas, the Devas moving 
about in aerial chariots are remembered to be seventy thousand 

20. In the fourteen Manvantaras there were the Devas, 
the Pitrs and the sages imbibing nectar (Amrtapas) in the 
firmament and heaven. 

21. They had their servants (followers), wives and sons. 
At that time, the Devas in the firmament were beyond the 
discipline of the Varnas (castes) and the Asramas {^teiges in life). 

22. Thereafter, when the annihilation of all living beings 
along with objects approached, all of them became persons 
of equal position and condition with those that had attained 
Sdyujya (the salvation of merging with the divinity). 

23-25. Thereafter, due to the inevitability of the re- 
currence of the intellect* of the soul (?) the Devas, the 
residents of the three worlds, become persons identifying with 
and taking pride in the different positions here. 

When the time of sustenance was complete, when the 
Pascimottara (the latter and later period) was imminent, when 
the annihilation arrived, the enthusiasic Devas in the last days 
of the Kalpa, partially abandoned their abodes.' Thereafter, 
they became excited and directed their minds towards the 

26. (Defective text). They practise Yoga and make use 
of the great (thing) in the body** (?) All of them abound in 
purity. They have achieved the mental Siddhi (achievement). 

27. The Mahar-loka was attained by Brahmanas, 
Ksattriyas, Vaisyas and other people born of them, alongwith 
those residents of Kalpa. 

* Va.P.8.23 (=Bd.P. present verse) reads buddhva 'Having under- 
stood the inevitability.' 

1. W. 24-31 describe the progress of gods upto Satya-loka, the region 
of god Brahma. 

** The first line in the corresponding Va.P. verse (8.26) reads: 
teyuktd upapadyante mahasi-sthaih Saririkaih ' J 

with their bodies stationed in mahas (Maharloka) they practise etc. 

60 Brahmanda Pur ana 

28. After going to Maharloka, the fourteen groups of 
the Devas become agitated. Thereafter, they directed their 
mind towards Janaloka. 

29. In this order the residents of the Kalpa mutually(?) 
proceeded for thousands of Yugas according to the reckoning 
of the Devas. 

30. All ofthem abounded in purity. They have achieved 
the mental Siddhi (achievement of spiritual powers), the Jana 
(Loka) was attained by those residents of Kalpa together. 

31. After staying there for ten Kalpas, they go to the 
Satya (Loka) once again. After going to the world of Brahma, 
they attain a goal from where there is no return. 

32. Except the overlordship, they become equal to 
Brahma.' They are equal to Brahma in regard to features and 
object (of the sense organs) (i.e. Visaya). 

33. There they stay with pleasure in the Samyamas* 
(? worlds of that name). After attaining bliss from Brahman, 
they become liberated alongwith Brahma. 

34. In view of the inevitability of affairs concerning 
(the course of) Prakrti, they remain (bound along) with 
honour, worship etc. as is produced at the same time.** 

35. Just as in the case ofa sleepng person the faculty 
of knowledge functions without (clearcut) perceptions (Abuddhi- 

piirvam), so also when they are purified and rendered service, 
the bliss begins to function. 

36. (The bliss begins to function) by the withholdings 
of differences. These are different in regard to lustrous 
ones. Along with them their effects and instruments (sense 
organs) also develop. 

37-38. Of those residents of Brahma's region who observe 
multiplicity (and separateness) and whose authority has been 

1. Cf. Brahma-sutra IV. 4. 17-18 where the released soul is stated to have 
all the Lordly powers except the power of creation of the universe. The 
powers of the released soul are not unlimited. 

* Va.P.8.33b reads: Prasamgamat — 'due to their close contact (with 

** They remain (bound) in their separateness produced (retained) 
at that time. 61 

withdrawn and who abide by their righteous duties. Those 
Siddhis have similar characteristics. They are ofpure souls and 
are unsullied. In their Prakrta form they are equipped with 
sense organs but they are stabilised in their own souls. 

39. After proclaiming itself (or the soul), the Prakrti is 
factually observed as different from Purusa and as multifarious 
and as such it functions. 

40. Again when the creation begins to function, 
Prakrti should be known in its connection with the liberated 
(?) souls who perceive reality and who are identical with the 
existent causes. ^, ~ — 

41. There, those persons attaining salvation do not J 
return by the same path (of Sarhsara). There non-existence 
had been caused once again like that of the blazing flames 
that had been extinguished.' y 

42. While those noble souls had gone far above the 
three worlds along with these, the Maharloka is not occupied 
by them. 

43. When the burning of Kalpa is imminent, the 
Gandharvas and others, the Pisacas (vampires), the Brahmanas 
and other human beings become their disciples.* 

44-45. (So also) the animals and birds, the immobile 
beings and the reptiles. While those residents ofthe surface of 
the earth stand there at that time, the thousand rays that 
manifest themselves become (combined and concentrated into) 
seven rays and each one ofthe rays becomes a Sun.' 

46-48. Rising up gradually, they burn the three worlds. 

The mobile and the immobile beings, the rivers and all 
the mountains that had already been dried up due to absence 
of rain are inflamed and afflicted by the suns. Completely 

1. Cf. the concept of Brahma-nirvana in the BG. VV. 24-26. 

'*' Sisydh in Bd.P. is probably a misprint for Sis(ah 'remaining ones' 
(found in Ya.P. in corres. verse 8. 43b). As this is description ofthe Kalpanta, 
Sisfa is a better reading. 

2. VV. 43-60. This description of the Kalpa-daha and the end ofthe 
universe is a verbatim repetition of VV. 121-138 of the last chapter. 
The popular etymologies of ambhas, salila, JVara oi Ndra all meaning 'water' 
and the derivation of Narayana have been noted there. 

62 Brakmanda Parana 

burnt by the rays of the suns, they become helpless. The 
mobile and the immobile beings of the nature of virtue as well 
as evil get their bodies burned. In the interval between the two 
Yugas, they get rid of their sins. 

49. They are well known* and freed from the sunshine 
by the auspicious (rain) that has great continuity shower- 
ing incessantly. Thereafter, those people are joined with 
other people ofsimilar forms and features. 

50. After staying there during the night ofBrahma born 
of the unmanifest one, they become the mental sons ofBrahma 
at the time of subsequent creation. 

51-56. Then, when the residents of the three worlds had 
become proper* *(?) (or equipped) with people, when the 
worlds had been completely burned down by the seven suns, 
when the earth had been flooded with rain, when the seas 
had become desolate, all the waters of the oceans, clouds 
and the earth move ahead scattered (like arrows). They have 
the name Salila. They followed (one after the other). That 
flood of water gathered together in abundance. When that vast 
sheet ofwater covered the earth, it became known by the name 
Arnava (sea). This water is called Ambhas because it shone and 
spread. The water reached everywhere. The root y/Bhd has the 
sense of Vydpti (spreading) and Dipti (shining). 

Since it spread over the entire earth all round within 
itself, water is remembered as Tanas. The root y/Tan is used in 
the sense of extension. The root \/Sar i.e. Sr has different mean- 
ings. It means "to become shattered or scattered". 

57-62. In the vast sheet ofwater, the waters are not 
quick in motion (sighrdh) therefore, they are called Ndras. At 
the end ofthe thousand Yugas, when the day of Brahma had 
come to a close, when the night of so much ( = the same) dura- 
tion had been present within the watery expanse, when the 

* Tonya taya hyanirmuktdfi 'freed from that species' in Va.P.7.49 is a 
better reading. 

** apravrtttsu (Va.P.7.52a) 'wlien all the people, residents ofthe three 
worlds are extinct*. This reading is more suitable in the context than upapan- 
nesu ofthe Bd.P. here. 63 

surface of the earth had become lost within that water, when 
all fires were extinguished, when the wind had become totally 
calm and motionless, when there had been darliness all round 
without any light, this (universe) had been presided over by 
this person. He is Brahma, the lord. He wished again to divide 
this world. In that vast sheet of water where the mobile and the 
immobile beings have perished, Brahma becomes a person with 
thousand (i.e. innumerable) eyes, thousand feet, thousand heads 
one who has conquered all the sense-organs and one with 
golden complexion. 

They cite this verse regarding Narayana in this connection. 

"The waters are Naras. We have heard that they con- 
stitute his bodies. They are being filled in. Since he stays therein, 
he is remembered as Narayana. 

63. The first Prajapati (lord of subjects) is a person of 
good mind.' He has a thousand heads, a thousand feet, a 
thousand eyes, a thousand faces (mouths) and a thousand arms. 
He performs a thousand acts. He is explained as a person 
identical with the three Vedas. 

64. He has the lustre and colour of the sun. He is the 
protector of the universe. He is single. He is the first Virdf 
(cosmic personage). He is Hiranyagarbha ofnoble soul. He is 
beyond the Ken of mind. 

65. In the beginning of the Kalpa, the Lord abounds in 
Rajas quality and after becoming Brahma, he brought about the 
creation of the world. In the end of the Kalpa, he abounds in 
Tamas, and after becoming Kala, he devoured it again. 

66. It is reported that in the cosmic ocean, Narayana 
with the preponderance of Sattva guna divides himself threefold 
and abides in the three worlds. 

67-68. By means of the three (qualities or forms), he 
creates, devours and sees or protects (the world). In the vast 

1. Cf. Pnrusa Sukta (RV.X.90). The Vedie concept regarding 
Virajf Hiranya-garbha here identified with Brahma or Purusa of the Purusa- 
sukta are the different stages in the evolution. That Purusa is credited with 
three gunas for the creation, sustenance and destruction of the universe. 

64 Brahmania Parana 

sheet ofwater, when the mobile and the immobile beings have 
perished, at the end of a thousand sets of four Yugas, when 
(the earth) is covered on all sides with water, Brahma named 
Narayana shines himself in the universe. 

69. All the subjects of the four types (i.e. Svedaja, Andaja, 
Udbhijja and Jardyajd) are covered with Tamas, due to the 
Sakti of Brahma. In the Maharloka, the great sages see Kala 

(God of death) sleeping. 

70. At that time the great sages referred to above are 
Bhrgu and others.' The great sages, when the Kalpa comes to 
a close, are the eight sages, Satya and others. The great thing 
that is surrounded by them when they revolve is the Mahat* (1) 

71. The root \/Rs\\&& the sense of GaHf(movement). The 
above name (i.e. Rsi) is derived from that root.^ Since they 
move about with their Sattva and since they are great, they 
are called Maharsis (Great sages). 

72. The sleeping Kala was then seen by those seven 
great sages, viz. Sattva (? Satya) and others who are stationed 
in the Maharloka in the previous Kalpa. 

73. Thus Brahma (continuesto function) in thousands 
of nights. The great sages who were brought by him then saw 
the sleeping Kala. 

74. Since, in the beginning of the Kalpa, Brahma evolv- 
ed fourteen assemblages (worlds) (?) of diverse forms, it is 
defined as Kalpa.' 

75. He is the creator of all living beings again and 
again, in the beginnings of the Kalpas. The great lord is both 
Vyakta (manifest) and Avyakta (unmanifest). This entire universe 
is evolved by him. 

1. The concept of Saptarsis (seven sages) ursa major is astronomical in 
the Vedic period. Varahamihira in Brhat-sarhhita also treats them from astro- 
nomical point. In the Mbh. and the Puranas, their status as "mind-born 
sons" of Brahma becomes prominent. But their survival after deluges as stated 
here, hints at their original astronomical aspect. 

2. A correct etymology. 

3. Definition of Kalpa; cf. Va.p.7.77. 

* This verse is obscure. The correspondence V. in Va.P.8.83 reads:— 7. l-5a 65 

76. Thus the inter-relation between two Kalpas has been 
recounted. The present has become the antecedent state in 
between the two. 

77. Everything has been recounted briefly in the 
previous Kalpa in the manner as it was factually. Now I shall 
recount the current Kalpa. Understand the same. 


Knowledge About the World 

(Geographical divisions of the earth — Four Yugas and 
their duration — Geography of continents — continents, towns 
and villages — Flora and fauna — people — castes and stages in 
Life) - 

Sill a said : 

1. He passed a period of time equal to a thousand Yugas 
as his night. At the end of the night, Brahma creates the 
universe through the cause (potentiality) of creation. 

2. At that time, in that vast expanse of water, Brahma 
became wind and moved about (in that ocean) enveloped in 
darlcness when the mobile and the immobile beings had 
(already) perished (and became non-existent). 

3-4a. He flooded the surface of the earth all round with 
water. When the elements had been stationed in Satya* (truth) 
along with their divisions, he moved about liiic the glowworm 
during the nights in the rainy season. 

4b-5a. He was moving about quickly as he pleased, 
thinlcing by means of his intellect, about the means of stabiliza- 

Va.P.8.3 samantat — all round. 

66 Brahmanda Puarna 

5b-8a. He was searching for the earth. He realized that 
the earth was within the water. After knowing that one of 
them was blind (?) the lord who was capable of lifting up the 
earth assumed the truthful form of a boar as remembered in 
the beginnings ofthe previous Kalpas. Then he entered the 
water. That lord of subjects wished to contact the earth 
covered with waters. He lifted up the earth and placed it again 
along with its child* (Reference to Naraka ?). 

8b-9a. He deposited the waters of the oceans in the 
oceans and the waters ofthe rivers in the rivers separately. After 
levelling the earth he picked up and gathered the mountains. 

9b-ll. As the previous creation was being burned for- 
merly by the Samvartaka fire, the mountains of that period 
had been melted by that fire. They were then scattered by the 
wind. Due to dullness, they became solidified. Wherever the 
(molten rocks) were spilt there arose a mountain. They are 
called Acalas' (not-moving or immobile) because their ridges 
were immovable. They are remembered as Parvatas because 
they had Parvans (or joints). 

12-14. They are (called) Giris because they had been 
swallowed. They are Siloccaya because they had moved about 

Then, after lifting up the earth from within the waters, 
the lord created seven times seven subcontinents in its seven 
continents. After levelling the uneven grounds he created 
mountains all round by means of rocks. 

There are only fortynine sub-continents in those con- 
tinents.* As many mountains (i.e. 49) are situated at the 
borders ofthe sub-continents. 

* Va.P.Sa reads: apas tasu tu vinyasan 'He deposited the waters 
(over the surface of the earth'. 

1. These verses give 'etymology' of the synonyms for a mountain. 
This Purana is full of semantic etymologies i.e. etymologies based on the mean- 
ing of the word and not its form. Sometimes, they are grammatically (even 
as phonetic derivation) correct, but that is none ofthe concern ofthe Purana- 
writer. Thus acala 'a mountain*, giri-gri — is understandable but ayandt tu 
stloccayah 'the mountains are called siloccaya because of their movements' is 
phonetically not defensible. 

2. Every continent has seven sub-continents. Thus the number of sub- 
continents becomes 7 x 7 = 49. Their list is described later in chs. 18 and 19. 67 

15-20. In heaven* etc. they are enveloped in splendour 
naturally and not otherwise. The seven continents and oceans 
encircle one another. They are situated after surrounding one 
another naturally. 

The four worlds are the Bhu a.nd others. As before, Brahma 
created the moon and the sun along with the planets as well 
as the immobile beings all round, as Brahma created the 
Devas of this Kalpa, who were Sthdnins (persons occupying the 
abodes). He created the following things as well):— the 
waters, the fire, the earth, the wind, the firmament, the heaven, 
the Dyaus (the ethereal world), the quarters, the oceans, the 
rivers, the mountains, the souls of medicinal herbs, the 
souls of trees and creepers, the units of time such as Lavas, 
Kdfthds, Kalds and Muhurtas, the twilight, the nights, the days; 
the halfmonths,- the months, the Ayanas (transits, one in the 
six months), the years and the Yugas. He created the abodes 
and (the dwellers therein) who take pride in the abodes 
separately by laying claims to them. 

21. After creating the souls for the abodes, he created 
the period ofYugas namely Ktta, Treta, Dvapara and Tisya 
(i.e. Kali). 

22. At the beginning of the Kalpa, he created the sub- 
jects at the outset. Those subjects of the previous Kalpa have 

been recounted to you by me. 

23-24. In that Kalpa that was being dissolved (i.e. 
terminated), the subjects were burnt by the fire. Those that had 
not reached Tapo-loka and those that remained on the 
earth, return at the time ofthe subsequent creation for the sake 
of being visible.' Those subjects who stay there for being 
visible, do so for the sake of subsequent creation. 

* Va.P.8.15 reads — sargadau sannivistas it 'They (mountains) were 
assembled there at the beginning of creation'. This reading is better than 
that in the Bd.P. here as Svarga (Heaven) is not relevant in the context. 

1. VV.23 ff. This is the inexorable law of Karma. There may be the 
dissolution ofthe universe at the end ofa Kalpa, but the beings whose Karmas 
have not been exhausted (i.e. who have not attained Moksa) are reborn 
in the subsequent Kalpa. This idea has been emphatically repeated in this 

68 Brahmanda Parana 

25. Being created, they exist for tire saice of tiieir pro- 
geny. Tliey are regarded as iiaving aciiieved tiie four Purusa- 
rtiias viz. : Diiarma, Artiia, Kama and Moksa. 

26. Tiie Devas, tlie— Pitrs and tlie iiuman beings (are 
created) in order; tliereafter, tliey equipped tliemselves witli 
penance; tiiey filled the abodes at the outset. 

27. Indeed, those human beings become Brahmanas and 
souls of spiritual achievement. Due to their Karman con- 
taminated by the faults of hatred and too much of attachment* 
they went to heaven (?) 

28. While returning in an embodied state, they are born 
in every Yuga. With the remnants of the fruits of their Karman, 
(they are born again and again) ; they are well known as Tadd- 
tmakas (? Identified with them). 

29-30. The people bound by the advent of (a new) 
Kalpa are born from the Janaloka. That which is their cause 
in the waters is indicated by means of the Karman* *(?). From 
the Janaloka, they are born through auspicious and inauspicious 
Karmans. They assume physical bodies of diverse forms, in the 
different species. 

31. The subjects beginning with the Devas and ending 
with the immobile beings are born (influencing) themselves 
mutually. Their pure (or sanctified) Karmans usually pre- 

32. Therefore, they attained only those names and 
features (which they had before). Again and again they are 
born with names and forms in the (different) Kalpas. 

33-34. Thereafter, is the creation of Brahma who is de- 
sirous ofcreating the Upasrsfi (subsidiary creation). Even as he 
was meditating on those subjects, since he was of truthful med- 
itation, a thousand couples came out of his mouth. It is but 
natural that they were people of great brilliance with the 
Sattva quality predominant. 

* For asanga-dnesa-yuktena, Va.P.8 reads: sahgadvesa-yuktena '(acts) 
motivated by non-hatred.* 

** For apsu yah kdranam tesdm bodhayan karmana tu sah / ya.P.8.30a 

diayah kdranam tatra boddhavyam karmandrh tu sah / 

'Place ofresidence should be known as its cause' etc. 69 

35. He created another thousand couples through his 
eyes. All ofthem had the Rajas quality predominant. They 
were Sustains (lustrous ones) and Amarsins (intolerant). 

36. He created a thousand (couples) of Asats (not good 
ones) from his arms. Dominated as they were from Rajas and 
Tamas, they are remembered as grha-sila* (attached to houses). 

37-38. The couples alone gave birth frequently till the 
end of their lives. Kutakas (? deceitful ones) and AkUtakas (non- 
deceitful) are born (of those couples) who are mortals (about 
to die). Since after generating the family, they abandoned their 
bodies. Even since then there is the occurrence of copulation in 
this Kalpa. 

39. In the Krta age,' it is by mental meditation that 
pure objects of senses such as Sabda (sound and others) each 
of which is of five characteristics (became available). 

40. Thus with mental emotions, those subjects without 
progeny stay dear** (?) So also the families were born with 
which this universe was filled up. 

41. They resort to rivers, lakes and oceans as well as to 
mountains. Then those subjects have very little pleasure in 
that war(?) but they move in it.*** 

42. They say that the earth with Rasa (juice, water,) is 
their food. Desirous of mental siddhis those subjects move 
about as they please. 

43. In the Krtayuga, the subjects (human beings etc.) 
had equal length of life, happiness and beauty. In the first Yuga, 
at the beginning of the Kalpa, there was no Dharma and 

* iha-Sila (indulging in desires) in Va.P.7.39. 

1. VV. 39-57 give a rosy picture of the Krta Yuga. 

** The corresponding verse viz. Va.P.8.46a reads: 
ityevam tndnasi purvam prdk-srstir yd prajdpdteh / 

'in this way formerly the preliminary creation was mental (after that it 
was born of copulation. The whole world is filled with that). 

*** Yuddht in the text is strange; it should be Yuge. The corresponding 
verse in Va.P. (8.47b) reads: 

tddd ndtyambu-sitosnd yuge etc. 

'They wandered (lived) in that Yuga when there was no excess of heat, 
cold or rain*. 

70 Brahman'f Puarna 

44-45a. In every Yuga, they were born with their res- 
pective rights and authority. They say that the Krta yuga at the 
beginning, had four thousand years in accordance with the 
reckoning of the gods. The two periods of junction consisted of 
four hundred years. 

45b-46a. There were thousands of subjects of great 
repute. They had no hindrance anywhere. There were no 
mutually clashing opposites. There was no Krama (one gradually 
succeeding another). 

46b-47. Those subjects had no regular abodes and 
resorts. They were residents of mountains and seas. They were 
immune from sorrow. (The quality called) Sattva was predomi- 
nant in them. The subjects were exclusively happy. They 
always moved about as they pleased. They were always delight- 
ed in their minds. 

48. There were neither animals nor birds. There were 
no reptiles then. There were no plants etc. There were no 
drunkards, mad and furious persons. This is the manner of 

49. For their sustenance, there were flowers and fruits 
alongwith bulbous roots. The time was entirely and exclusively 
pleasant; it was neither too hot nor too chill. 

50. Whatever they desire is achieved everywhere and for 
ever. By their meditations, everything grows up from the 
nether worlds through the earth. 

51. (The vegetation) caused strength and fineness of 
complexion unto them. It destroyed their sickness and old age. 
Those subjects had stable (everlasting) youth with their bodies 
not requiring purificatory rites. 

52. In their case, even without copulation''subjects (pro- 
geny) are born through mere mental conception. The birth and 
features are the same (in regard to everyone). They are on a 
par (with one another) and they are pleased and happy. 

53. At that time, there is truthfulness, absence of greed, 
satisfaction, happiness and self-control. In regard to beauty, 
longevity, aesthetic accomplishments and other activities, all of 
them are devoid of any mutual difference. 71 

54. The sustenance of the subjects was (abuddhipiirvika) 
without any conscious intellectual effort. Since the door is 
open* (i.e. there are facilities to auspicious and evil 
activities) theie is lack of conscious effort. 

55. At that time there was no systematic classification 
of castes and stages of life. There were no thieves. They used 
to deal with one another without any intimate desire or 

56. In the Krta yuga, all the subjects are born with 
equal beauty, features and span of life. They are devoid of in- 
feriority and superiority. Usually they are happy, they ate free 
from sorrow. 

57-58. They have neither gain nor loss; neither friends 
nor enemies; no likes or dislikes. Since they are devoid of 
desire, their sense-object functions mentally. They do not 
violently injure mutually nor do they favour one another then. 

59. In the Krtayuga, knowledge is the greatest thing.' 
In the Treta, it is said to be the institution of Yajna (sacrifice) 
(as the greatest thing). In the Dvapara, war began to function; 
and in the Kaliyuga, it is stealth alone. 

60. The Krta Yuga is characterised by Sattva quality; 
the Treta Yuga by Rajas quality, the Dvapara by (a mixture 
of) Rajas and Tamas qualities, while the Kali, (only) by Tamas 
quality. Thus the situation of the Gunas in the Yugas should 
be known. 

61-64a.' This is the time in the Krta Yuga. Understand 
(the period of) its junction. Four thousand (divine) years con- 
stitute the Krta Yuga. The parts of its junction are eight 
hundred years, according to divine reckoning. It comprises of 
four thousand human years. (?) Then, among them there are 

* Va.P.8.61a (a corresponding verse) reads: 

... .hrtayugt karmanoh for Krta-dvars karmanah in the Bd.P. which is 
obscure: The verse means : "In the Krta Age, there was no inclination both 
to pious and impious deeds". 

1. VV. 59-60 give a comparative statement of the special features of 
four Yugas. 

2. VV. 61-71 describe the state in the period intervening between 
Krta and Treta. 

72 Brahmanda Purana 

neither sudden clamour and outcry, nor contrarities (?). Then, 
when that Krta yuga along with the part of the junction has 
passed, the entire Yugadharma (Duty etc. characteristics of the 
Yuga) becomes reduced to a quaricr. 

64b-65. That is the time ofjunction of the Yuga, the 
Sandhyd (transitional period) of what has passed off Thus 
when the Sandhyddharma(Du.ty characteristics of the transitional 
stage from Kita yuga) is reduced to a quarter (?) it vanishes 
within the Krtayuga without any vestige*. 

66. When the junction has passed away, there was 
mental progeny. The achievement of spirituality was in another 
Yuga called Treta, next to Krta. 

67. The eight mental Siddhis that had been recounted 
(as existent) by me in the beginning of the creation, become 
reduced gradually. 

68. In the beginning of the Kalpa, there is one single 
mental Siddhi, in the Krta Yuga, in all the Manvantaras in 
accordance with the division of the four Yugas. 

69. The origin oi Karmasiddhi (achievement of Karman) 
in Krta is brought about by the conduct of the people of 
different castes and stages of life (?). The Sandhyd (junction) of 
the Krta is reduced by a quarter (?) 

70. These parts of the junctions of Krta take tip the 
three (? other parts) and those Yuga Dharmas as well as penance, 
learning, strength and longevity decrease and decline. 

71. When the Krta yuga and its transitional part 
have passed, O excellent sages, it is the beginning of Treta 
yuga along with its parts. 

72-73. When the part of Krta yuga has passed off and 
those seven (? siddhis) remained lingering at the beginning 
of the Treta yuga that had begun to function in the early part 
of the Kalpa, the (one remaining) Siddhi perishes due to efflux 
oftime and not otherwise; when that Siddhi disappeared 
another Siddhi was born. 

* The corresponding verse Va.P.70b-71a: 

"When at the end of the yuga, when even the transitional period also 
expires, the quarter of the dharma characteristic of this transitional period of 
the yuga, remains." 73 

74. (Defective) Parts of waters returned (to the firma- 
ment) in the form of clouds. From the thundering clouds the 
showering of rain began to function. 

75. When the surface ofthe earth had been perfected 
(watered) by that rain occurring only once the subjects came 

into being. Thereupon, the trees became designated as their 

76. All kinds of worldly enjoyment of those subjects 
emanated from them (the trees). In the beginning of the 
Treta yuga, the subjects maintained themselves with them. 

77. (Defective) then, after the lapse ofa great deal of 
time, due to their own change, they had a sudden emotion in 
the form ofa great desire for close contact. 

78. In the case ofwomen (of the modern days) mens- 
truation occurs till the end of their life (?) But then (i.e. in 
the Treta yuga), that did not take place on account of the power 
of the Yuga. 

79. But in the case of those women (oflater days), the 
menstrual flow began to function month by month. As a con- 
sequence thereof, sexual intercourse also takes place then. 

80-81. They had the physical contact every month 
because of their emotional feelings at that time. When there is 
no menstrual flow at the proper time, the conception took place. 
On account of their contrary nature (?), all those trees designa- 
ted as their abodes and evolved at that time, perish thereafter. 

82. When they had perished, the subjects became be- 
wildered and agitated in all their sense-organs. They began to 
meditate on their Siddhi. They were truthful in their meditation 

83-84. Those trees designated as their abodes appeared 
in front of them. They yielded clothes, fruits and ornaments. 
Similarly, honey of great potency of metaphysical* significance 
was produced in every leafy cup. It was accompanied by the 
juice of the Gandharvas(?).** [Gandharvdndm rasdnvitam inBd.P. 
It should be Gandha-vama-rasdnvitam. ] 

* anvikftkam in Bd.P. should be amaksikam ('with no flies in it). 
** The verse contains misprints. The original verse seems to be as in 

74 Brahtnanda Parana 

85. Those subjects maintained tliemselves witii that at 
the beginning of Treta yuga. With that Siddhi they became 
hale, hearty and well-nourished. They were free from feverish 

86. Thereafter, on other occasions also, the subjects 
became overwhelmed by greed thus, once again. They seized 
the trees and took by force the nectar and honey. 

87. On account of this misdemeanour on their part 
brought about by their covetousness, the Kalpa trees (wish-yield- 
ing trees) perished here and there along with the Lord *(?) 

88. When that achievement (Siddhi) was reduced to a 
very little quantity with the passage of time, they maintained 
themselves with this. Their Dvandvas (rivalries or mutual 
opposites) rose up tremendously. 

89. The dullness, the wind and the sunshine were severe. 
Therefore they were much tormented. Being afflicted by the 
mutually opposed pairs of feelings and reactions, they bewailed 
their wounds** (?) ^ 

90-93. (Defective) they had been vexed in their minds 
when formerly they had no abodes. They were wandering 
about as they pleased. After building houses to remedy the 
(evil effects of) Dvandvas (like heat and cold), they stayed in 
the abodes as they pleased as they could secure. (When they had 
no abodes) they resorted to difficult passages in mountains and 
on rivers (?) dripping with honey*** , in plains and even in 
(hilly) regions where water was available. They lived as they 
pleased and as much as they could enjoy. They began to build 
those abodes in order to ward off cold (blizzards) and hot 
(winds). Thereafter, they built hamlets and cities. 

Tesvtva jdyate tdsdrh gandha-oama-rasdnvitatn / 
amdksikam mahdvTryam pufake pufake madhu jl 
The honey was endowed with good flavour, colour and taste and had 
no flies in it. 

* Va.P. 8.93b madhund 'along with the honey'. 
** Va.P. 8. 95 cakrur dvdrdridni cd 'created shelters and covers.' 
*** madhu-dhunvdtsu in the text is absurd in the context. Va.P. 8. 97 (a 
corresponding verse) appropriately reads: marudhdiwasu — 'in sandy deserts 
and wildernesses*. 75 

94-95. They built villages and cities with theirdue shares, 
extent and dimensions and built other settlements as well, in 
accordance with their knowledge. After measuring with their 
own fingers (in the beginning), they made thereafter other units 
also for the salie of measurement.' 

96-100. (Defective) with ^ ngH/«s (finger-width) as the 
basis they made the units, Pradesa, Hasta, Kisku and Dhanus. Ten 
joints of the fingers (Angulas) constitute what is called Pradesa. 
The space delimited by the tips of the extended thumb and 
index finger is called Pradesa. The same with (the tip of the 
extended) middle finger is remembered as Tola. The same with 
(the tip of the extended) ring finger is Gokarna. The same with 

(the tip of the extended) small finger is called Vitasti. It has 

twelve Angulas. 

Twentyone Angulas make the unit Ratni. Twentyfour 
Angulas make one Hasta. Two Ratnis or fortytwo Angulas make 
a Kisku. Four Hastas make one Dhanus or(?) Danda. The same 
is a pair of arrows (Nalikas). Two thousand Dhanus make one 
Gavyuti. This had been made by them then. 

101. Eight thousand Dhanus make one Yojana as determin- 
ed by them. With this Yojana (as the unit of measurement) 
settlements (i.e. colonies) were made thereafter. 

102. Among the four (types of) fortresses, three are 
natural and the fourth (type of) fort is artificial. I shall men- 
tion its decisive features. 

103. It has a thick elevated rampart (esp. a surrounding 
wall elevated on a mound of earth) with cavities (or openings). 


VV. 96-101 give the units 


measurements of distanci 


= Finger-breadth. 


















Ratnis or 








Dhanus or Danda (?) 









76 Brahmanda Purana 

It is surrounded with a moat on all sides. It has a beautiful 
front-door and a gynaeceum in which girls are kept. 

104. (Defective text)* The moats two Hastas in 
breadth are excellent in the case of the Kumarlpura. The 
total breadth of the current of water in (the moat) may be 
eight, nine or ten (?). 

105-106. (I shall mention)' the girth and length ofham- 
lets, cities, and villages entirely as well as those of the three 
types of (natural) forts viz. mountains, waters (i.e. rivers) and 
waste-lands such as deserts etc., and the artificial forts as well. 
The diameter shall be half a Yojana. Its length shall be one 
and one eighth Yojanas. 

107. The extent ofa Pura (city) shall be half of the 
maximum length(?). There must beariver(?) flowing to its 
east or north. It should be divided into a hypotenum and seg- 
ments. It must be laid out in the shape ofa spread fan. 

108. A city that is long, diamond-shaped or circular is 
not praiseworthy. A city endowed with the symmetrical parts 
and quadrangles and heaven-like, commendable was made 
by them. 

109. The Vdstu (site of a building; dwelling place) that 
is not more than twenty /ohj- //astes is short; that of one hundred 
and eight (Hastas) is great. In this matter they praise the 
middle one and the short one which has no (wooden structure). 

110. The chief settlement should be eight hundred .ST/sfcH^. 
The hamlet should be of half the diameter of the city. The 
Pana**(? Drinking place) shall be above it(?). 

111. The hamlet shall be a Yojana (about 12 km) from 
the city and the village shall be half a Yojana from the hamlet. 
The outermost boundary shall be two Krosas (1 Krosa = 3kms). 
The boundary of a field is ^oux Dhanus. 

* The corresponding verse in Va.P.8.110 runs as follows; 
srotasT samhata-dvaram nikhdtam punar era ca / 
hastasfau ca data iresflid navdsfau va'pare raatdh // 
Different opinions about the breadth of the moat in front of Kumarl- 
pura are given here as 2, 8, 9, 10 hastas, the last being the best. 

1. Vy. 105-116 delineate the ancient ideas oftown (and village) planning. 
** Va. P. 7. 11 6b (in the corresponding verse) reads : grdmam for 
Pdtiam of the Bd.P. It means: ^ grama should be beyond that'. 77 

112. The pathway along the quarters (i.e. East-west and 
North-south) was made twenty Dhanus wide by them. The road 
in the village was also twenty Dhanus (wide). The path in the 
boundary was only ten Dhanus (wide). 

113. The glorious royal road was made ten Dhanus wide. 
The movement of (traffic of) men, horses, chariots and elephants 

(shall be) without any hindrance. 

114. The branch-streets were measured by them (and 
made) four Dhanus (wide). The roads joining the high-ways 
shall be three Dhanus (wide) and their branches two Dhanus 

115. (Defective text) The Jarighdpatha* (? the thigh- 
road) has four Padas width; the passage between rows of houses 
is three quarters (wide). Dhrtimdrga** (? path of courage) if 
more than one sixth. The Padiku (Foot-Path ?) is remembered 
thus in due order. 

116. The enclosure lor excrement is a quarter all round. 
After those places have been made, the houses and dwellings 
(should be constructed). 

117. They thought over it again and again about the 
trees designated as their houses as to how they were before, 
and began to build like them.' 

118. The branches of trees have gone down. Others have 
gone this way. Still others have gone up. In the same way, 
some have gone obliquely. 

119. With their intellect, they have observed carefully 
how the branches have gone. Apartments were constructed by 
them in the same way. Hence they (the apartments) are re- 
membered as Sdlus. 

120. Thus Sdl&s (apartments, dwellings) became well- 
known from the branches. So also the abodes. Therefore they 
are remembered as Sdlds. That is remembered as their Sdldtva^ 

(state ofbeing a Sala). 

yaiigha-patha is probably a 'misprint* for "glianta-patha" 'a bell-road' 
i.e. the cliief road tlirougli a village or a highway. Pada= 15 fingers' breadth. 
** Vrtti-marga in Va.P.8.I21. 

1. VV. 117-121 refer to construction of buildings. It is interesting to 
note that the Sdla tree played an important part in ancient ideas ofhousing. 

2. Popular but important etymology of Sala 'an apartment or dwel- 

78 Brahtnanda Purina 

121. Since people are delighted therein (Prasidanti), 
they are designated as Pra^arfax (palaces). Therefore, the abodes, 
apartments and palaces are designated as Prasadas.' 

122. When the wish-yielding Kalpa trees perished along 
with the honey, (the subjects) attached by the Dvandvas (mutual 
opposed pairs of feelings etc.) began to think about the 
means of agriculture and other occupations for livelihood. 

123. The subjects created were seen agitated due to ex- 
haustion and sorrow. Thereafter, the Siddhi appeared in front 
of them in the Treta yuga. 

124. Another (type of) rain became the means of achiev- 
ing all objects for them. The waters of the rain were sweet and 
were as much as they wished for. 

125-126. Thus a (new) way oflife and conduct began to 
function during the creation of the second type of rain. 
Due to the contact of the earth with the small collections 
of water that gathered together on the surface of the earth, the 
medicinal herbs began to grow. Those medicinal herbs began 
to put forth blossoms, roots and fruits. 

127. The fourteen (types of lands in) villages and 
forests (began to flourish) without being ploughed and without 
the seeds being sown. The trees and the bushes put forth flowers 
and fruits at the proper seasons. 

128. In the Treta yuga, medicinal herbs and plants 
began to appear themselves on the earth. In the beginning of 
the Treta yuga, the subjects sustained themselves with those 
plants and herbs. ^ 

129. Thereafter, due to the inevitability of affairs 
and due to the Treta yuga those subjects began to have passion 
and covetousness for ever. 

130. Then, they forcibly seized rivers, fields, mountains, 
trees, bushes and medicinal herbs as much as they could (in 
accordance with their strength). 

1. Etymology of Prasdda 'a palace'. 

2. VV 128ff show the prevalence of food- gathering economy in the 
Treta yuga. The evolution of four Varnas is another sociological feature of this 
Yuga. 79 

131-132. Previously I have already explained to you 
about the spiritually enlightened souls in the Krtayuga. They 
were born as mental sons of Brahma and they had come here 
(to the earth) from the Janaloka. They were quiescent 
lustrous Karmins (devoted to the pursuit of holy rites) and 
(unhappy and dejected). Returning from there (i.e . Janaloka), 
they were born again in the Treta yuga. 

133. In the previous births, due to the glory of their 
auspiciousness (i.e. meritorious acts) as well as sins they were 
conceived as Brahmanas, Ksatriyas, Vaisyas, SQdras and mali- 
cious people. 

134-135. Then (among them some became) powerful, 
truthful in conduct, non-violent, devoid of greed and persons 
who had conquered their selves. They used to abide by those 
that were remembered* (? Smrti texts ?).They never accepted 
charity. Their .tasks were carried out by those who were weaker 
than they. They (these weaker people) approached them 
speaking to them (?) 

136-137. Those others who were less brilliant than they, 
remained serving them. Thus when they were mutually related 
and also resorted to each other, due to that fault the medicinal 
herbs diminished much then. Like sands they perished on being 
held in the fists. 

138-139. Then due to the power of the Yuga, the 
fourteen (types of people, animals etc.) villages and forests 
began to pluck (and destroy) the flowers, fruits and roots (of 
those trees). Then, when they perished the subjects became 
perplexed. All of them were overwhelmed with hunger; then 
they went to the self-born (deity i.e. Brahma). 

140-141. In the beginning of Treta yuga, those subjects 
desired for some means of livelihood. The self-born lord 
Brahma knew their desire. He pondered over this (situation)by 
means of his vision that can see everything directly. He under- 
stood, that the medicinal herbs have been devoured (i.e. 
drawn within) by the earth. He made them grow once again. 

* Va.P.8.141 reads: sma tesu vai for Bd.P. text here: smrtefii vai. As 
A* question of memory or smrti text does not arise here Va . P . reading is better, 

80 Brahmanda Purana 

142. After making the Sumeru mountain (as) tiie calf, 
he milked this earth in the form of a cow that yielded seeds 
on the surface of the earth in the form of the milk.' 

143. The lord made those seeds grow as the medicinal 
herbs (and other plants) that ended when the fruits became 
ripe. (That is, the plants yielded fruits but once and then 
they perished) they are the group of seventeen. 

144-145. The following types of seventeen grains and 
pulses constitute the group of seventeen, viz., Rice, barley, 
wheat, Bengal-gram, gingelly Priyahgu (Long pepper), Uddra 
(?), Koradufta (a kind of grain eaten by the poor people i.e. 
Kodrava), Vdmaka (?), the black gram, the green gram, the 
Masura (ddl), Nivdra (rice), the horse-gram, the Harika* (?) 
and the Caraka*(?). 

146a. Thus these were remembered as the species of 
rural medicinal herbs (Grdmya-Osadhi). 

146b-147. Sydmdka (a variety of rice), Nivdra (another 
variety of rice), Jartila (wild sesamum), Gavedhuka ( ?) Kuruvinda 
(a king of barley), Nenuyava (Bamboo seeds, Tamatlrkataka(?) ** 
etc. are remembered as the fourteen types of medicinal herbs of 
the villages and forests. 

148. All these fourteen varieties (of medicinal herbs and 
plants) peculiar to villages and forests grew at the beginning 
of the first Treta yuga. They are not grown by ploughing. 

149. The trees, hedges, creepers, winding plants, spread- 
ing creepers and (various) species of grasses yielded roots, 
fruits,*** shoots etc. unto them. They plucked their fruits. 

1. This is tlie Puranic presentation of the ancient Vedic concept of 
milking the Viraj cow recorded in AV.VIII. Sukta 10. Purana-writers 
used this motif later with god Brahma, king Prthu etc. as the milker. Funnily 
enough Mt.P. 10.25 makes Vararuci as the milker and the science of Drama- 
turgy (Natya-Veda) as the milk. 

Here god Brahma milked seeds of medicinal herbs and plants. Men 
gathered food from them for their .livelihood. 
* Va. P. 8. 152a reads : 

'adhakyas canakai caiva' which means: 
'The pulse cajanus Indicus spreng as well as chick Peas. 
** a misprint for tatha markatas ca ye). Gf. Va.P.8.154 as MW. 
gives no word like tamatirkataka. markafaka is a species of grain. 
*** Va.P.8.149 reads: puspaih for pusjah. 81 

150. Those seeds which were milked out of the earth 
formerly by the self-born lord, began to grow as medicinal 
herbs putting forth iiowerj and fruits at the proper seasons. 

151. When the medicinal herbs created before did not 
grow and flourish again, he made means of livelihood for them 
by means of agricultural occupations.' 

152. The self-born lord (blessed them) with the power 
of working with their own hands and achieving great results. 
Thenceforth, the medicinal herbs became Kr.stapacyas (ploughed 
and grown). 

153. After achieving his purpose in the matter of agri- 
cultural occupation, the Prajapati (lord of the subjects i.e. 
god Brahma established the bounds of decency by means of 
which they protected one another. 

154. Among them some were very powerful and they 
seized the realm. He established them as Ksatriyas and it 
was their duty to protect others. 

155. (Defective) .' All those subjects who had been 
created will be worshipping you. 'Tell the truth in accord- 
ance with the fact'. Those (subjects) who said this were the 

156-158. Some stood by in the activity of protecting 
others who were weak. They destroyed Kitas (worms). They 
were established on the earth. The people call them Vais- 
yas and cultivators of soil. They were the achievers of liveli- 
hood. Those who were engaged in the service (of others), 
those who ran errands and served others, were devoid of bril- 
liance and deficient in virility. (Since they were deficient 
they served others). He called them Sfldras. Lord Brahma 
ordained and prescribed their respective duties and holy 

1. VV.l.ilff described the transition from food-gathering economy 
to the food-growing one by the introduction of Agriculture. This stage crysta- 
lized the four-fold classification of the society with their specific duties (vide 
VV 161-165 below). 

2. Va. P. 8. 162a gives a better reading: 

upaiisjhantiye tin vaiydvanto nirbhayds tatkd.j 
'So long all those who worship or respect and obey those Ksattriyas, they are 
free from fear'. 

82 Brahtnanda Purana 

159. Although the establishment of the classification 
into the four castes had been made by him (Lord Brahma), the 
subjects, out of delusion, did not conform to those rules. 

160. The subjects who lived in accordance with the 
duties of the (different) castes became antagonistic to one 
another. Lord Brahma understood everything factually. 

161-162. He ordained that meeting out punishments, 
maintenance of armies and waging wars should be the means 
of sustenance for the Ksatriyas. Performance of Yajnas, teach- 
ing of the Vedas and acceptance of charitable and monetary 
gifts — lord Brahma prescribed these as the holy duties and rites 
for those Brahmanas. Breeding of cattle, carrying on trading 
activities and cultivation of the soil — he granted these to the 

163-165. Again he ordained that arts and crafts should 
be the means of livelihood for the Siidras. 

To the Brahmanas, Ksatriyas and Vaisyas he prescribed 
the common duty of performing Yajiia and studying the Vedas 
as well as giving charitable gifts. To the others the common 
duty ordained was performance of their duties for livelihood. 
After prescribing these duties and holy rites, the lord 
ordained their abodes in the other worlds above : 

The Prdjdpatya (that belonging to Prajapati or Brahma) 
world is remembered as the abode of the Brahmanas who per- 
formed their holy rites and duties. • 

166. The world belonging to Indra is the abode of 
Ksatriyas who never flee from the battlefield. The abode of the 
Vaisyas who sustain themselves by their respective duties is the 
Maruta world (i.e. the world belonging to the wind god). 

167. The abode of the Siidras who abide by their duty 
ofrendering service is the world belonging to the Gandharvas. 
These are the abodes (after death) of the people of the differ- 
ent castes who remain good and maintain the conduct of life 
befitting their respective station in life. 

168. When this mode of disciplined life ofthe four castes 
had been well-established, the people of the different castes 
strictly adhered to the duties of their respective castes because 
they were afraid of punishment otherwise. Then, after the 
castes had been established, he stabilised the stages of life. 83 

169. The Lord established as before the following four 
Asramas' (stages in life) viz. the householder, the celibate reli- 
gious student, the forest hermit and the ascetic. 

170. (Defective text) the people of the four castes per- 
formed the duties ofthe respective castes. After doing their 
duties they erected their residences and maintained their stages 
of life and then enjoyed themselves. 

171. Brahma established those Asramas. He directed and 
guided those who swerved from these and recounted righteous 
virtues to them. 

172-173. He instructed them in the methods ofself- 
restraint, observances, and controls of sense-organs etc. 

Among the four castes, the stage ofthe life of a house- 
holder stood at the outset because it was the source of origin 
for the sustenance of the other three Asramas'- (stages of life). 
I shall mention (the duties) in due order along with the holy 
vows and observances. 

174. The following are the duties ofthe householder in 
brief: Marriage, maintenance of sacrificial fire, hospitability 
to guests, performance of Yajiias and continuation of his race 


175. The duties ofthe religious student are as follows : 
He must wear the girdle (of the inuiija grass) and hold the 
staff. He must wear the skin of an antelope. He must sleep on 
the ground. He must serve his preceptor. He must beg for 
alms. He must be eager to acquire learning. 

176. These are the duties of the forest hermits; wearing 
barks and leaves or skins of antelope (for clothes), maintaining 
themselves by means of roots, fruits and medicinal herbs found 
in the forests, bathing both at dawn and dusk and performance 
of Homa. 

177-178. The duties ofthe mendicant (recluse) are as 
follows : He must beg for alms when the noise of pestles has 
died down. He must not steal. He must maintain cleanliness. 

1. VV. 169-189 describe the duties of tlie four Asram'as or stages in life. 

2. Cf. tesdrh grhastho yonir aprajanalvdd iiaresdm — Gaut.Dh.S.IlL3. 

84 Brahmanda Parana 

He must not err or be elated. He must refrain from sexual in- 
tercourse. He must have mercy on all living beings. He must 
have forbearance. He must listen to the instructions of the 
preceptor. He must serve the preceptor. He must be truthful. 
This righteous conduct of ten items (as enumerated above) 
was laid down by the self-born lord as the duty of a recluse. 

179. Five of them pertain to Bhiksus viz. : begging, 
knowledge (ofvedas) and religious vows.* 

He mentioned their abodes after death as well as Asusmi 
(absence of lustre) (?) 

180. There are eightyeight thousand sages who live in 
perpetual celibacy. The place remembered as their is alone the 
abode of those who live with their preceptor (i.e. 

181. The place remembered as the abode of the seven 
sages (the great Bear) is (assigned as) that of the forest-dwel- 
lers. The world of Prajapati is the abode of house-holders and 
Brahma's abode is that of the ascetics. 

182.** (Defective text)The abode ofthe Yogins has not 
been created (?) without conquering them, it does not exist (?) 
Those abodes ofthe persons of different stages of life are in- 
deed in the abode of Brahma. 

183. Only four paths have been created as Devayanas 
(paths of the Devas). Only four paths are remembered as 
Pitryanas (paths ofthe manes). 

184. Formerly, in the first Manvantara (these had been 
created) by Brahma who administered the worlds. Ravi (the 
sun) is remembered as the entrance to those paths that (are 
known as) Devayanas. The moon (Candramas) is mentioned as 
the entrance ofPitryanas. 

185-186. Thus even though the castes and stages of life 
had been clearly defined, the subjects adhering to the duties of 
the different castes did not flourish. Then, in the middle of 

* Probably a misprint for amusmin. 

** Va.P.8.196 (corresponding verse) reads as follows: 

yoginam amrtarh sflianam nanadhJnarh na vidyate / 
"Immortal (amrtam) is the abode ofYogins which is not meant for non- 
Yogins. 85 

Treta yuga he evolved another mental creation from the 
bodies of his own self and similar to himself. 

187. In that first Treta yuga, when it gradually reached 
its middle period he began to create mental progeny other than 
(what was before). 

188. Then the same lord created the subjects with pre- 
dominating Sattva and Rajas qualities. They had the pursuit of 
virtue (Dharma), wealth, love and liberation and they accom- 
plished their professions for livelihood. 

189. They were the Devas, the Pitrs, the sages and the 
Manus (i.e. human beings ?) In regard to their characteristics 
they were in accordance with the respective Yugas. By these, 
the subjects (in the universe) flourished. 

190-195. (Defective) Formerly, I had mentioned to you 
about those people who in the previous Kalpa resorted to 
Janaloka. As when he meditated upon them, all these created 
beings, approached him for the purpose of being born (again). 
In the course of Manvantaras, they were first junior-most* (?) 
They were well-renowned by the people of their race (?). They 
had all the faculties of cleverness or otherwise, unimpaired. 
They had minor calamities due to the defect of the fruits of 
their own activities. Those who were present consisted of 
Devas, Asuras, Pitrs Yaksas, Gandharvas, human beings, Raksa- 
sas, Pisacas, animals, birds, reptiles, trees, worms of hells 
etc. For the sake of food of the subjects, he created Vidat- 
mans* (knowingsouls) (?) 

* Va.P.8.209 reads: adhlnartham prajanam ca atmano vai vinirmame, 'for 
the control of the subjects, it is reported that he created himself. 

86 Brahmanda Purana 


God Brahma '"s Mental Creation : Gods, sages, manes, and human 
beings created 

SUta said : 

1. Even as he was meditating, tlie mental progeny were 
born along witli tiiose causes and effects arising out of iiis 

2-4. Tliere cropped up KsetrajHas (Individual souls) of 
the Ksetra (Cosmic body) of this intelligent person i.e. Brahma). 
Thereafter, he was desirous of creating thousands and thou- 
sands of the four groups of living entities viz. the Devas, the 
Asuras, the Pitrs and the human beings. Prajapati engaged him- 
self therein and meditated upon the creation. While meditating 
thus, an effort arising out of his Tamas constituent was involv- 
ed. So, at the outset the Asuras were born as his sons from 
Prajapati's loins. 

5. Asu is considered by scholars as the vital breath. 
Therefore, those who were born of it were Asuras.' He discarded 
that physical body whereby the Asuras had been created. 

6-7a. That physical body discarded by him immediately 
became Night. Since that physical body had the Tamas ele- 
ment predominant, the night too consisting of three Tamas 
(watches of night of the duration of three hours each) became 
Tamobahuld (one in which darkness prevails). 

Therefore at night the subjects (people) are themselves 
enveloped bv darkness. 

7b-9. After creating the Asuras, he adopted another 
body that was unmanifest, with the Sattva element predomi- 
nant within it. Then he engaged himselfwith it. As the lord 
joined himself to it, he felt very happy. Thereafter from his 
shining face the Devatas (gods and goddesses) were born. 
Since they were born of the refulgent face (Divyatah) they 
are glorified as Devas. 

(1) A noteworthy derivation of asura as contrasted witli the usual 

a + • sufa. 87 

10. The root Y"Div" is used in the sense of "to play".' 
Therefore, the Devas were born of his divine (lit. "shining") 
body (and called Devatds). 

11. After creating the Devas, he discarded that divine 
body. That physical body discarded by him became "day". 

12. Therefore, people worship the Devas with holy rites 
performed during the daytime. After creating the Devas, he 
adopted another body. 

13-14. He adopted another body that was solely consti- 
tuted by the Sattva element and engaged himself therein. The 
lord meditated upon those sons considering them like father (of 
fatherly nature). The Pitrs were born of that body in the 
juncture of night and day; therefore those Pitrs are Devas. 
That state ofbeing Pitrs is declared about them. 

15. He discarded that body whereby the Pitrs were 
created. The body that had been discarded by him forthwith 
became the twilight. 

16. Hence, the daytime is considered asbelonging to the 
Devas and the night is remembered as belonging to the Asuras. 
The body that belongs to the Pitrs and that is in between those 
two is the most important. 

17. Hence the Devas, the Asuras, the sages and the hu- 
man beings, while practising Yoga, worship that body which 
is in between dawn and morning (day-break). 

18. Hence, Brahmanas perform sandhyd at the junction 
ofthe night and day. Thereafter, Brahma engaged himself 
in another body of his. 

19. That body which the lord created mentally was 
solely constituted by the Rajas element. They (the progeny so 
created) are his sons through the mind. Since they were begot- 
ten (Prajanandt), they became Prajds (subjects). 

20. Since, he meditated (before creation) (Manandt), 
they are called Manusyas (Men) ; they became wellknown as 
Prajds because they were procreated. After creating the subjects 
again, he discarded his own body. 

1. Correct etymology — div — means both 'to play' and 'to shine'. 


Brahmanda Purana 

21. That body discarded by him became the moonlight 
immediately. Hence, the subjects become delighted when the 
moonlight comes out. 

22. Thus these physical bodies discarded by that noble- 
souled person immediately became night, day, twilight and 

23. The moonlight, the twilight, and the day these three 
are constituted solely of the Sattva element. The night is cons- 
tituted of Tamas only. Hence that is Niydmika* (that which 
checks, restrains and restricts). 

24. So, the Devas were created by means of the shining 
divine body with pleasure and sportiveness through the face 
(mouth). Since their birth was during the day time, they are 
powerful during the day time. 

25. Since the lord created the Asuras at night from his 
loins through the vital breaths, and as they were born during 
the night, they are invincible during the night. 

26-28a. These following, viz.: the moonlight, the night, 
the day and the twilight — these alone become the causes (of 
origin) of all future Devas, Manes, human beings along with 
the Asuras in all the Manvantaras that had passed by and that 
have not yet come. Since these four spread and shine there, 
the water is called Ambhas. The root y/bhk is used in the sense 
of spreading and shining.^ 

1. VV. 22-27 summarise the four main creations from god Bralima's 

body and their other features as follows: 
* He emended as triydmika 'consisting of three Yamas' as in verse 6 
above, Va.P.9.22 (an identical verse) also reads triydmika. 


Born from Brahma's 

When discarded His 


part of the 


Body transformed into 

gun as. 


Loins & vital 




Shining face 






juncture of day and 

Pure Sattva. 



moonlight (but dawn 



in other Puranas) 

Popular derivation of ambhas. 89 

28b-29a. After creating the waters, the lord created the 
Devas, the Danavas, the human beings, the Pitrs and various 
kinds of other subjects. 

29b-30. The lord discarded (that body) the moonlight 
and attained another physical body predominently constituted 
of Rajas and Tamas. Thereafter, he engaged himself therein 
(he united himself to it.). Therefore, he created in darkness 
tiiose who were overwhelmed by hunger. 

31-34. Those created beings, overwhelmed by hunger, 
attempted to seize the waters. Those among them who 
said — "we shall protect these waters", are remembered as 
Raksasas. Those night-walkers (demons) who felt hunger with- 
in themselves and who said "Let us destroy the waters, let us 
be delighted in our mutual company", became Yaksas and 
Guhyakas ofruthless action due to that work. The root -\/raks- 
is considered to have the meaning "toprotect." Theroot \/"ksi" 
has the meaning "to destroy". Since they protected (Rakfa- 
ndt) they were called Raksasas. Since they Aciivoye,A(KsapanSt), 
they are called Yaksas.' 

35-36. On seeing them (the ruthless Yaksas), the intel- 
ligent self-possessed lord became displeased. Due to this dis- 
pleasure, his hairs became shivered. Those shivered hairs moved 
up and ascended again and again. Those hairs that dropped 
off from the head moved and crawled up. They are considered 
Vydla, because they were (originally) Bdlas or Vdlas (hairs). 
Since they drooped off (Hinatvdt) they are remembered A his 
serpents) .' 

37. They are Pannagas' because they moved and wrig- 
gled. The state of being Sarpas is due to the fact that they 
crawled. Their abode of repose is in the earth under the 
sun, the moon and the clouds*. 

1. Puranic etymology of raksasa and Taksa. 

2. Another derivation of Vyala — vala and aki — hi — generally ahi is 
derived as follows : a — hart — in sa ca dit ano hrasvasca — Apte Sk. Hindi Kosa 
P. 134. 

3. VV. 37-41 describe the creation of various tribes of demi-gods and 
gives popular etymologies of Piidca and Gandharva. 

* The text surydcandtamasau ghandh is obscure. Va.P. (in an identical 
-verse reads, .surydcandramasoradhah 'below the Sun and the moon!' 

90 Brahmanda Parana 

38. The terrible fiery foetus born of his (Brahma's) 
anger entered in the form of poison in those serpents who 
were born along with them. 

39. After creating the serpents out of his anger a set of 
terrible beings whose diet was flesh and who were furious by 
nature were created. They had the tawny colour. 

40. Since they had been born (Bhutatvit), they are remem- 
bered as Bhtttas; and as they ate flesh [Pisitdsandt), they were 
called Pisdcas. Even as he (Brahma) was singing words, the 
Gandharvas were born as his sons. 

41. The root Dhay is recited by poets in the sense of 
'drinking'. Since they were born drinking the (musical) 
words, they are remembered as Gandharvas. 

42. Aftercreating these eight divine beings, he created 
the Cchandas (Prosody, Vedas) ' as he pleased (Cchandatah). He 
created the birds through his age (? Vayasd). 

43. After creating the birds, he created the groups of 
animals. He created goats out of his mouth and the sheep out 
of his chest. 

44-45. Brahma created the cows from his belly and the 
horses, donkeys, Gavayas (a species of ox), deer, camels, boars 
and dogs along with the elephants from his sides as well as 
feet. Other species of animals too were created. The medicinal 
herbs (and plants and creepers) with fruits and roots were born 
out of his hairs. 

46. Formerly, at the beginning of this Kalpa, at the 
advent of the Treta yuga, he created the five types of medi- 
cinal herbs and then engaged himself in the sacrifices. 

47-48. The cow, the goat, the man,' the sheep, the 
horse, the mule and the donkey — these are remembered as 
seven rural (Grdmya) domesticated animals. There are other 
seven forest animals, the beasts of prey, the tigers, the elephants, 
the monkey, the birds as the fifth of the set, the aquatic animals 
as the sixth ones and the reptiles as the seventh ones. 

49. The buffaloes, the Gavaya oxen, and the camels, the 
cloven-footed animals, the Sarabha (the eight-footed fabulous 

1. strangely enough the Furana includes the human species among 
domesticated animals. 91 

animal), the elephant, with monkey as the seventh of this set, 
are the forest animals. 

50. Through his first face (mouth), he created the 
following,' viz : the Gayatrl, the Rli, the Trivrtstotna and 
Rathantara and Agnistoma among the Yajiias. 

51. Through his right-hand (southern) face (mouth), 
he created the Yajurveda hymns, the Traistubha metre, the 
fifteenth Stoma (hymn) and the Brhatsaman hymn. 

52. Through his backward (western) face (mouth), he 
created the Saman hymns, the JagatI metre, the seventeenth 
Stoma (hymn), the Vairijpya and Atiratra (part of Jyotistoma) 

53. Through his fourth face (mouth), he created the 
twentyfirst (stoma i.e. hymn). The Atharva-Veda, the Aplor- 

yama* and the Anustubh metre alongwith Vairaja. 

54. It is wellknown that after creating the great cloud 
wellknown as Parjanya, the holy lord created lightning, thunder- 
clouds and the red-coloured rainbows. 

55. He created the Rk, Yajus and Saman Mantras for 
the accomplishment of Yajiias. The living beings both high and 
low were born of the limbs ofBrahma. 

56-58. The Prajapati (Lord of the subjects) who was 
creating at the outset the fourfold set viz.: the Devas, the 
sages, the Pitrs and the human beings, created the living beings 
both mobile and immobile. After creating Yaksas, the Pisacas, 
the Gandharvas, the Apsaras, the human beings, the Kinnaras, 
the Raksasas, the birds, the animals, the deer and the 
serpents, he created the Ayyayas ('changeless ones) and Vyayas 

1. VV. 50-53 give the creation of Vedic literature, Vedic metres and 
special sacrifices from tlie moutlis or faces of Brahma. 

2. Trivrtstotna — A three-fold stoma (in which at first, the three 1st 
versesofeachTrcaofRv. are sung together, then the 2nd verses 
and lasdy the 3rd verses). 

3. Rathantara: the verses to be sung according to Sama-music are 
RV.VII. 32. 22-23 abhl tva Swa etc.= S.V. II. 1.1. 11. 

4. Aptoryama is a Soma sacrifice — an amplification of Atiratra sacrifice. 
According to Tandya Br. XX 3.4-5, it is so called as its performance secures 
whatever one desires. 

9 2 Brahmanda Parana 

(the changeables) as well as the mobile and the immobile 

59-60. Even when created again and again, these beings 
adopted only the Karmans that had been committed before.' 
The previous natures and features such as violence and non- 
violence, softness of heart and ruthlessness, virtue and evil as 
well as truth and falsehood — all these were adopted by them 
(in their later creations). Hence, they are liked by them. 

61. It was Brahma, the creator himself, who ordained 
the diversity in the great elements and their allotment to 
different physical bodies afflicted by the sense-organs 
(Indrfydrtesu) *. 

62. Some men say that the manly endeavour (is the sole 
cause of achievement). Some men say that it is the Karman 

(previous actions). Other Brahmanas say that it is the destiny. 
ThcBhutacintakas (those who think about the elements — perhaps 
the Carvakas) say that it is nature and latent instinct. 

63. (But real thinkers) know that there is no difference 
or superiority among the manly endeavour, previous action and 
the destiny. The same is understood through the nature of the 
outcome of fruits (of actions etc.) 

64. (Some say)' this is thus and notthus — this is both nor 
is it both. But persons abiding by Sattva and having impartial 
vision say (that the Universe) is the object ofits own activity. 

65. It is only through the words of the Vedas that the 
great lord created at the outset, the different forms and features 
of the living beings and the development of the created ones. 

1. As noted above this Purana emphasizes the law of Karman. The 
end of a Kalpa does not destroy the Karma of an individual. 

* If the reading Indriydrthesu is adopted the meaning is "and their 
allotment to different physical bodies and the objects of the various sense 

2. Apparently the view (aniscitatdvdda) of Saiijaya Belatthi Putta 
in SdmaMa-phala-sulta — Digha Nikdyo p. 51 (Nalanda Ed.): when asked 
about the existence of the other world he states: 

enarh ti pi me no, tathd li pi me no, aniiathd ti pi me no, no ti pi me no, no no 
ti pi me no. 
But 1 think the Purana probably voices the view of Syadvada.—9.1-6 93 

66. The names pertaining to the sages and the visions 
belonging to the Devas — these, the unborn lord assigns to 
those who are born at the end of the night. 


The Progeny of Rudra : Birth of Bhrgu and others 

Suta said : 

1. By means ofhis mind, the lord then created five Kartrs 
(doers or agents of creation), viz.: Rudra. Dharma, Manas 
(mind), Ruci and Akrti. 

2. All these are mighty-armed and they are the causes 
of the sustenance of the subjects. When the medicinal herbs 
decline again and again, it is Rudra who sustains them and 
revives them. 

3-4. By those who seek benefits, the Lord was well wor- 
shipped with whatever fruits and medicinal herbs were available 
(to them). He (that God) is called Tryambaka' as in times of 
(impending?) extinction of medicinal herbs etc., sacrifice is 
offered to him by sages with three Kapalas (plates or potsherds 
containing) of cakes sacred to him (Rudra). 

5-6. It has already been mentioned by me that the three 
Vedic metres, Gayatrl, Tristup and JagatI are the sources of 
origin oi Xhc Ambakas (i.e. Kapalas) along with the Vanaspati 
(i.e. the medicinal herbs). These three metres join together and 
assume unity (i.e. when they are used in Mantras at the time 
of the consecration of the Puroddsa offerings). That Puroddia is 
infused with the virility of each of these mantras. Hence the 
Puroddsa is remembered as Trikapdla (having three vessels to 
hold it). Therefore the Puroddsa is Tryambaka as well. Hence 

1. Tryambaka means 'one having three eyes* and is an epithet of Siva. 
Here it is identified with Puroddsa, 

•94 Brahmanda Parana 

the lord (to whom this Puroddsa is offered) is remembered as 

7. Dharma sustains all the subjects. Manas is remembered 
as that which caused knowledge. Akrti is the form of splendid 
beauty. Ruci is remembered as one who inculcates Sraddhd 

8-9. Thus these protectors of the subjects are the causes 
of the sustenance of the subjects. 

Even as he continued the creative activity for the sake of 
the multiplication of the subjects, those created subjects did 
not increase at all by any means. Therefore, he racked his 
intellect that should arrive at a decisive conclusion. 

10. Then he saw the Tamas element moving within 
himself. Thanks to its own action, it had abandoned Rajas and 
Sattva and was existing by itself. 

11. Thereupon, due to that sorrow, the lord of the uni- 
verse felt grieved. He pushed out the Tamas element and after- 
wards covered it with Rajas. 

12. That Tamas pushed out by him gave birth to a pair. 
On account ofhis unrighteous conduct, Himsd (Violence) and 
Soka (grief) were born. 

13. When that pair in the form of Varana (covering up), 
was born, the lord became delighted. He resorted to this. 

14. From a half of the body of the lord who was delighted 
within himself thus, a woman conducive to great welfare, and 
charming and fascinating to all living beings, came out.' 

15. That beautiful looking lady was indeed created from 
Prakrti by him (as he was) desirous (of progeny) and was 
called Satarflpa. And she was again and again called so. 

16. It was then that the subjects were born of that noble- 
souled being in the middle of Treta yuga as has already been 
mentioned by me to you in section-I Prakriydpdda. 

17. When those subjects created by that intelligent self- 
possessed being did not increase in number, he created other 

jxiental sons similar to himself. 

1. Cf. MaBU 1.32. 95 

18-19. He created these nine mental sons' viz. : Bhrgu, 
Angiras, Marlci, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Dalcsa, Atri and 
Vasistha. In the Purana, these are decisively called the "nine 
Brahmas" (because they were like) Brahma (the creator) unto 
all beings of controlled souls, having the Atman as their source 
of origin. 

20. Then Brahma created again Dharma who was 
•delightful and pleasant unto all living beings; as well as the 
Prajapati Ruci. These two were the eldest of all ancient ones. 

21. He created from his intellect, Dharma who was 
delightful and pleasant unto all living beings. He who is named 
Ruci was born of the mind of (the lord of) unmanifest birth. 

22-24. Sage Bhrgu was born of the heart of the lord 
whose source of origin was water. Brahma created Dalisa from 
his vital breath and Marlci from his eyes. He created Rudra 
(also linown as) Nllalohita in the form of Abhimdna (prestige, 
honour). He created angiras from his head and Atri from the 
ears. From his Uddna (?) vital breath (prdna) he created 
Pulastya and Pulaha from Vyuna. Vasistha was born of 
Samdna and he created Kratu from Apdna. 

25. Thus these twelve are remembered as the sons of 
Brahma at the beginning (of creation) of subjects. Dharma 
was the first-born among those Devatas. 

26. Bhrgu and others who had been created are remem- 
bered as Brahmarsis (Brahminical sages). They are the ancient 
house-holders and Dharma (virtue) was initially established by 

27-28a. In the Kalpa, these twelve give birth to subjects 
again and again. Their twelve races arc divine and equipped 
with Divine qualities. They perform holy rites and have (i.e. 
procreate) progeny. They are adorned (honoured) by great 

28b-29. When the progeny created by Dharma and other 
great sages (who themselves) had been created (by him) did 
not multiply, the intelligent and self-possessed lord became 
slightly enveloped by Tamas and afflicted by grief. 

1. Cf. Manu 1.35 also VP.I.8.4-6. 

96 Brahmanda Parana: 

30. Just as Brahma was enveloped by Tamas elements, 
so also in the case of his sons too another Tamas element issued 

31-32. Adharma is in the nature of return flow (?) and 
Himsa (Violence) is inauspicious by nature. Then when he 
was obstructed and the nature of the covering was manifest, 
Brahma discarded his own shining physical body. After dividing 
his own body into two, he became a man by one half. 

33. By (another) half he became a woman and she was 
Satarupa. She was the Prakrti,' the mother of all living beings 
(and manifested thus) because the lord was creating out of 

34-36. With her grandeur, she pervaded the firmament 
and the earth and remained steady. That was the former body 
of Brahma who stayed enveloping the firmament. The half that 
was created as a woman became Satariipa. That divine lady 
performed a very difficult penance for a hundred thousand 
years and obtained Purusa of brilliant fame as her husband. 
Indeed, he is called Manu, the Purusa, the earlier son ofthe 
self-born lord. 

37-38a. Seventyone sets of four Yugas constitute what 
is called his Manvantara (reign of a Manu). After obtaining as 
his wife, Satarflpa who was not born of any womb, the Purusa 
sported with her. Hence it is called Rati (sexual dalliance). 

38b-40. The first union took place in the beginning of 
the Kalpa. Brahma created Virat (the immense Being). That 
Virat became the Purusa. He, accompanied by Satariipa, is 
remembered as Vairaja, Manu and Samrat (Emperor). That 
Purusa, Manu, the Vairaja created subjects (begot progeny). 
From Vairaja, the Purusa, Satariipa gave birth to two heroic 
' sons. 

41. They were Priyavrata and Uttanapada. These two 
sons were the most excellent sons that persons possessing sons 
could expect. (She gave birth to) two daughters also ofgreat 
fortune. From them these subjects were born. 

1. The Sahkhya pair of Prakrti and Purusa are represented liere as 
Satarupa and Manu. Tlie terms Vairaja, Purusa, Manu (and Samrat) are 
used as synonyms. 97 

42. They were the divine lady named Akiiti and auspi- 
cious lady Prasuti. Both of them were auspicious. The lordly 
son of the self-born lord gave Prasiiti to Daksa. 

43. He gave Akiiti to Ruci, the Prajapati. An auspicious 
pair was born of Akiiti as the progeny of Ruci, the mental son 

(of Brahma). 

44. They were the twins Yajiia and Daksina. Twelve 
sons were born to Yajiia and Daksina. 

45. They were the Devas named Yamas in the Svayam- 
bhuva Manvantara. They were the sons of twins, viz : Yajiia 
and Daksina. Hence they are remembered as Yamas.' 

46. ( ?) Two groups of Brahma are remembered viz : 
Ajitas and Sukras. The Yamas who have the appellation Divau- 
kas (heaven-dwellers) circumambulated the former. 

47. Lord Daksa begot of Prasiiti, the daughter of 
Svayambhuva Manu, twenty-four daughters who became 
mothers ofthe world. 

48-49a. All of them were highly fortunate. All of them 
were lotus-eyed. All of them were wives of Yogins and all of 
them were Yogic mothers. All of them were expounders of 
Brahman and all of them were the mothers ofthe universe. 

49b-50. Lord Dharma accepted (the following) thirteen 
daughters of Daksa as his wives, viz : Sraddha, LaksmI, 
Dhiti, Tusti, Pusti, Medha, Kriya, Buddhi, Lajja, Vasu, Santi, 
Siddhi, and Kirti as the thirteenth. 

51-52. These door-ways ofhis (creative activity) were 
ordained by the self-born lord. The others that remained were 
the eleven younger daughters of beautiful eyes, viz : SatI,. 
Khyati, Sambhiiti, Smrti, Priti, Ksama, Sannati, Anasiiya. 
Orja, Svaha and Svadha. 

53-54. Other great sages accepted them (as wives). 
They were Rudra, Bhrgu, Marici, Aiigiras, Pulaha, Kratu, 
Pulastya, Atri, Vasistha, Agni and Pitrs. He gave (in marriage) 
Sa I to Bhava and Khyati to Bhrgu. 

55. To Marici, he gave Sambhiiti, and Smrti to Angiras.. 
To Pulastya he gave PrIti and Ksama to Pulaha. 

1. Derivation ofYama, tlie gods ofthe Svayambliuva Manvantara. 

9 8 Brahmanda Parana 

56. To Kratu, he gave Sannati and the (daughter) 
named Anastiya to Atri. He gave Urja to Vasistha and 
Svaha to Agni (the fire-god). 

57-58. He gave Svadha to the Pitrs. Listen from me 
their children. All these were highly fortunate ladies; their 
subjects (children) obediently followed them in all Manvantaras 
till the time of ultimate annihilation (of the world). Sraddha 
gave birth to Kama and Darpa (arrogance) is remembered as 
the son of Laksml.' 

59. Niyama (Restraint) was the sonof Dhrti (Courage). 
Santosa (Contentment) is mentioned as the son of Tusti 
(Satisfaction). Labha (gain) was the son ofPusti (Nourishment) 
and Sruta (Learning) was the son of Medha (Intellect). 

60. Dama (Restraint of sense-organs) and Sama (Res- 
traint of the mind) are mentioned as the sons of Kriya (Activity). 
Bodha (Understanding) and Apramada (Absence of Errors) 
were the sons of Buddhi (Intellect). 

61. Vinaya (Modesty) was the son of Lajja (Bashful- 
ness). Vyavasaya (Enterprise) was the son of Vasu. Ksema 

(Welfare) was the son of Santi (Tranquility). Sukha( Happiness) 
was born of Siddhi (Achievement). 

62. Yasas (Fame) was the son of Kirti (Renown) — 
These were the sons of Dharma. Kama's (Love's) son Harsa 
(Delight) was born ofthe noble lady Siddhi (Achievement). 

63. Through Adharma (Evil), Himsa (Violence) gave 
birth to the two children Nikrti (Dishonesty, Wickedness) and 
Anrta (Falsehood). 

64. Two twins were born of Nikrti and Anrta viz Bhaya 
(Fear), Naraka (Hell), Maya (Illusion) and Vedana (Pain). 

65. Through Maya, Maya gave birth to Mrtyu (Death) 
that takes away all living beings. Then Duhkha (Misery) was 
born ofVedana through Raurava (Hell). 

66. Vyadhi (Sickness) gave birth to Jara (Old age), 
Soka (Grief), Krodha (Anger) and Asflya (Jealousy) through 
Mrtyu. All these are remembered as characteristics of Adharma 
(Evil) with misery as the ultimate end. 

1. VV. 58-67 personify virtues and vices and state their parentage. 
Out of tliese VV. 63-68 describe the Tamasa creation. 99 

67. Their wife, son, — everyone is remembered as deatii- 

Tiius tlris Tamasa creation took birth with Adharma as 
the controlling one. 

68. Nllalohita was commanded by Brahma, "Beget 
progeny". He contemplated on his wife SatI and created sons.' 

69. They were neither superior to him nor inferior. They 
were his mental sons on a par with himself. He, created 
thousands and thousands of such childern wearing elephant hides. 

70-80. All of them had these characteristics and features: 
All of them were on a parwith himself in form, brilliance, 
strength and learning. They were tawny-coloured. They had 
quivers and matted hair. They were dark blue-red in com- 
plexion. They were devoid of tufts. They had no hairs. 
They were killers with eyes (by casting a look). They had 
Kapalas (sk ills) with them. They had huge beautiful forms 
andJMdeous cosmic forms. Some occupied chariots and wore 
coats of mail. They were defenders wearing armours. They 
had hundreds and thousands of arms. They were able to go 
through the firmament, earth and heaven; they had big heads, 
eight fangs, two tongues and three eyes. (Some were) eaters 
of rice, (some) eaters of flesh, (some) drinkers of ghee and 
(some of) Somajuice. (Some) had penises ofgreat size; fierce 
bodies and blue necks. Some had fierce fury. They had quivers 
and armours, bows, swords and leather shields. Some were 
seated; some were running. Some yawning and some occupying 
(seats). Some were reciting (the Vedas), some performing 
Japas, Yogic practices and meditations. Some were blazing. 
Some were showering, some shining and some smoking. Some 
were enlightened. Some were wakeful, alert and enlightened. 
Some had the property of Brahma ( ?). Some had the vision of 
Brahman. They had blue necks and thousand eyes. All of them 
were walking over the earth. They were invisible to all living 
beings. They had great Yogic power, virility and splendour. 
They were shouting and running. On seeing Rudra creating 

1. VV. 68-80 describe the Raudri Srsti (creation by Rudra) and he 
was asked by Brahma to stop creation as he was procreating immortal progeny 
and Rudra complied. _ • t\ t 


.j(> p 

^iV M^^ ^'^'^ 


100 Brahmanda Parana 

these excellent Devas with these qualities and features, in 
thousands even before the expiry of the period ofa Yama, 
Brahma told him — "Do not create subjects like these. The 
subjects should not be created on a par with oneself or superior 
to oneself; welfare unto you. Create other subjects vulnerable 
to death. Subjects devoid of death do not begin to perform holy 

81. Thus addressed, he (Rudra) said to him (Brahma) : 
"I will not create progeny subject to death and old age. Pro- 
sperity unto you. I am standing by (i.e. cease to procreate); 
you please create, O lord. 

82. These hideous and bluish-red coloured subjects who 
had been created by me in thousands and thousands, have come 
out of my own self. 

83. These Devas will be known by the name of Rudras. 
They are highly powerful. Those Rudranis are well-known over 
the earth and firmament. 

84. Enumerated in the (Vedic text) Satarudra, they will 
become worthy of Yajiias. All of them will partake of the 
Yajnas along with the groups ofDevas. 

85. Till the end ofthe Yuga, they will remain, on being 
worshipped along with those Devas born of Cchandas (Vedas 
or — born as they are pleased) in the Manvantaras. 

86. On being told thus by Mahadeva, that lord Brahma, 
the delighted lord ofsubjects replied to the terrible Rudra. 

87. "O lord welfare unto you. Let it be as spoken by 


When it was permitted by Brahma, everything happened 
that way. 

88. Thenceforth, the lord Sthanu did not beget subjects. 
He remained celibate till the ultimate annihilation. 

89-91a. He is remembered by learned man as Sthanu' 
because it was said by him thus— "1 am standing by". All these 
qualities are present in Sahkara — viz : knowledge, penance, 
truthfulness, glorious prosperity, virtue, detachment and com- 
prehension ofthe self He excels all the Devas and sages along 

Derivation of Sthanu.— 10.1-4 101 

with the Asuras, by means of his splendour. Hence the lord is 
remembered as Mahadeva' (Great god). 

91b-92. He excels the Devas through his glorious pros- 
perity, the great Asuras through his power, all the sages 
through his knowledge and all the living beings through Yoga. 
It is thus that Mahadeva is bowed to by all the Devas. After 
creating the subjects devoid of enterprise, he refrained from 


Magnificence of God Siva : Birth of Nilalohila : His eight 
Names and Forms* 

The Sage said.: 

1. The manifestation in this Kalpa of the noble-souled 
great lord Rudra along with the Sddhaka (spiritual aspirants) 
has not been narrated by you. 

SUta replied : 

2. The origin ofthe primordial creation has been succinct- 
ly mentioned by me. I shall now narrate in detail the names 
along with the physical bodies. 

3. Mahadeva begot ofhis wives many sons in the other 
Kalpas that have passed by. Listen to those (procreated) in 
this Kalpa. 

4. In the beginning ofthe Kalpa, the lord contemplated 
on a son on a par with himself. Thereafter, the child Nilalohita 
appeared on his lap. 

1. Derivation of Mahadeva. 

•This chapter deals with the eight forms ofgod Siva — a popular concep- 
tion in Puranas and classical literature. It is an amplification of a similar 
concept in Satapatha Brdhmana as noted below. This chapter is textually very 
close to Va.p.Ch.27. 

102 Brahmanda Purina 

5-6. He cried loudly in a terrible manner (voice). He 
appeared as though he would burn by means of his brillance. 
On seeing the child Nilalohita' crying suddenly, Brahma spoke 
to him — "Why do you cry, O child ?" He replied— "Give me 
at the outset a name, O Grandfather."^ 

7. "O lord, you are named Rudra". On being told thus 
he cried again. "Why do you cry, O child?" asked Brahma to 

8. "Give me a second name", said he to the self-born 
Lord. "You are Bhava by name, O Lord". On being told thus 
he cried again. 

9. "Why do you cry?", enquired Brahma of the crying 
child. "Give me a third name". On being told thus, he said 

10. "O lord, you are Sarva by name." On being told 
thus he cried again, "Why do you cry ?", asked Brahma again 
to the crying child. 

11. "Give me a fourth name." On being told thus, he 
said again, "O lord, you are Isana by name". On being told 
thus he cried again. 

12. "Why do you cry", said Brahma to that crying 
child again. He replied to the self-born lord — "Give me a 
fifth name." 

13. "You are the lord and master of all Pasus (Animals, 
living beings)". On being told thus, he cried again. "Why do 
you cry?" said Brahma to that crying child, once again. 

14. "Indeed, give me the sixth name". On being told 
thus he replied to him — "O lord, you are Bhima by name". On 
being told thus he cried again. 

15. "Why do you cry ?", asked Brahma again to that 
crying child. "Give me the seventh name". On being told 
thus he replied : 

1. This name signifies identification of Rudra and Fire. 

2. W. 5 ff. Tliis episode of crying for a name and god Bralima's 
assigning eiglit names is a reproduction of tlie same in Satapatha Brahmana 

(SB. It is from tliis concept in SB that Bd.P. (and other 
Puranas such as Va.P., LP) developed the Asta-murli conception of Rudra. 
See the next note. 103 

16. "O lord, you are Ugra by name". On being told 
thus, he cried again. To that crying child he said— "Do 
not cry". 

17. He said — 'Give me, O lord, the eighth name". "You 
arc Mahadeva by name". On being told thus, he stopped 

18. After securing these names. Nilalohita requested 
Brahma — "Indicate the abodes of these names".' 

19-20. Then the bodies were allotted by the self-bom 
lord unto these names (abodes). They were — the sun, the 
water, the earth, the wind, the fire, the Ether, the initiated 
Brahmana and the Moon. Thus the bodies were of eight varie- 
ties. The lord is to be worshipped, saluted and bowed to in 
those bodies. 

21-23. Brahmasaid again to the child Nilalohita — "O 
lord, at the outset, your name has been mentioned by me as 
Rudra. The sun shall be the first body unto thy first name". 

1. The abodes of the names of Nilalohita are the eight forms (asfa- 
murtis) of Siva and they symbolize the five Mahd-bkiltas (gross elements), 
the two principle vital airs Frana and Apana and the principle of the Mind. 
The following tabular statement of the eight forms of Rudra, their abodes, 
names of their consorts and children will clarify this chapter. 

Name or Abode or Designation Name ofthe No of the 

Form of bodies of that body consort sons 

Siva alloted 

1. Rudra thesunj(i.e. Raudri Suvarcala the satum 

Frana or Heat) (Sani) 

2. Bhava the water Apah Dhatri The Venus 


3. Sarva the earth Bhnmi Vikesi The Mars 


4. I Sana the wind Vita Siva i i) Manojava 

ii) Avijiiata- 

5. Fasupati the Fire Agni Svaha Skanda 

6. Bhima the Ether Akasa Quarters Svarga 
7- Ugra Initiated Diksita Diksa Santana 

Brahmana Brahmana 

8. Mahadeva The Moon Candramas Rohioi Budha 

(Apana) or cold 

104 Brahmanda Purana 

When this was uttered his splendour became an eye, which 
illuminates, then it entered the sun. Hence he (the sun) is 
remembered as Rudra. One shall avoid seeing the sun while 
rising or while setting. 

24. Since the sun comes into view frequently and since it 
vanishes frequently, one, who desires for longevity, should not 
directly see the sun. One should always be pure. 

25-26. Worshipping during the two periods of junctions 
(the dawn and the dusk), and repeating the Saman, Rk and 
Yajus hymns, the Brahmanas propitiate and strengthen Rudra 
of the past and the future. At the time of rising, the sun 
stands on the Rks, at midday he stands on the Yajus and in the 
late afternoon, Rudra lies down and takes rest gradually. 
Hence, in fact, the fun never rises nor does he set.' 

27. One shall never pass urine in the direction of 
Rudra (i.e. the sun) in whatever condition he may be. 

28. Lord Rudra does not oppress the Brahmana who 
strictly adheres to these principles. Then Brahma said again 
to that lord Nilalohita. 

29. Your second name has been mentioned by me as 
Bhava. Let the waters be the second physical body of this 
name of yours. 

30. On this being mentioned, the element of the nature 
of Rasa (Juice) (i.e. water) became stationed in his body. Since 
he entered it, the water is remembered as Bhava. 

31. Since the living beings are born (bhavanat) of him, 
and since he evolves (bhavanat) the living beings through them 
(i.e. the waters) he is called Bhava^ (due to his creation and 
evolution of beings). 

32. Hence, one shall never urinate or pass faeces into the 
waters. One should not spit into water, nor plunge into the 
water in the nude nor should anyone have sexual intercourse 
within the waters. 

The Soma-yaji Brahmana Yajamana is regarded as the principle of the mind. 
Cf. mono vai Tajamanasya rupam — Sat. Br. 1.2. 8. 84. 

1. This Puranic speculation turned out to be a scientiHc truth. 
2. This etymology of 'Bhava' is confirmed in Va.P. 105 

33. Nor should one enumerate (?) these whether flowing 
or still. These bodies of the waters are declared by the sages 
as Medhya (Pure) and Amedhya (Impure). 

34. Waters devoid of taste, waters of bad odour and 
colour and water in very little quantity should be avoided on 
all occasions. The sea is the source of origin of waters. 
Hence waters desire it. 

35. After reaching the sea, the waters become sacred 
and Amrta (nectarine). Hence one should not obstruct the 
waters since they love the sea. 

36a. Lord Bhava does not oppress or injure him who 
treats water thus. 

36b. Then Brahma said again to child Nilalohita : 

37. "O lord, the third name of yours that had been 
mentioned by me is Sarva. Let this earth be the physical body 
of that third name. 

38. On this being mentioned, the hard and firm (part) 
in his body, namely bones entered the earth. Therefore, it is 
called Sarva. 

39. Hence, one should not evacuate the bowels or uri- 
nate in the ploughed land. One should not urinate in the 
shade of trees, or in the pathway or in one's own shadow. 

40. After covering the ground with grass and covering 
one's head, one should evacute the bowels. Sarva does not 
oppress or injure him who behaves like this towards the 

41-43. Then Brahma said again to child Nilalohita. 
"Your fourth name that had been declared by me is Isana. 
Vayu (Wind) should be the fourth physical body ofyour fourth 
name. As soon as this was spoken that (vital breath) which was 
stationed in him in five groups and is termed Prdna (Vital 
breath) entered Vayu. Hence wind is Isana. Hence one should 
not censure or revile at Vayu the lord himself as it blows 

44. Lord Mahesana does not oppress or injure him who 
properly behaves towards the wind and those who honour 
•the wind by means of Yajiias and those who serve it. 

106 Brahmanda Purana- 

45-49. Then Brahma said again to that lord Dhiimra 
(smoke-coloured) Isvara. "The fifth name of yours that had 
been mentioned by me is Pasupati. Let this Agni (Fire) be the 
fifth body of your fifth name". On this being mentioned, 
the fiery brilliance that had been stationed in his body and is 
termed Usna (Hot) entered the fire. Hence it (fire) is Pasu- 
pati. Since Agni is Pasu (Animal) and since he protects ani- 
mals, the physical body of Pasupati is designated (defined) as 
Agni. Hence, one should not burn impure ordure nor should 
one warm one's feet. One should not place it beneath nor 
should one trespass it. Lord Pasupati does not oppress or 
injure him who behaves properly like this. 

50-54. Then Brahma said once again to that lord Sveta- 
pingala (White-and-tawny-coloured). "O lord, the sixth name 
of yours that had been mentioned by me is Bhima. Let Akdsa 
(Ether) be the sixth body of that name". On this being utter- 
ed, the cavity that had been in his body entered the ether. 
Hence, it is the body of BhIma. Since the lord is remembered 
as existing in the ether. One should not evacuate the bowels, 
urinate, take food, drink water, have sexual intercourse or throw 
up leavings offood consumed without having a cover on. The 
lord does not oppress or injure him who behaves towards Bhima 
thus. Then Brahma said once again to that lord, who is 

55. O lord, your seventh name that had been mentioned 
by me was Ugra. The initiated Brahmana becomes the body 
of that name of yours. 

56. On this being uttered, the Caitanya (consciousness, 
alertness) that was in his body entered the initiated Brah- 
mana who performs the Soma sacrifice. 

57. For that duration, the initiated Brahmana becomes 
lord Ugra. Hence, no one shall abuse or revile at him nor shall 
anyone speak vulgar word s about him. 

58. Those who censure him take away his sins. Lord 
Ugra does not: oppress or injure those Brahmanas who behave 
properly thus. 

59-61. Then Brahma once again said to that lord with 
the lustre of the sun, "Your eight name that had been men- 107 

tioned by me is Mahadeva. Let the moon be the physical body 
of that eighth name of yours". On this being mentioned, the 
mind of the lord that had been conceiving and contemp- 
lating entered the Candramasa (Moon). Therefore, the moon 
is Mahadeva. Hence, this great lord is considered to be the 

62. On the new moon day a Brahmana should not cut 
trees, bushes or medicinal herbs. Soma (Moon) is remem- 
bered as Mahadeva and his Atman (soul) is the group of 
medicinal herbs. 

63-65. Mahadeva does not slay him who always remains 
thus on the Parvan days (new moon, full moon etc.) and who 
understands that lord thus. 

The sun protects the subjects by the day and the moon, at 
the night. On the night (i.e. on the new moon) the sun and 
the moonjoin together. On that Amavasya (New Moon) night 
one shall always be Tukta (properly performing Yogic exer- 
cise) . All this visible universe has been pervaded by Rudra, 
through his bodies and names. 

66. This sun that wanders alone is called Rudra. It is 
due to the light of the sun that the subjects see with their 

67-69. Rudra remains a liberated soul and drinks water 
through his rays. Food is eaten and water is drunk with a desire 
for food, water etc. The body arising out of water develops 
and nourishes the bodies. 

That earthen body ofthe lord is good as it sustains the 
subjects. It is through this that the lord upholds all the sub- 
jects by means of a steady splendour. 

70-75. The gaseous body of Isdna is the vital breath of 
all living beings. It is stationed in the bodies of all living beings 
along with the functions of the vital breath. 

The body of Pasupati cooks and digests the food consum- 
ed and the beverages drunk, in the bellies ofthe living beings. 
That which cooks is called Agni (fire i.e. Gastric fire). 

The cavities that are within the bodies for the purpose 
of the free movement of the air constitute the body (ofthe 
lord) called Bhima. 

108 Brahmanda Parana 

The existence of expounders of Brahman is, due to 
Caitanya (consciousness) ofthe initiated ones. That body is 
of the form ofUgra. Therefore, the initiated one is remem- 
bered as Ugra. 

The part ofthe body that conceives and contemplates 
and which is stationed in the subjects is the mental body, the 
moon — it is stationed in the living beings. Being born again and 
again he becomes fresh and fresh. It is being drunk at the 
proper time by the Devas along with the Pitrs. The moon of 
aquatic nature with nectar within him is remembered as 

76. His first body has been glorified by the name 
Raudri. Its wife is Suvarcala and her son is Sanaiscara (the 

77. The second body of Bhava is remembered by the 
name of Apah. Its wife is remembered as Dhatrl and the son 
is remembered as Usanas (the Venus). 

78. The body ofthe third name of Sarva is Bhflmi (the 
earth). Its wife is VikesT and the son is remembered as Anga- 
raka (the Mars) . 

79-84. Vata (wind) is the body of the fourth name of 
Isana. Its wife is Siva by name. Anila (Wind) has two sons, 
viz. : Manojava (Having the speed ofthe mind) and Avijiiata- 
gati (One of inscrutable movement). 

Agni (Fire) is remembered by Brahmanas, as the body 
ofPasupati. Svaha is remembered as its wife. Skanda is remem- 
bered as its son. 

The Ether (Akasa) is called the body Bhima, his sixth 
name. The quarters are remembered as its wives and Svarga 
(heaven) is remembered as its son. 

The seventh body Ugra is remembered as the initiated 
Brahmana. Diksa is remembered as its wife and Santana is 
called the son. 

The body Mahat of the eighth name is remembered as 
Candramas( Moon) . Its wife is Rohinl. Her son is remembered as 

Thus these bodies of his have been recounted along with 
the names.— 11. l-5a 109 

85-87. The lord is to be saluted and bowed to in those 
bodies with the respective names for each body. He should be 
saluted by devotees in the sun, the waters, the Earth, the 
wind, the fire, the Ether, the initiated one as well as the moon. 
He should be honoured with great devotion along with the 
names. He who knows that lord thus with the bodies and 
names acquires progeny and attains the Sdyujya (Identity) of 
Lord Bhava. Thus the esoteric fame of Bhima has been recoun- 
ted to you. 

88. O Brahmanas, let there be welfare unto the bipeds. 
Let there be welfare unto the quadrupeds. Now the names and 
bodies of Mahadeva have been recounted. Listen to the 
progeny of Bhrgu. 


The Creation of Sages* 

Suta said : 

1-3. Khyati gave birth to a daugher and two sons. The 
sons were masters of happiness and misery. They grant auspi- 
cious and inauspicious results unto all living beings. They 
were the gods Dhatr (supporter) and Vidhatr (Dispenser of 
destiny). They used (to live and) walliabout throughout the 
Manvantara. Their elder sister, goddess Sri, purified the worlds. 
The splendid lady attained lord Narayana as her husband. 
Bala (strength) and Unmada (lunacy) were born of her as the 
sons of Narayana. 

4-5a. Tejas (fiery brilliance) was the son of Bala and 

•This chapter deals with the progeny of the famous seven sages such as 
Bhrgu, Arigiras, Atri, Pulaha and others. After mentioning their important 
descendants we are told that all these races passed away in the Svayambhuva 

This chapter corresponds to 

11 'J Brahmanola Parana 

Sarhsaya (Doubt) was the son of Unmada. Other mental sons 
too were born ofhim. They move about in the firmament. 
They drive and carry the aerial chariots of the Devas and 
persons of auspicious rites. 

5b-6. Ayati (future) and Niyati (Restraint), the daugh- 
ters of Meru* are remembered as the wives of Vidhatr and 
Dhatr. Prana and Mrkanda of firm holy vows were their sons. 
They are eternal and Brahmakosas (the treasury of Brahman or 

7. Markandeya was born of ManasvinI (as the son) of 
Mrkanda. His son Vedasiras was born of Dhiimrapatnl. 

8. Sons of Vedasiras in (through) Pivarl are remem- 
bered as Propagators of the race. These sages who are well- 
known as Markandeyas (Descendants of Mrkanda) were 
masters of the Vedas. 

9-10. Dyutiman was born of Pundarlka, as the son of 
Prana. Dyutiman had two sons, viz. : Unnata and Svanavata. 
These two sons had sons and grandsons through mutual alliances 
among the descendants of Bhrgu. They passed away during 
the Svayambhuva Manvantara. 

Listen to the progeny of Marlci. 

11. Understand that, Sambhiiti, the wife of Marlci the 
Prajapati, gave birth to the son Piirnamasa and the following 
-daughters : 

12. Krsi, Vrsti, Tvisa and the splendid Upaciti. Piirna- 
masa begot of SarasvatI two sons: 

13. The two were Viraja who was righteous and Paravasa. 
Viraja's son was a scholar, well known by the name 

14. Sudhaman, the son ofViraja and Gaurl, resorted to 
the Eastern quarter. He was a valorous and noble-souled guar- 
dian ofthe quarter, (ruler ofthe world). 

15-16. Parvasa, ofgreat fame, entered (the task of) 

* Va.P.8.4 reads: dve tu kanye for meru kalpa hereof. It means accord- 
ing to Va.P. Meru was not the father of Ayati and Niyati. May we take Meru 
as a Kalpa? 111 

counting holy occasions (Parva-ganana ?). Parvasa* begot of 
Parvasa two sons, viz. : Yajurdhaman the intelligent and 
Stambhakas'yapa. Their two sons Sanyasa and Niscita stabi- 
lised their line. 

17-18. Smrti, the wife of Angiras, gave birth to these 
children— four daughters and two sons. The four daughters who 
were holy and well-reputed in the worlds, were viz. Sinfvali, 
Kuhu, Ralia and Anumati. The two sons were Bharatagni and 

19. SadvatI gave birth to Parjanya the son of Agni 
(i.e. Bharatagni). (Another) Parjanya (otherwise called) Hir- 
anyaroman was born of Marlci. 

20-21. He is remembered as a Lokapala (ruler of the 
world, guardian ofthe quarter) staying till the ultimate deluge. 

Dhenuka gave birth to Carisnu and Dhrtiman, the two 
sinless sons of Kirtiman. Both of them were the most excellent 
among the descendants of Arigiras. Their sons and grandsons 
ran to thousands. They have all passed away. 

22-24. Anasijya gave birth to five Atreyas (i.e. sons of 
Atri) who were free from sins. She gave birth to a daughter 
also named Sruti who was the mother of Sarikhapada. She was 
the wife ofKardama, the Prajapati (Lord of subjects) and son 
of Pulaha. The five Atreyas were Satya-Netra, Havya, Apo- 
mijrti, Sanaiscara and Soma the fifth one among them. They 
passed away along with the Yamadevas in the Svayambhuva 

25. The sons and grandsons of those noble-souled Atreyas 
were hundreds and thousands. They all passed away in the 
Svayambhuva Manvantara. 

26. Danagni was the son of Priti, the wife of Pulastya. 
He is remembered as Agastya in his previous birth in the 
Svayambhuva Manvantara. 

27-28a. The middle one was Devabahu and the third 
son was Atri by name (thus Pulastya had) three sons. Their 
younger sister named SadvatI was well-known. She is remem- 

* The corresponding verse in Va.P.28 reads: Sarvagananam. It means 
•Parvasa entered into all the ganas (?) 

112 Brahmanda Purana 

bered as the splendid and pure wife of Agni (i.e. Bharatagni) 
and mother of Parjanya. 

28b-29. Sujanghl, the wife of Danagni, the intelligent 
son of the Brahmanical sage Pulastya and Priti, gave birth 
to many sons. They are well known as Paulastyas. They are 
remembered (to have lived) in Svayambhuva Manvantara. 

30. Ksama gave birth to the sons of Pulaha*, the Praja- 
pati. All of them had the brilliance of the three sacrificial 
fires. Their fame is well-established. 

31. They were three viz. Kardama, Urvarivan and 
Sahisnu. Sage Kanakapitha (also was his son). There was a 
beautiful daughter named Plvarl. 

32. Kardama's wife Sruti who was the daughter of Atri 
gave birth to a son named Sankhapada and a daughter named 

33. It is reported that this Sarikhapada was prosperous 
ruler of the world and lord ofthe subjects. He was devoted to 
the southern quarter. 

Kamya was given in marriage to Priyavrata. 

34. Kamya bore to Priyavrata ten sons on a par with the 
Svayambhuva Manu and two daughters. It is through these 
that the Ksatriya race spread. 

35. Yasodhara, the lady ofbeautiful waist, gave birth to 
Sahisnu, the son of Kanakapitha. (She gave birth) to Kama- 
deva (also). 

36. Sannati bore auspicious sons to Kratu. They were 
equal to Kratu. They had neither wives nor sons. All of them 
were celibate. 

37. They were well known as Valakhilyas and are sixty 
thousand in number. They surround the sun and go ahead in 
front of Aruna. 

38-39a. Allofthem are (perpetual) associates of the 
Sun till the time of ultimate annihilation (ofthe universe). 
They had two younger sisters, Punya arid Satyavatl. They were 
the daughters-in-law of Parvasa, the son ofPflrnamasa. 

•Corrected from Va.F.28. 25a. as Pulastya in this text is an obvious 

I.2.II.39b-45-I2.I-2a 113 

39b-40. The seven (Vasisthas) were born of Urja as the 
sons of Vasistha. Their elder sister was a daughter of beauti- 
ful waist named PundarTka. She was the mother of Dyutiman 
and the beloved wife of Prana. 

41-42a. Her younger brothers, the seven sons of Vasistha 
are well known. They are — Raksa, Carta, Urdhvabahu, Savana, 
Pavana, Sutapas and Sanku. All of them are remembered as 
seven sages. 

42b-45. The famous daughter of Markandeya, the noble 
lady of excellent limbs, gave birth to Ratna, the king of wes- 
tern quarter. (He was also known as) Ketuman and he was a 
Prajapati. The races of the noble-souled sons of Vasistha passed 
away in the Svayambhuva Manvantara. 

Listen to the progeny of Agni. 

Thus the creation of sages has been recounted along with 
their attendants. Henceforth, I shall recount the family of 
Agni in detail and in the proper order. 

The Race of Agni* 

Suta said : 

l-2a. A mental son of Brahma is remembered as the 
deity identifying itselfwith fire in the Svayambhuva Manvan- 

*This chapter presents the forty-nine ritualistic functions of the Fire 
as so many different Agni gods and gives their arrangement or correlations ia 
a genealogical form. As a matter of fact, it is a Vedic concept as can be seen 
from the notes. This section concerning Agnivarksa must have been possibly 
a part of the original (Ur-) purana as many verses hereofare textually identical 
with those in Va. P. 29, Mt. P. 51. The AfflA. Fana Chs. 217-22 (Angirasa upa- 
khyana) give a detailed description of the ritualistic functions of fire. 

1 14 Brahm&n$a Purana 

tara. Svaha bore to him three sons,' viz. : Pavamana and 
Suci who is remembered as Agni also. 

2b-3. The Pavamana fire is that which is obtained by 
churning (the Arani), Pavalca is the fire originating from light- 
ning. Suci should be known as the solar fire. These are the 
three sons of Svaha. [ (Repetition) * the Pavamana fire is 
that which is obtained by churning (the Arani), and Suci is 
remembered as solar fire.] 

4-6. The Pavaka fire has water as the source of origin 
and it originates from the lightning. They are their respective 
abodes (viz. : Arani, the sun and the lightning). Kavyavahana 
is said to be the son ofPavamana. Saharaksa was the son of 
Pavaka and Havyavaha was the son of Suci. 

Havya vaha is the fire of the Devas; Kavya vahana is the 
fire ofthe.Pitrs; Saharaksa is the fire of the Asuras. There are 
(thus) three fires pertaining to the three (i.e. the Devas, the 
Pitrs and the Asuras). The sons and grandsons of these are 
fortynine in number. 

7. I shall mention their divisions separately along with 
their names. The secular fire is well known as the first son of 

8. The good son of Brahmadattagni^ (the fire handed 
over by Brahma) is'^well known by the name Bharata. Vais- 
vanara was his son, and he carried Havya for a hundred years. 

The text repeats this, hence included here. 

1. WA-6 : The following ^onx^ltogKal tree will clarify the relation of 
these fires: 


Pavamana ( = Garhapatya) Pavaka Suci (=Ahavaniya) 

I ( = Daksinagni) I 

born of Arani (cf. Rv. III. 29. 2) | The Sun 

or source: | Water or Lightening Havya-vahana 

Functions: kavya-vahana pertains to Devas 

• tP*""itis to Pitrs) 



(belongs to Asuras) 

2. Va.P. 29-7 reads Brahmaudanigni instead of Brahmadattagni of BD. P. 

That reading is supported by Mt.P. The genealogy is: Brahniadatta or Brahma- 115 

9-10. Formerly the fire Edhiti was gathered by Atharvan 
in the ocean Puskara.' Hence that secular fire is Atharvana. 
Darpaha is remembered as the son of Atharvan. Bhrgu was 
born as Atharvan and Fire is remembered as Atharvana (son 
of Atharvan). Hence the secular fire is considered Dadhyah/ 
the son of Atharvana. 

11. Pavamana, the son of Atharvan, is remembered by 
the wise as one that should be generated by churning. It should 
be known as Garhapatya fire. His two sons are remembered 
as follows : 

12. (They are Sarhsya and Suka* (sukra in Va. P. 9-11) 
Sarhsya is Ahavanlya fire who is remembered as Havyavahana. 
The second son is Suka (sukra in Va. P.) and he is said 
to be the fire that is gathered and carried. 

13. Savya and Apasavya** were the two sons ofSamsya. 
Samsya, the Havyavahana, loved sixteen rivers. 

14-18. The fire Samsya who is remembered as Ahavanlya 
fire as well as one who is identified with fire (AbhimSnin^ one 

udana Bharata Vaisvanara who carried Havya to gods. SBr. (Satapatha Brah- 
mana) explains that Agni is c^Wcd Bharata as he supplies Havya to gods: 
esa agnir hi devebhyo bharati tasmad 
bharatognir itydhuh / 
In other words this genealogy becomes an equation thus: 

Brahmadatta- = Bharata=Vaisvanara, the carrier of food to gods. 

1. This has a reference to Rv.VI.16.13 where Agni is said to have been 
churned out of Puskara. According to SBr. VI. 4. 2. 2, PM5'Afl/-a=Waters (Apo 
vai Puskaram). SBr. VII. 4. 1.13 explains that when Indra got frightened after 
slaying Vrtra, he resorted to waters which created a city (Par) for him and hence 
came to be known as Puskara (astnai puram akurvarks tasmit puskaram ha vai 
tat puskaram dcaksate paroksam). 

2. It is probably the same as Daksinagni. 

* krtuike cdrird dkisni^the fireplace movable in a carriage (Krttika). 
The idea is obscure. The Va.P. 29.16a. reads differently as follows: 
dhisnydd avyabhicirinyas tdsutpann&s tu dhiinayah // 
** This is a wrong reading as 'savya' and 'apasavya' are no fires at all. 
*Sabhya' and 'avasathya' are the names of the fire. Va.P. 29. 12 correctly 

tathd sabhySvasathyau vai Sarhsasydgruh suUhmbhau. 

116 Brahmanda Parana 

who takes pride) by the B rah m anas loved these sixteen 
rivers :* viz. : Kaverl, Krsnavena, Narmada, Yamuna, Goda- 
varl, Vitasta, Gandrabhaga, IravatI, Vipasa, KausikI, Satadru, 
Sarayu, Sita, SarasvatI, Hradinl and Pavanl. He divided himself 
into sixteen Dhdmans (abodes) and in those abodes he deposit- 
ed himself. The Dhisnis (abodes i.e. fire-places) were caused 
to move by vehicles (Krttikas) (?) and the sons were born in 
those Dhisnis. Hence those sons are called "Dhisnis". Thus 
these sons ofthe rivers were born in the Dhisnis and they are 
glorified as Dhisnis. 

19. Some of these fires are Viharaniyas, (portable, 
those that should be carried or removed), and others are Upas- 
theyas^ (those that should be made to sit, deposited (?). 
They shall be briefly but factually recounted. 

20. The following are the sons of Samsya. All of them 
are remembered by Brahmanas as Upastheyas, Vibhu, Prava- 
hana and Agnldhra and others, Dhisnis (already deposited fires) 

1. This is a poetic way of describing the spread ofthe Vedic Yajiia- 
cult. This portable fire was carried from the Sita (The Oxus — V.S. Agrawala; 
theJaxartes — N. L. De) in the Central Asia down to the Kaveri in the South 
India. Modern political maps of India blind us to the vast geographical area 
which was India to the Purana-writers. It was on the Sita that Narada met 
his brothers Sanatkumara etc. and where probably the N.P. was presumed 
to have been narrated. 

For the ancient names of the rivers hereof modern names are given in 
brackets : Vitasta (TheJhelum), Candrabhaga (The Chinab), Iravati (The 
Ravi), Vipasa (The Bias), Kausiki (The Kosi), Satadru (The Sutlej), 
STta (the Oxus or theJaxartes or the Tarim — Yarkand), Hradinl or Hladini 
(The Brahmaputra?), Pavani (The Ghaggar?). 

The list of rivers shows that the spread of the Yajna-cult covered parts 
of Central Asia, the Panjab and Kashmir, the Uttar Pradesh (and probably 
Bibar), the Madbya Pradesh, Maharashtra and part of Southern Karnatak. 

'The sons ofthe rivers' is obviously the riperian population which followed 
the Yajiia cult. 

2. The Purana classiHes Dhisnya fires into Viharaniyas and Upastheyas. 
The translation gives only the literal interpretations ofthe terms. The Dhisnya 
was a side-altar of a heap of earth covered with sand. On that altar fire was 
placed.. In the Soma-sacrifice, these fires were placed between the altar (Vedi) 
ofthe Srauta Yajiia and the Uttara Vedi meant for the Soma sacrifice. The 
designation Upastheya is given to those fires as tbey were to be approached at 
their fixed place in the Uttara-Vedi. The Viharamya fires are so called as they 
could be taken to any spot considered necessary on the day ofthe Yajiia. 117 

are serially laid down in their proper places in a Savana (Soma 
sacrifice) on the day when the Soma-juice is extracted. 

21-22. Listen to the due order of the fires that are to be 
laid down Anuddesya* (without being given any particular 
direction). Brahmanas** worship the eight fires beginning 
with Samradagni. They are Samradagni etc. The second one 
is Krsanu and it is inside the Altar. The third one is Parisat- 
pavamana. It is laid down as directed (anudisyate) .*** 

23. Another fire is Pratalka, (otherwise) named Nabhas. 
It is manifested in the Catvara (levelled spot of ground speci- 
ally prepared for the sacrifice). Havya that is not besmeared 
(with ghee) is deposited in the fire in the Sdmitra vessel (par- 
ticular vessel used in the sacrifice). 

24. (Thereafter is the fire) Rtudhaman that is glorified 
as Sujyoti and Audumbarya Visvavyacas is the ocean firef ? 
and is glorified in the abode of Brahma. 

25-26. (The fire) Vasurdhaman that is Brahmajyoti is 
mentioned in the abode of Brahma. Ajaikapat that is an £^05- 
theya is also Salasukhlyaka. Ahirbudhnya is an Anuddesya fire. 
That fire is remembered as Grhapati. 

27-28. Thereafter, I shall enumerate his eight sons who 
are called Viharaniyas.' [Here there is a repetition of verse 
No. 20]. The fire Havyavahana is declared as Hotrlya fire 
(i.e. fire used by the Hotr). 

29-30. The second fire here is named Pracetas that is a 
subdued fire. Thereafter is the fire Vaisvadeva. It is called 
SarhsiJ by the Brahmanas. The fire Usik that is Kavi is con- 
ceived as Pota fire. It is also conceived as Avari fire, Vabhari 
and Vaisthlya. 

* For anuddesya nivdsydndm here cf. Va. P. 29. 19a. anirdeSydnya- 
vdcydndnty 'undefinable or indescribable'. 

** The printed text shows some confusion, verse 21A should be follow- 
ed by 22a after which 21b should be taken. The translation is of the re- 
arranged lines. 

•** Va.P.29.20 atra drsyate, 'is seen here*. 

•f In Va.P.29.22 visvasydyasamudra seems to be the name of the fire. 

1. It is not known why there should be a different list of such fires as 
this list differs from that in Mt.P. 

t Ya.P. IHa—bi'ahma-sthdne sa ucyate. 

'is spoken of as being in the abode of Brahma. 

118 Brahmanda Purana 

31. The fire Avasphurja is also called Vivasvan and 
Asthan. The eighth one which is fire Sudhyu is also called 

32. Thoi,c Dhisnyas, the Viharaniyas, are being worshipped 
on the Sautya day (that is the day on which Soma juice is 
extracted) by the Brahmanas. It (i.e. Sudhyu) is remembered 
as the source of origin of the waters. Indeed it is conceived in 

33. The fire byname Pavaka that is born ofwaters and 
that is called Abgarbha (Having the waters as the womb) should 
be known as the fire at the Avabhrtha (the holy ablution at the 
end ofa sacrifice). It is worshipped along with Varuna. 

34. Hrcchaya (Abiding within the heart) is the fire 
that is his (Pavaka's) son.' It is the fire that digests (food-stuffs) 
in the stomach of men. Mrtyuman is remembered as the 
scholarly son of the Jathara-fire (Gastric fire). 

35-36. That fire born mutually may burn all the living 
beings here. The terrible Samvartaka fire is remembered as the 
son of the fire Manyuman (? Mrtyuman) . It drinks water and 
lives in the ocean and has the face of a mare. Saharaksa is 
conceived as the son of Samudravasin (residing within the 

37. Ksama, the son of Saharaksa, burns the houses of 
men. His son is the fireKravyad and it consumes dead persons. 

38. Thus the sons of Pavaka fire have been described 
here. Thereafter is the solar fire Suci.^ It is called Ayus by the 

39. This fire generates other fires on being churned in 
the Arani; this fire is taken from one place to another; this 
lord is known by the name Ayus. 

1. VV. 34-38 give the list ofPavaka's sons. But actually they are given 
here in the genealogical order as follows: 

Pavaka — Hrcchaya — Mrtyuman (Manyuman) — Samvartaka (Vadava- 
nala) — Saharaksa — ksama — Kravyadagni. 

2. The fires under group of Suci are given in a genealogical order as 

Suci or Ayus, Mahisa, Sahasa, Adbhuta, Vividhi, Arka — nine sons of 
Arka as enumerated in V.43. 119 

40. Mahisa was the son of Ayus. His son is named 
Sahasa. That fire Sahasa is remembered as the Abhimdnin 
(Identifying itselfwith it) in the Yajfias of Pdka (cooking). 

41. The son of the fire Sahasa was Adbhuta of great 
fame. Vividhi is remembered as the great son of the fire 

42. (This fire) is one that identifies itselfwith expia- 
tory rites. It always consumes the Havis-offering that is consign- 
ed into the fire. Arkka was the son of Vividhi. The following 
were the sons of that fire (Arkka). 

43. They are — Anlkavan, Vajasrk, Raksoha, Yastikrt, 
Surabhi, Vasu, Annada, Apravista and Rukmarat. 

44. These fourteen fires are the Progeny of the fire Suci. 
These fires are said to be those that are consecrated in the 

45. In the Manvantara of Svayambhuva in the first 
Sarga (creation), these fires that are Abhimdnins (those that 
identify themselves) had passed away along with the Yamas, 
the excellent Devas. 

46. Formerly in the world, these Havyavahanas (fires) 
were those that identified themselves with the abodes called 
Viharaniyas, both sentient and insentient. 

47. These fires were stationed in the holy rites and 
Yajiias. They were (both) Kdmyas (those with the fruit desired) 
and Naimittikas occasional ones or that are utilised when cause 
arises). They had passed away in the previous Manvantara 
along with those Sukras and Yagas (?) 

48. In the Manvantara of the first Manu, they had 
passed away along with the holy noble-souled Devas. Thus 
the abodes of these Sthdnins (those that identify themselves with 
the abodes) have been enumerated by me. 

49. The characteristics of Jatavedas (fires) in the 
Manvantaras of the past and future are enumerated through 

50. All of them are remembered as ascetics and Brahma- 
bhrts (those that sustain the knowledge of Brahman). All of 
them were lords of subjects. They are remembered as Luminous. 

120 Brahmanda Pur ana 

51. These are to be known (as present) in all the seven 
Manvantaras beginning with Svarocisa and ending with the 
Savarnya Manvantara in regard to their names, forms and 

52. The present fires exist along with the current Yama 
Devas. The future fires (lit. those that have notyet come) shall 
exist along with the future Devas. 

53. Thus the group of fires has been duly described in 
the proper order. 

Now henceforth the race of the Pitrs will be narrated 
in detail and in the due order. 


The Real Nature ofKdla — Time : Ssatons (Rtuf) as Pitrs (Manes) 

Suta said : 

1. Even as Brahma was creating sons formerly in the 
Svayambhuva Manvantara, the human beings, the Asuras and 
the Devas were born out ofhis limbs. 

2. The Pitrs also were born, considering him as their 
father (?). The mode of their creation has been described 
before. Let it be heard briefly once again. 

3. After creating the Devas, Asuras and the human 
beings, Brahma took pride in them. (He conceived ofa further 
creation also). (The Pitrs) who were being considered like 
fathers, were born ofhis flanks. 

4. The six seasons beginning with Madhu (Spring) 
(were born ofhis flanks). They call them Pitrs. The vedic text 

says, — "The seasons are the Pitrs and Devas." 

5. In all the Manvantaras, past and future (the same is 
repeated). Formerly, these were born in the auspicious Manvan- 
tara of Svayambhuva. 121 

6-7a. They are remembered by the name Agnisvdttas and 
Barhisads. Those of them who were householders, who did not 
perform Yajiias are remembered as the Pitrs of the group 
Agnisvdttas. They were not Ahitdgnis (those who regularly 
maintained sacrificial fires). 

7b-9. Those ofthem who performed Yajiias are the Pitrs 
(known as) Somapifliins. Those who performed Agnihotras are 
remembered as the Pitrs called Bar/ji'sads. In this sacred lore, it 
has been decisively mentioned that the Rtus (seasons) are the 
Pitrs and the Devas. The months of Madhu and Madhava (i.e. 
Caitra and Vaisakha) should be known as Rasas; the month 
of Suci and Sukra (i.e. Jyestha and Asadha) are Susmins 
(Lustrous ones). The months of Nabhas and Nabhsys (i.e. 
Sravana and Bhadrapada) — these two are cited as Jivas. 

10. The months of Isa and Urja (i.e. Asvina and 
Karttika) are cited as Svadhdvats- The months of Saha and 
Sahasya (i.e. Margasirsa and Pausa) are cited as Ghoras. 

11. The months ofTapas and Tapasya (i.e. the months 
of Magha and Phalguna) pertain to the winter, they are 
Manyumats. The units of time called Mdsas (months) are 
included in the six periods of time (seasons). 

12. These are called Rtus. The Rtus are the sons of 
Brahma. They should be known as those identifying them- 
selves with both sentient and non-sentient (objects). 

13. In the abodes of Mdsa (month) and Ardhamdsa (fort- 
night), the Rtus (seasons) are considered the Sthdnins (the 
abiders). By means of the change of abodes, the Sthdnd- 
bhimdnins( those who identify themselves with the abodes )should 
be understood. 

14. The days, the nights, the months, the seasons, the 
Ayanas (tropical transits of the sun) and the years are the 
abodes; the names of Abhimdnins (deities identifying them- 
selves) are in the same order. 

15. The Sthdnins (those who identify themselves with the 
abodes) who are established in these, are the states of time. 
They are having those as their own selves, since they are of the 
same essence as they. Understand as I shall mention them. 

122 Brahtnanda Parana 

16.' The various units (or states) of time are the Hthis 
of Parvans (dates of lunar fortnights), the junctions, the fortnights 
that are on a par with halves of months, the moments, the 
Kalas, Kasthas, Muhiirtas, days and nights. 

17-18. Two half-months make one Mdsa (month). Two 
months make what is called Rtu. Three Stus make one Ayana 
and the two Ayanas, (viz. : the southern and the northern) 
together constitute a year. These are the abodes for the Sthdnins. 
The i?ftj5 are the sons ofNimi. Similarly, they should be known 
as six in number. 

19-20. The five types of subjects (i.e. human beings, 
quadrupeds, birds, reptiles and trees) are remembered as the 
sons oiRtu. They are characterised by their seasonal change. 
Since the mobile and the immobile beings are born through 
the Artavas (seasonal changes, menstruation etc.) the Artavas 
are fathers and the Rtus are grandfathers. When they come 
together, the subjects of the Prajapati are born. 

21. Hence the Vatsara (year) is considered the great 
grand-father of the subjects. These Sthdnins of the nature of the 
abodes in their respective abodes have been recounted. 

22. They are declared as those who have the same names, 
the same essence and the same nature as they (i.e. units of 
time). It is Samvatsara (the year) that is considered and re- 
membered as Prajapati. 

23. Agni, the son of Samvatsara, is called rta by scholars. 
Since they are born of Rta, they are called Rtus. 

24-25. Years should be known as having six seasons. To 
the five types of subjects, viz. : bipeds, quadrupeds, birds, 
reptiles and the stationary beings, there are five Artavas (seasonal 
changes). The flower is remembered as Kalartava (seasonal 
change indicating particular period of time of trees. The state 
of being Rtu and Artava is recounted as Pitrtva (the state of 
being Pitrs). 

26. Thus the Rlus and the Artavas should be known as 

1. VV. 16-18 detail the units of time. 123 

Pitrs because all the living beings are born of them through the 
Stukdla(the time of i?to— period favourable for conception).' 

27. Hence these Artavas are indeed the Pitrs so we 
have heard. These have stayed throughout the Manvantaras as 
Kdldbhimdnins (identifying themselves with the Kdla or time). 

28-30. They are endowed with causes and effects; they 
have pervaded everything through their supremacy and indeed 
these identify themselves with the abodes and they stand here 
in consequence of that special contact (?). 

The Pitrs are of various kinds viz. : Agnisvdttas and 
Barhisads. Two daughters well known in the worlds were born 
of Svadha and the Pitrs. They were Mena and .DharanI by 
whom the entire universe is sustained. These two were expoun- 
ders ofBrahman. These two were Yoginis also. 

31-34. Mena was the mental daughter of those Pitrswho 
are mentioned SiS Agnisvdttas. They are remembered as Upahutas 

DharanI is remembered as the mental daughter of Barhi- 
sads. These Pitrs, the Barhisads are remembered as Somapdyins 

These two Pitrs gave their splendid daughters in marriage 
for the sake of righteousness. 

The Agnisvdttas gave Mena as the wife unto the Himavan, 
The Barhisads gave the splendid daughter DharanI as wife 
unto Meru. Understand their grandsons. 

Mena the wife of Himavan gave birth to Mainaka. 

35. She gave birth to Ganga also, the most excellent 
river who became the wife of the salt sea. Krauiica is the son 
of Mainaka. It is due to him that the continent Krauiica has 
been so named. 

36. DharanI. the wife of Meru, gave birth to the son 
Mandara endowed with divine medicinal herbs as well as three 
well reputed daughters. 

1. This explains wliy Rtus (Seasons) are regarded as Pitrs (manes). 

2. Tliere is a difference of opinion among the Puranas about the names 
of the daughters of these Pitrs. Such differences are reconciled by presuming 
that the events in Puranas refer to different Kalpas or Manvantaras. 

124 Brahmanda Purana 

37. They were Vela, Niyati and the third (daughter) 
Ayati. Ayati is remembered as the wife of Dhatr and Niyati 
that ofVidhatr. 

38. The progeny of these two, formerly in the Svayam- 
bhuva Manvantara have already been recounted. Vela (sea- 
shore) gave birth to a praiseworthy (lit. uncensured) daughter 
ofSagara (the ocean). 

39. The daughter of the ocean named Savarna became 
the wife of PracTnabarhis. Ten sons were born to Savarna of 

40. All of them were called Pracetasas and were masters 
of the science. Lord Daksa, the son of the self-born lord, 
assumed the status of their son. 

41. It was on account of the curse of the three-eyed lord 
(and it took place) in the Caksusa Manvantara. 

On hearing this, Sarhsapayani asked Suta. 

42. "How was it that Daksa was born formerly in the 
Caksusa Manvantara, due to the curse of Bhava ? Even as 
we ask, narrate that to us." 

43. On being told thus, Sflta addressed Samsapayani 
and told the story connected with Daksa (along with) the cause 
of the curse ofTryambaka. 

Suta said : 

44. "Daksa had eight daughters who have already been 
mentioned by me. The father brought them from their (hus- 
bands' ) houses to his own house and honoured them. 

45-46. Then, honoured very well thus, all of them 
stayed in their father's house. 

The eldest among them was named Satl who was the wife 
ofTryambaka (Three-eyed god Siva) 

Daksa who hated Siva did not invite that daughter. 
Mahesvara never bowed down to Daksa. 

47-48. The son-in-law who was stationed in his own 
brilliance did not bow down to his father-in-law. 

On knowing that all her sisters had arrived at her father's 
house, Satl, too went to her father's house although she had not 
been invited. The father accorded to her an honour inferior to 
that accorded to other daughters and which was disagreeable 
to her as well. 125 

49-50. That goddess who had been infuriated and anno- 
yed spoke to her father : — "O Lord, by according tome a wel- 
come and honour inferior to that of my younger sisters, O 
father, by dishonouring me thus, you have done a despicable 
thing. I am the eldest and the most excellent. It behoves you 
to honour me . " 

51. On being told thus, Daksa spoke to her with his eyes 
turned red :— "These girls, mydaughters, are more worthy of 
respect and more excellent than you. 

52. O SatI, their husbands also are highly respected by 
me. They are highly proficient in the Vedas, endowed with good 
power of penancej possessing great Yogic power and very pious. 

53-54a. O SatI, all of them are superior to Tryambaka, 
on account of their good qualities and are more praiseworthy. 
They are my excellent sons-in-law, viz. : Vasistha, Atri, Pulastya, 
Ahgiras, Pulaha, Kratu, Bhrgu and Marlci. 

54b-56. Since Sarva always defies and disregards me, I 
do not honour and welcome you. Indeed Bhava is antagonistic 
to me." Thus spoke Daksa then, on account of his deluded 
mind, the consequence of which was a curse unto himself and 
to the great sages who were mentioned by him. 

On being told thus the infuriated goddess said to her 
father thus — 

57. "Since you insult me although I am devoid ofdefects 
verbally, mentally and physically, O father, I am abandoning 
this body born ofyou". 

58. Then, being infuriated and aggrieved on account of 
that dishonour, goddess SatI bowed down to the self-born lord 
and spoke these words. 

59-60a. "Wherever I am born again with a brilliant 
body whether lam not born (of a womb)or whether I am bom 
of a righteous person, I should necessarily attain the status 
of the virtuous wife of the self-possessed three-eyed lord 

60b-61. Seated there itself she entered the Yogic trance. 
She united her soul (to the supreme lord). With her 
mind she retained the Agneyi Dhdrand. Then the fire born ofher 

126 Brahmanda Parana 

soul rose up from all her limbs. Kindled by the wind it reduced 
her body to ashes. 

62. The trident-bearing lord heard about that death of 
Satl. Sahkara came to know about their conversation factually. 
Hence, the lord became angry with Daksa and the sages. 

Rudra said : 

63. "Bhflrloka is spoken of as the first one among all 
the worlds. At the behest of Paramesthin (supreme lord), I 
shall sustain it always. 

64. All the lustrous worlds stand by on being held on to 
this earth. At his behest, I shall hold them here always. 

65. There is the fourfold classification of the Devas. 
Still they partake of food at one place. I will not partake of 
food along with them. Therefore, they will offer it separately 
unto me. 

66-68. O Daksa, since, on account of me sinless Sati had 
been insulted, and all other daughters were praised along with 
their husbands, hence when the Vaivasvata Manvantara 
begins, these great sages who are not born of a womb will be 
born again during my second Yajiia". After announcing this to 
all of them, he cursed Daksa once again, "In the Caksusa 
Manvantara when Sukra's Homa is performed by Brahma (?), 
you will become a human king in the family of Caksusa. 

69-71. You will be born as the grandson of Praclna- 
barhis and the son of Pracetas. Youwill be born by the name 
of Daksa itself, as the son of Marisa, the daughter of Sdkhins 

When the Vaivasvata Manvantara arrives, there also, O 
evil-minded one, I will cause obstacles in a holy rite 
endowed with virtue though it may be difficult of access". 

Suta said : 

72. On hearing that, Daksa cursed Rudra once again : — 
"Since, on account of me you rendered evil to the sages, the 
Brahmanas will not worship you along with the Devas in the 
course of a Yajfia. 127 

73. O ruthless one, after offering the Ahuti unto you 
in the course of their holy rites, they will touch the holy water 
again. At the close of the Yuga, they will abandon heaven and 
will stay here alone". 

74-75. Thereafter, he (Rudra) is not worshipped along 
with the Devas. He is worshipped separately. 

Thereupon, Daksa who was thus addressed by Rudra of 
unmeasured, splendour and cursed abandoned his body origi- 
nating from the self-born lord, and was born among human 

76. After realising the lord and deity of Yajfias, Daksa, 
the householder, worshipped him with the entire Yajiia along 
with the other deities. 

77. After the advent of the Vaivasvata Manvantara, 
the lord of mountains begot of Mena the goddess Uma who had 
been the noble lady SatI previously. 

78. She who had been the noble lady SatI previously 
became Uma afterwards. She is the wife ofBhava always. 
Bhava is never abandoned by her. 

79-80. Just as the noble lady Aditi follows for ever 
Kasyapa, the son of Marici; just as goddess Sri follows 
Narayana, just as Sad follows Maghavan (i.e. Indra), (so also 
satI follows Bhava.) 

These following noble ladies never leave off their 
husbands, viz. : LaksmI does not leave offVisnu, Usa does 
not leave off Surya (the Sun) nor does ArundhatI leave of 

81. They return and are born again and again in the 
Kalpas along with them. 

Thus Daksa was born as the son of Pracetas in the 
Caksusa Manvantara. 

82. This has been heard by us that on account ofthe 
curse he was born second time as king, as the son of Marisa 
and the ten Pracetas. 

83-86. The seven great sages, Bhrgu and others were 
born formerly in the first Treta yuga of the Vaivasvata Man- 
vantara. They assumed body from Varuna, at that sacrifice 
of the great lord. 

128 BrahmanAa Parana 

Between Daksa, the Prajapati, and Triyambaka, the 
intelligent self-possessed Lord, there was intense enmity con- 
tinued from their previous birth. Hence intense enmity should 
never be pursued at the time of personal antagonism. 

Due to merits and demerits, the living being does not 
leave off the awareness of what is intensely conceived in the 
mind, though it may pertain to the previous birth. That 
should not be pursued by a learned person. 

87. Thus began the story that rids one of sins and 
that pertains to Daksa.' It has been formerly urged for narra- 
tion by you. 

88. This story had been recounted in the context of 
narration of the line of the Pitrs.^ Henceforth, I shall 
recount the Devas in the same order as that of the Pitts. 

89. Formerly, in the beginning ofthe Treta yuga in the 
Svayambhuva Manvantara, there were the Devas well-known 
as Yamas and they were the sons of Yajfia." 

90. They were the well-reputed sons of Brahma. Since 
they were Ajas (unborn), they are Ajitas (unconquered). 
These are the mental sons of Svayambhuva. They are named 

91. Therefore, these are remembered as the three groups 
of Devas (? Yama, Ajita and Sakta). The Cchandajas* were 
thirty-three in the creation of Svayambhuva. 

92-94. The twelve Yamas are recounted as follows : 
Yadu, Yayati, Vivadha, Trasata, Mati, Vibhasa, Kratu, 
Prayati, Visruta, Dyuti, Vayavya and Samyama. Yadu and 
Yayati were two Devas ( ?) 

The twelve Ajitas are as follows : Asama, Ugradrsti, 
Sunaya, Sucisravas, Kevala, VisvarQpa, Sudaksa, Madhupa, 
Turlya, Indrayuk, Yukta and Ugra. 

3. This and a number ofverses from this chapter are found inVa.P.Ch.3I 

2. Daksa, in the 2nd incarnation, was a descendant of Pitr-gods (vide 
V.40 above). Hence the story of Dalisa and the destruction of his sacrifice 
by Siva is inserted here. 

3. From this verse, the section ofthe race of gods (Deva-vamia) begins. 
* Va.P.31.5 reads chandogSh 'Chanters ofthe Sama-veda'. 129 

95-96. The twelve Saktas are recounted as follows : 

Janiman, Visvadeva, Javistha, Mitavan, Jara, Vibhu, 
Vibhava, Rcika, Durdiha, Sruti, Grnana and Brhat. 

These were Somapdyins in the Svayambhuva Manvantara. 

97. These Ganas were lustrous, valorous and very 
powerful at the outset; lord Visvabhuk was their Indra. 

98-100. The Asuras who lived then were their cousins 
and kinsmen. 

The Suparnas, Yaksas, Gandharvas, Pisacas, Uragas and 
Raksasas — these along with the Pitrs (and the Devas)constitut- 
ed the eight Devayonis (divine groups), they passed away in 
the Svayambhuva Manvantara. They have thousands of 
subjects (progeny). They were richly endowed with majestic 
lustre, beauty, longevity and physical strength. They are not 
mentioned in detail here, lest there should be irrelevancy of 

101-102. The Svayambhuva creation should be under- 
stood by means- of the current one.' The past creation is 
observed through the present one which is Vaivasvata in 
regard to the subjects, deities, sages and Pitrs. Understand the 
seven sages who had been existing before. 

103. Bhrgu, Angiras, Marici, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, 
Atri and Vasistha, these seven (?) were in the Svayambhuva 

104-105. Agnldhra, Agnibahu, Medha, Medhatithi, Vasu, 
Jyotisman, Dyutiman, Havya, Savana and Sattra — these were 
the ten sons of Svayambhuva Manu. They were extremely 
mighty with the velocity of the wind. They were kings of great 
magnificence in the first Manvantara. 

106-107. That race along with the Asuras, the excellent 
Gandharvas, the Yaksas, the Uragas, the Raksasas, the 
Pisacas, the human beings, the Suparnas and the groups of 
Apsaras cannot be recounted in due order even in the 

1. The author regards the first Manu (Svayambhuva) and the present 
Manu (Vaivasvata) as more important and gives so to say a comparative 
statement between the events etc. in these two Manvantaras. 

130 Brahmanda Parana 

course of hundreds of years. Since their names are many where 
is the limit to their number in that family. 

108. Those subjects who were in the Svayambhuva 
Manvantara with the names of the Yugas ( ?) passed away due 
to the great efflux oftime in the order ofAyanas, years and 

The sages asked : 

109. Who is this lordly Kala (Time) ? Who is this anni- 
hilator of all living beings? Ofwhat is he the source of origin? 
What is his beginning, what is the intrinsic essence, his soul ? 

110. What is his eye? What is the form? What are 
remembered as his limbs? What is his name ? What is his self? 
Mention these factually. 

Suta said ; 

111. Let the real nature of Kala (Time) be listened 
to.' After listening, let it be retained in the mind. The sun 
is his source and the period of the twinkling of the eye is his 
beginning. He is called Sankhydcaksas (Having the number for 
his eyes). 

112. The day and night together constitute its form. 
The /\/(mesas('moments)are his limbs. The year (Samvatsara) is his 
essence. His name is Kaldtmaka (one whose soul is the digit). 

113-115. That lord ofsubjects is of the nature of the 
present, future and past times. Understand the condition of the 
Kala divided into five, by means of the day, the fortnight, 
the month, the reasons and the Ayanas. The first (year) is 
Samvatsara; the second one is Parivatsara; the third one is 
Itfvatsara ; the fourth is Anuvatsara; and the fifth among them 
is Vatsara. That period oftime is termed Yuga.' 

1. This is a new section dealing witli tlie nature of Kala (Time). Cf. 
Va.P.31.22 ff. 

2. .VV. 111-112 describe the person of Kala, while V.l 13 gives the five 
divisions of Kala (time) viz. the day, the fortnight, the month, the season 
and the Ayana. 

3. Kala is now identified with Yuga. It is comprised of five years which 
are named as (1) Samvatsara, (2) Parivatsara, (3) Id vatsara, (4) Anuvatsara 131 

116. I shall explain their principle (Tattva). Even as 
it is being recounted, understand it that which is .mentioned 
as Kratu and Agni is considered Samvatsara. 

117-120. This sun, the son of Aditi, and the fire oftime 
is Parivatsara. 

Soma (the moon) which is ofthe nature of the essence of 
waters, which has two movements, the bright and the darli ones 
(i.e. the bright half and the dark half of the month) is Idva- 
tsara and has been decisively determined so in the Purdnas. He 
who purifies the worlds with his seven times seven bodies (i.e. 
49 Maruts); he who blows favourable to the world — that wind 
is Anuvatsara. 

He who was born of the Ahamkdra (ego) of Brahma as 
Udagrudra*— that blue-red (complexioned) Rudra should be 
known as their Vatsara. 

I shall explain his Satattva (essential nature); understand 
it even as it is being recounted. 

121. Due to the contact of limbs and minor limbs, the 
Kalatman (the soul oftime) is the great-grandfather. He is 
the lord and source of origin of Rk, Yajus and Saman; he is the 
master ofthe five (i.e. day, fortnight etc.). 

122-126. He is Agni, Yama, Kala, Sambhiiti and Praja- 
pati. He is source of origin of the sun. He is mentioned as 
Samvatsara by learned men. 

The sun should be known as Parivatsara. He is the source 
of origin of the divisions of Kala (Time), of the months, seasons 
and the two Ayanas; of the planets, stars, chillness, heat, rain, 
span of life and holy rites; the Bhaskara (sun) is the source of 
origin ofthe smaller divisions and the days; he is Vaikdrika (an 
evolute ?), ofkindly disposition, the son of Brahma and the 
Lord protector ofsubjects. He is one. He is (in a way) not one. 
He is day, month, season and grandfather. He is Aditya, Savitr, 

and (5) Vatsara. The following verses describe the "principle" as to how and 
why (1) Kratu-Agni, (2) The Sun-god, (3) Soma or the Moon-god with 
Pitrs, (4) The Wind-god and (5) Rudra should be associated with these five 

* Udagrudra = Udagra Rudra. Or we may adopt the reading of 
Va. P. 31. 32a. ahankdrdd rudan rudrdh / 

'Rudra who roared out of haughtiness and conceit'. 

132 BrahmSnda Purana 

Bhanu, Jlvana (Enlivener) and honoured by Brahma. He is 
the Prabhava (source of birth) and Apyaya (end or that in which 
they merge themselves at death)of all living beings. Therefore, 
Bhaskara the presiding deity of the Taras (constellations), 
should be known as the second Parivatsara. 

127-129. Since Soma (the moon god) is the lord of all 
medicinal herbs, since he is the grandfather, since he is the 
enlivener of all living beings, since he is the lord, causing Toga 
(acquisition of what is not attained) and Ksema (preservation 
ofwhat is acquired); since he always looks after and upholds 
the universe by means of his rays; since he is the source of 
origin of the Tithis (days of the lunar fortnight), junctions 
of Parvans, full moon and the New moon; since he causes the 
night; since he is the Prajapati with nectarine soul— for all 
these reasons Soma (Moon) with the Pitrs is remembered 
as Idvalsara. 

For the following reasons Vayu (the Wind god) is 
Anuvatsara : 

130. In the world, he is the propeller of all activities of 
the living beings through the five types of vital winds viz. : 
Prana, Apana, Samana, Vyana, and Udana. 

131. He causes the unified and simultaneous activities 
of the five units of the physical body. viz. : the sense organs, 
the mind, the intellect, the memory and the strength. 

132. He is the soul of all; he is the lord of all worlds 
through the (spatial winds) Avaha, Pravaha etc. He exists 
through his seven times seven bodies (known as Maruts) that 
render help to others. 

133-134. He is the maker of the destiny of all living 
beings; he is the Prabhanjana (violent gust ofwind also); he 
perpetually causes the well-being of all living beings; he is the 
source of origin of fire, waters, earth, the sun and the moon; 
the wind is Prajapati : he is the soul of all the worlds; he is 
the great grandfather and he causes days and nights. Hence, it 
is that .Vayu (wind god) is Anuvatsara. 

135. All these four (i.e. Kala, the sun, the Moon and the 
wind god) are lords ofsubjects; they are born of the flanks (of 
Brahma); they are the fathers of all the worlds. They have been 
glorified as the souls of the worlds. 

136-137. Bhava came out crying, through the mouth of 
-£r ahma w ho was meditating. The great lord is mentioned (in 
the Vedas)~bf fo/ (sage), Vipra (Brahmana), the soul of the 
living beings, the great grandfather, the lord of all living 
beings and the Pranava (Om). It is through the penetration 
of the Atman (soul) that the limbs and minor limbs of the 
living beings take shape. 

138-139. ,Rudra who causes Unmdda (Madness) and 
(at the same time) blesses, is called Vatsara. Thus the sun, 
the moon, the fire, the wind and Rudra are all identifiers 
with Yttga (?). Lord Rudra who is the soul of Kala is always 
the cause of annihilation. Lord Rudra entered this universe 
by means of his own brilliance. 

140-141. Due to the contact with the soul tha t is the 
support, by means of the bodies and the appellations^(ne enters 
the universe). Therefore, through his own vitality hehas the 
status of Deva, Pitr and Kala and this status blesses the worlds. 
It is the greatest. So Rudra is always worshipped by those 
who are the knowers of that (Rudra ?) 

142-144. Since the lord is the master of the lords of sub- 
jects, since he is Prajapati, since he is the conceiverof all living 
beings, since Nilalohita is the soul of all, since Rudra resuscit- 
ates the fading and declining medicinal herbs again and again; 
since at the time when medicinal herbs decline, the lord is 
worshipped by the Devas, the leader ofwhom is Prajapati and 
who seek fruits eagerly desired by them — (He is worshipped by 
offering Purodasa in three Kapalas) otherwise called Three 
Ambakas — So the lord is called Tryambaka.' 

145. The three Vedic metres viz. : Gayatrl, Tristubh 
and Jagati are remembered by the name Trvam bakas. Out of 
love they are the sources of origin of the vegltable kingdom. 

146. The Purodasa offering consecrated by the repeti- 
tion of those three metrical verses united into one is called 
Trikapsla because it has three means and it is instilled with 
their virility in three ways. 

1. This is a repetition of the explanation of the identification of Tryam- 
baka and the three Kapalas (pot-sherds) on which Purodasa is offered. 

1 34 Brahman (la Parana 

147. Hence that Purodasa is Tryambaka. Therefore, he 
(the lord Rudra) is also declared as Tryambaka. 

Thus the Yuga is mentioned by learned men as one that 
consists of five years. 

148. The Samvatsara that has been mentioned by Brah- 
manas as one having five selves became a unit of six selves' 
with the names oi Madhu (spring) and other seasons. 

149-151. The five Artavas are the sons ofthe Rtus. Thus 
the creation is recounted briefly. 

Thus the unattached Kala with many measures and units 
removes the lives of living beings and runs like the rapidly 
speeding current ofwater. 

The progeny of these, cannot be enumerated authorita- 
tively, because they are innumerable. The group of sons- and 
grandsons is endless. 

Glorifying this family ofgreat lords of subjects of holy 
rites and meritorious fame, one shall achieve great Siddhi (spi- 
ritual attachment). 


The race of Priyavrata 


Description of Continents and their Sub-Divisions 

SUta said : 

1. In all the Manvantaras of the past and the future, 
all the subjects are born with similar identification in regard 
to names and forms.' 

1. The year, said to be of five souls (vide V.l 13), is again divided into 
six divisions according to season (rtus). 

2. This is the main thesis ofthe Purana. This chapter deals with Furanic 
cosmography. It associates the names of continents (dvtpas) with the descen- 
dants of Svayambhuva Manu. For similar description vide A. P. 107, KP.I.40 
Bh. P.V 16.1-26, Mt.P.112, 121, 122. 135 

2. The Devas who are of eight types are the overlords in 
that Manvantara. The sages and the Manus — all of them serve 
the same purpose. 

3. The creation of the great sages was already recounted. 
Now understand the race of Svayambhuva Manu, that is being 
recounted in detail and in due order. 

4-5. Svayambhuva Manu had ten grandsons who were 
similar to him. The entire earth consisting of seven continents 
was colonised by them along with its towns, oceans and mines 
in every sub-continent in the first Treta yuga of the Svayam- 
bhuva Manvantara. 

6. This (Earth) was colonised by those sons of Priya- 
vrata, the grandson of Svayambhuva (Manu)who were endow- 
ed with progeny, strength and penance. 

7. Kamya that extremely fortunate daughter of Kar- 
dama the Prajapati, bore unto Priyavrata heroic sons endowed 
with their own progeny.' 

8-9. She gave birth to two daughters, viz. : Samrat and 
Kuksi. Both of them were splendid. She gave birth to ten sons 
also. The brothers of those two daughters were ten in number, 
valorous and similar to the Prajapatis. They were Agnldhra, 
Agnibahu, Medhas, Medhatithi, Vasu (later mentioned as 
Vapusman), Jyotisman, Dyutiman, Havya, Savana and 

1. The race of Priyavrata 

Names ofPriyavrata 

's Sons 


ames of the 












Vasu (Vapusman) 
















Dvipa assigned as 

136 Brahmanda Purana 

10. Priyavrata crowned seven of them in seven-continents 
as kings with due religious rites. Understand them as well as 
those continents. 

11. He made the excessively powerful Agnldhra, the lord 
of Jambtidvlpa. Medhatithi was made by him the lord of 

12. He crowned Vapusman (Earlier mentioned as 
Vasu) as king in the Salmala dvlpa. The lord made Jyotisman, 
the king in Kusa dvlpa. 

13. He coronated Dyutiman as the king in Krauiica 
dvlpa; Priyavrata made Havya the lord of Saka dvlpa. 

14-17. The lord made Savana the overlord of Puskara. 
In Puskara dvlpa, Savana had two sons, viz. : Mahavlta and 
Dhataki. These two sons were the most excellent ones that 
parents could desire. In accordance with the name of that 
noble soul, his sub-continent is remembered as Mahavlta 
varsa. In accordance with the name of Dhataki, his sub-conti- 
nent is called Dhataklkhanda. 

Havya (the lord of Sakadvlpa) begot seven sons, rulers of 
Sakadvipa. They were, viz. : Jalada, Kumara, Sukumara, 
Manlvaka, Kusumottara, Modaka and the seventh one 

18-21-' The first sub-continent of Jalada is called Jalada. 
The second sub-continent of Kumara is glorified as Kaumara. 

The third one Sukumara is remembered as the sub-conti- 
nent of Sukumara. The fourth one is called Manlvaka, the 
sub-continent of Manlva. 

The fifth sub-continent Kusumottara is that of Kusumo- 
ttara. Modaka the sixth sub-continent is glorified as that of 

The seventh sub-continent is Mahadruma in accordance 
with the name of Mahadruma. 

All those seven sub-continents there are called after their 

22-23. There were seven sons born of Dyutiman, the 

1. VV. 18-22. The seven sub-divisions of Sakadvipa are named after 
tile seven sons of Havya. 137 

lord of Krauncadvlpa' viz. : Kusala, Manonuga, Usna, 
Pavana, Andhakaraka, Muni and Dundubhi. These were the 
sons ofDyutiman. They have after their own names, the splen- 
did sub-continents situated in the Krauncadvlpa. 

24-26. The land of Kusala named Kausala was very 
famous. Manonuga is remembered as the land of Manonuga. 

Usna is remembered as the land of Usna and Pavana that 
of Pavana. That land of Andhakara is glorified as Andhakara. 

Maunidesa was the land of Muni and Dundubhi is 
remembered as the land of Dundubhi. 

These seven lands in the KrauiicadvTpa were radiant 

27-30. Jyotisman too in the KusadvTpa had seven very 
powerful sons' viz. : Udbhijja, Venuman, Vairatha, Lavana, 
Dhrti, the sixth one Prabhakara and the seventh one remem- 
bered as Kapila. 

The first sub-continent is called Udbhijja; the second 
sub-continent was Venumandala; the third sub-continent was 
Vairathakara; the fourth sub-continent is remembered as 
Lavana; the fifth sub-continentwas Dhrtimat; the sixth sub- 
continent was Prabhakara; the seventh sub-continent named 
Kapila was glorified as that of Kapila. Their lands in the 
Kusadvlpa have the same names as they. 

31. The Lords of Salmala were (as if) embellished with 
subjects endowed with the disciplined conduct of life pertain- 
ing to the various Asramas (stages oflife). 

They were the seven sons ofVapusman.' 

32. They were : — Sveta, Harita, Jlmiita Rohita, 
Vaidyuta, Manasa and Suprabha, the seventh one. 

33-34. Sveta was the land of Sveta; Suharita was that 
of Harita ; Jlmiita was the land of Jlmiita and Rohita that of 
Rohita. Vaidyuta was the land ofVaidyuta and Manasa that 

1. VV. 22-26 enumerate seven sub-divisions of KrauiicadvTpa which 
are named after the seven sous ofDyutiman. 

2. W. 27-30. The seven sub-divisions of Kusadvipa are named after 
the seven sons of Jyotisman, liing of Kusadvipa. 

3. The seven sons ofVapusmau mentioned in the next verse have given 
their names to the Varsas or sub-continents they headed. 

138 Brahmanda Purana. 

of Manasa. Suprabha was the land of Suprabha. All these 
seven were the protectors of the lands. 

35. I shall recount Plaksadvlpa after the Jambfldvlpa. 
The seven sons of Medhatithi were the kings ruling over 

36-37'. These were the sons of Medhatithi who are men- 
tioned (as follows :) The eldest was named Santabhaya; the 
second is remembered as Sisira: Sukhodaya was the third; the 
fourth is called Nanda; Siva was the fifth among them; 
Ksemaka is called sixth, and Dhruva should be known as the 

38-43. Those seven Varsas (sub-continents) are known 
after the names ofthose seven (sons). Therefore the following 
(are well known), viz. : Santabhaya, Sisira, Sukhodaya, 
Ananda, Siva, Ksemaka and Dhruva. Those Varsas were all 
equal (to one another). They were colonized in the different 
parts formerly in the Svayambhuva Manvantara by those sons 
of Medhatithi who were kings and rulers of Plaksadvlpa. The 
subjects in the Plaksadvlpa were made to closely adhere to the 
disciplined conduct of life of the various castes and stages of 

It is the Dharma^ (piety, virtue) that is the criterion for 
the classification of the Varnas and Asramas in the five conti- 
nents beginning with Plaksadvlpa and ending with Sakadvlpa 
(i.e. Plaksa, Salmala, Kusa, Kraufica and Saka). Happiness, 
span oflife, beauty, strength and Dharma (Virtue) are remem- 
bered to be common to all perpetually, in these five DvTpas. 
Plaksadvlpa has been described. Understand the Jambtidvlpa. 

44. Priyavrata installed Agnldhra, the extremely power- 
ful son of Kamya and his eldest successor as the king and over- 
lord of Jambudvlpa. 

1. VV. 36-40 enumerate seven sons ofking Medhatithi, who became 
kings of seven Varsas — sub-continents — which were named after their 

2. W . 4 1 - 4 3 describe the common features of the five continents from. 
Plaksa to Sakadvipa. 139 

45-47. Nine sons were born to him.' They were on a 
par with the Prajapatis. 

The eldest was well known as Nabhi. Kimpurusa was his 
younger brother. Harivarsa was the third and the fourth was 
Ilavrta. Ramya was the fifth son, Hiranvan is mentioned as 
his sixth son. Kuru was the seventh among them. Bhadrasva 
is remembered as the eighth and the ninth was Ketumala. 

Understand their realms. 

48-52 The father gave Nabhi the southern Varsa named 
Hima; he gave Kimpurusa that Varsa, called Hemaktita. He 
gave Harivarsa that sub-continent which is remembered as 
Naisadha. He gave Havrta the sub-continent that was in the 
middle of Sumeru. The father gave Ramya, the sub-continent 
that is remembered as Nlla. The sub-continent Sveta that was 
situated to the north of it was given by the father to Hiranvan. 
He gave to Kuru the sub-continent that was to the north of 
Srngavan. Similarly, he allotted to Bhadrasva the sub-continent 
Malyavat. He assigned the sub-continent Gandhamadana to 
Ketumala. Thus these nine sub-continents have been narrated 
by me, part by part. 

53. Agnldhra crowned those sons in due order in those 
sub-continents. Thereafter, that pious-souled one became enga- 
ged in penance. 

54. Thus the entire earth consisting of the seven conti- 
nents was colonized by the seven sons of Priyavrata, who were 
the grandsons of Svayambhuva Manu. 

55. Thus, when annihilation takes place, these seven 
settlements (continents) are created again and again by the 
kings in all the seven sub-continents. 

56-58. This is the nature of colonization of the conti- 
nents and the Kalpas. 

With regard to the eight sub-continents beginning with 
that of Kimpurusa (the following things should be noted). 
Their attainment is natural. Without effort they are generally 
happy. There s no annihilation or calamity in them. There is 

1. W . 4 5 - 5 2 enumerate the sub-continents in Jambudvipa. For tlie 
identification of mountains vide Cli. 1 Footnotes on pp. 11, 12. 

140 Brahmanda Purana 

no fear from old age and death. There is neither Dharma 
(Virtue) nor Adharma (evil) among them. There is no classi- 
fication of people as the excellent, the middling and the base. In 
all those eight Ksetras (i.e. Varsas, sub-continents) there is no 
Tugdvasthd (the state ofYugas). 

59-61. I shall recount the procreation by Nabhi in the 
sub-continent called Hima. Understand it. Nabhi begot a 
highly lustrous son, of Meru-Devl. He was Rsabha,' the most 
excellent of all kings. He was the eldest ofall Ksatriyas. Heroic 
Bharata was born of Rsabha. He was the eldest of hundred 
sons. Rsabha crowned his son and engaged himself in Maha- 
pravrajya (the great migration of renunciation i.e. journey or 
pilgrimage till death). He allotted the southern sub-continent 
named Hima to Bharata. 

62-63. Hence learned men know this sub-continent as 
Bharatavarsa' after his name. Bharata's son was a virtuous 
scholar named Sumati. Bharata crowned him in that realm. 
After transferring the royal glory to his son the king entered 
the forest. 

64. His son Tejasa was a lord ofthe subjects and con- 
queror of enemies. The great scholar, Indradyumna is remem- 
bered as Tejasa's son. 

65-66. Paramesthin, his son, was born after his death 
and his son was Pratihara and the family came to be known 
after his name. In his family a son well known as Pratihartr 
was born. To that intelligent Pratihartr, son Unnetr was born. 
Bhiiman is. remembered as his son. 

67. His son was Udgltha. Prastavi was his son. Vibhu 
was the son Prastavi and Prthu was his son. 

68. Prthu's son was Nakta. Gaya was Nakta's son. Nara 
was born as the son of Gaya and Virat was the son of Nara. 

69. Mahavlrya was the son of Virat. His son was 
Dhlman. Mahanwasthe son of Dfalman and Bhauvana was 
the son of Mahan. 

1. He is regarded as the first Tirthahkara by Jains. He is mentioned 
in tlie Bli.P. V.Clis. 4, 5 and in VP. 11.1-28. 

2. Jaina traditipn supports this theory regardin the name of Bharata- 
varsa.—15.1-3 141 

70. Tvastrwas the son of Bhauvana. His son was Vira- 
jas. Rajas was the son of Nirajas and Satajit was the son of 


71. He had hundred sons. All ofthem were kings. The 
important one among them was Visvajyotis. It is through them, 
that these subjects flourished. 

72. This Bharata sub continent was marked by them as 
one with seven islands. Formerly, this BharatI land was enjoyed 
by those born of their family. 

73-75. Each set ofYugas consists of Krta, Treta etc. 
(The Manvantara consists of) such seventy-one sets of Yugas. 
People belonging to their family had been kings throughout 
the past Yugas in the Svayambhuva Manvantara. They were 
hundreds and thousands. 

Thus is the creation (race) of Svaymbhuva by which this 
universe is filled with sages, deities, Pitrs, Gandharvas, Raksa- 
sas, Yaksas, Bhutas, Pisacas, human beings, animals and birds. 
This is said to be their creation. It undergoes change along 
with the Yugas. 

The length and extent of the Earth : Description of Jambudvlpa. 

SUta said : 

1-3. On hearing about the settlement of the subjects thus, 
Samsapayani asked Sflta about the length and extent of the 
Earth* as it had been determined — "How many continents are 
there ? How many oceans ? How many mountains are proclaim- 
ed ? How many are the Varsas (sub-continents) ? What are the 

* Va.P.34.1b reads : Prthivyayima-vistarau. It is better than Bd.P.'s 
Prthivyodadhivistaram. Hence Va.P. reading accepted. 

142 Brahmanda Purana 

rivers declared therein ? Mention all these things to us in detail 
and factually such as the magnitude of the great elements, 
the Lokalolia mountain, the transits, the extent and the move- 
ments of the moon as well as the sun. 
Suta said : 

4-6. O ! I shall recount to you the length and extent of 
the earth, the number of the oceans and the number and extent 
of the islands. There are thousands of different islands that 
are included in the seven continents. They cannot be recounted 
in due order, because this world is studded and constantly (sur- 
rounded by them). I shall recount the seven continents along 
with the moon, the sun and the planets. 

7-8a. Men mention their magnitudes by means of guess 
alone. One cannot arrive by means of guess alone, at those 
beings (or things) which cannot be even pondered upon. That 
which is beyond nature is called Acintya (that which cannot be 
even pondered upon). 

8b- 10. I shall recount the jambiidvlpa as exists actually, 
consisting of nine Varsas. Understand it through its extent and 
girth in terms ofYojanas. It is more than a hundred thousand 
Yojanas all round. It is full of different rural countries and 
different kinds of splendid cities. It is filled with Siddhas and 
Caranas and is embellished with mountains. 

11. (It is full of mountains) endowed with all kinds of 
minerals originating from clusters of rocks. It is fuU of rivers 
flowing from mountains. 

12. Jambudvlpa is immense and glorious with huge zones 
all round. It is encircled by nine worlds that evolve a number 
of living beings. 

13. It is surrounded on all sides by the briny sea the 
extent of which is equal to that of Jambudvlpa itself 

14.* The following are the six Varsaparvatas' (Mountains 

* After verse 14 there read verse No. 28 which tells: the six 
mountains are Nila, Nisadha, Sveta, Hemakuta, Himavan and Srhgavan. 

1. The Varsa-parvatas are the mountains (mountain-chains) which 
divide one Varsa (sub-continent) from another. Thus they may be regarded 
as boundary mountains. The names and other characteristics are described 
in the following verses. Their geographical location is given in supra Ch.l 
Footnotes on pp. 11, 12. 143 

•dividing the sub-continents). They have good ridges. On either 
side they merge into the Eastern and Western oceans. 

15. Himavan is practically covered with snow. HemakQta 
is full ofHeman (gold). The great mountain Nisadha is equally 
pleasant in all the seasons. 

16. Meru is remembered as the most beautiful.' It has 
four colours (like four castes— Faz-na^^. It is golden. On its top 
its extent is thirtytwo thousand Yojanas. 

17. It is circular in shape. It is symmetrical and very 
lofty. It is endowed with the qualities of Prajapati. It has 
different colours at its sides. 

18. It is originated from the umbilical cord of Brahma 
born of the unmanifest one. In the east it is white in colour. 
Hence, it is on a par with the Brahmanas. 

19. Its northern side has a natural red colour. Hence, 
the Ksatriya-hood of IVIeru on account ofvarious reasons and 
purposes. (?) 

20-21. In the southern side it is yellow. So its Vaisyatva 
(state of being a Vaisya) is evident. In ^he West it is like the 
Bhrngapatra (A kind of leaf black in colour) all round. Hence it 
has the state of SQdra. Thus the colours are recounted (as well 
as the castes). Its nature through colour and magnitude has 
been explained. 

22. The Nila mountain is full of sapphires (has that 
colour). The Sveta is white and full of gold. Srngavan 
has the colour of the peacock's tail and it is full of gold. 

23. All these lordly mountains are frequented by the 
Siddhas and Caranas. Their internal diameter is said to be 
nine thousand Yojanas. 

24. The sub-continent of Ilavrta is in the middle of 
Mahameru. Its extent all around is thus nine thousand 

1. There is a consensus among Puranas like KP., Mt.P., Mk.P., Va.P., 
and Bd.P. about the shape and size of Meru. M. Ali points out that ancient 
Persians, Greeks, Chinese, Jews, and Arabs repeat the traditional nodality 
of Meru. After discussing the problem, he comes to the conclusion that 
Mt. Meru is identical with the Pamirs, in central Asia. 

His diagrammatic representation of the Jambiidvipa and its cross-section 
(Fig. 4) on p. 65 of Geog. of the Puranas is interesting. 

144 Brahmangia Purana 

25. In its middle is the Mahameru like a smokeless fire. 
The southern side of Meru is like the middle of the altar. Its 
upper half is its upper surface. 

26. The Varsa-Parvatas which belong to the six Varsas 
are two thousand Yojanas in extent and in height. 

27-31a. Their length is said to be in accordance with the 
extent of Jambiidvlpa. The two mountains, (Nlla and Nisa- 
dha) are hundred thousand Yojanas long. The other four 
mountains are shorter than these. The mountains Sveta and 
Hemakuta are each ninety thousand Yojanas long. The moun- 
tains Himavan and Srngavan are each eighty thousand Yojanas 
long. There are Janapadas (territories or counties) in between 
them. The Varsas are seven in number. They are encircled 
by mountains that are difficult to cross on account of steep 
precipices. They are criss-crossed with different kinds of rivers. 
It was impossible to travel from one Varsa to another (lit. 
they were mutually unapproachable). 

31b. Animals of different kinds live in them. ThisHaima- 
vata sub-continent is well known by the name Bharata. 

32-34. HemakiJta is beyond this. It is remembered by 
the name Kimpurusa. Naisadha sub-continent is beyond 
Hemaktita and it is called Harivarsa. Ilavrta is beyond Hari- 
varsa (and in the middle) of Meru. Nlla is beyond Ilavrta 
and it wellknown by the name Ramyaka. Sveta is beyond 
Ramyaka and it is wellknown as Hiranmaya. The sub-conti- 
nent Srngavat is beyond Hiranmaya and it is remembered as 

35. The two sub-continents in the south and the north 
should be known as situated in the form of a bow. Four 
others are stationed lengthwise and the middle one is 

36. Vedyardha which is on the hitherside of Nisadha, 

1. This Purana supports the Sapta-dvipi (seven-continent) theory about 
the earth. The distribution of the continents may be represented as under. 145 

is known as the southern Vedyardha and that which beyond 
the Nllavan is the northern Vedyardha.' 

37. In the southern side of Vedyardha, there are three 
Varsas and on the northern side ofVedyardha also there are 
three Varsas. Meru should be known as existing in between 
them and Ilavrta is in the middle of Meru. 

38. To the south of the Nlla and to the north of Nisa- 
dha, there is a great mountain stretching to the north named 

39. It stretches a thousand Yojanas from Nlla to Nisa- 
dha. It is glorified as one, thirtyfour thousand Yojanas in 

40. The mountain Gandhamadana should be known as 
situated to its west. In length and extent it is reputed to be 
like Malyavan. 

41. Meru, the golden mountain, is in the middle of two 
circles. That golden mountain has four colours. It is symmetri- 
cal and very lofty. 

North: (Uttara) Knru Varsa 

Sriigavan Mt. 
Hiranmaya Varsa 
Sveta Mt. 
Ramyaka Varsa 
Nlla Mt. 

I Ilavrta Varsa 

I Meru Mt. 

I Ilavrta Varsa 

Nisadha Mt. 
Hart Varsa 
Hemaknta Mt. 
Kimpurusa Varsa 
Himavan (Himalaya) Mt. 
South Bharata or Haimavata Varsa 

Does the bowlike formation of these Varsas suggest the spherical shape 
of the earth ? 

1. Galled Veyaddha in Jain (Ardha Magadh!) canon. 

2. Furanas give different locations of Gandhamadana and Malyavan. 
So do modern scholars, as the names of extra-Indian mountains were adopted 
by the Indo-Aryans as they penetrated deep in the Indian Peninsula. Thus 
Malyavan due to its association with Gandhamadana and Meru should be 
identified with the Sarikol range, as Gandhamadana was the northern ridge 
ofthe great Hindukush arch with its northern extension, the Khwaja Maham- 
mad. The southern ridge of Hindukush is Nisadha which merged into North- 
ern Karakorum and Kunlun (M. Ali. — Geog. of Purarias, pp. 58-59). 

146 '' '^ Brahmanda Purana 

42. The brilliant Sumeru shines, established like a king. 
It has the colour and brilliance of the midday sun. It is re- 
fulgent like the smokeless fire. 

43. It is eightyfour thousand Yojanas high. It has en- 
tered (down the ground level) sixteen thousand Yojanas. Its 
width is also sixteen thousand Yojanas. 

44. Since it is stationed like a platter its width on the 
top is thirty two thousand Yojanas. Its girth all round is three 
times its width. 

45-47. When the mass is circular the reckoning is trian- 
gular (?) (According to the triangular reckoning) its girth 
all round is fortyeight thousand Yojanas. Now the magnitude 
is recounted in the triangular reckoning. According to the qua- 
drangular reckoning (?) the girth all round is laid down as 
sixtyfour thousand Yojanas. That mountain is highly divine 
and equipped with divine medicinal herbs. 

48-49. The entire mountain is surrounded by worlds 
splendid and golden. All the groups of the Devas, the 
Gandharvas the serpents, and the Raksasas are seen on that 
king of mountains, as well as the splendid groups of 
Apsaras. That mountain Meru is encircled by worlds causing 
welfare of living beings. 

50-53. Four lands (Realms) are established on the four 
sides. They are Bhadrasvas (with east), Bharatas (south), 
Ketumalas in the west and the Kurus in the North' which 
are the resorts of meritorious persons. 

At the side of the Gandhamadana, there is this another 
great Gandika (hill?). It is charming and fascinating in all 
the seasons. It is auspicious and pleasant. East to West it 
extends to thirtytwo thousand Yojanas. The (gross) length is 

1. This appears to be the four-continent (Catur-dvipf) theory about the 
earth where the distribution ofVarsas is as follows: 

(Uttara)— Kuru 
West. Ketumala (Mt. Meru) Bhadrasva. East 

South 147 

thirtyfour thousand Yojanas. The people Ketumalas of 
auspicious holy rites are established there. 

54. All the men there are black and very strong. They 
have great inherent vitality. The women have the colour and 
lustre of the petals of lilies. All of them are pleasing to behold. 

55. There is a great divine jack-tree there. It has all 
the six tastes. It is Isvara (masterly and powerful). It is the 
son ofBrahma. It is as swift as mind and wanders wherever it 

56. They drink the juice of its fruits and live for ten 
thousand years. 

At the side of the Malyavan, in the east there is a 
wonderful Gandika Hill ? 

57. It has the same length and extent as the western 
Gandika. Bhadrasvas' should be known (as the people) there. 
They are always delighted in their minds. 

58. There is a forest of Bhadrasalas (excellent silk cotton 
trees). The great tree is the Black Mango tree. The men there 
are white?complexioned, highly enthusiastic and endowed with 

59. The women have the colour and lustre ofthewater- 
lilies. They are beautiful and pleasing to behold. They have 
the lunar brilliance and hue. Their faces resemble the moon. 

60. Their limbs are cool of touch like the moon. They 
have the odour of lilies. Their span oflife is ten thousand years 
and is free from ailments. 

61-63. By drinking the juice of the black mango all of 
them have perpetual youth. 

To the south of the Sveta and to the north of the Nila, 
there is the Varsa (sub-continent) Ramanaka.' Human beings 
are born there. They are free from impurities. They give im- 
portance to amorous dalliance. They are devoid of old age 
and bad odour. They are white-complexioned and richly 
endowed with nobility ofbirth. All of them are pleasing to 

1. This seems to be modern China. 

2. Identified with ancient Sogdiana as the description tallies with the 
land, plant-life and people of those times, M.AIi — Ibid. pp. 83-84. 

148 Brahmanda Parana 

behold. There also is a great Nyagrodha tree (holy fig tree) 
red (in colour). 

64-66. They maintain themselves by drinking the juice 
of its fruits. Those highly fortunate ones live for eleven thou- 
sand five hundred years. They are excellent men and are 
always full of delight. 

To the south of the Srngavan and to the north of the 
Sveta there is the Varsa named Hairanvata.' There is a river 
here, the Hairanvati. Men ofgreat strength and good brilliance 
are born there. 

67-69. They are heroic Yaksas ofgreat inherent vitality. 
They are rich and pleasing to behold. They have great vigour 
and they live for eleven thousand five hundred years. 

In that Varsa, there is a great Lakuca (bread fruit) tree 
of six tastes. By drinking the juice of its fruits, they live with- 
out ailments. 

The Srngavan has three great and lofty peaks. 

70. One ofthem (peaks) is full of Manis (jewels). One 
is golden and (the third) one all sorts of Ratnas (precious 
stones); it is embellished with houses. 

71. To the north of Srngavan and to the south of the 
sea are the Kurus.^ That Varsa (sub-continent) is sacred and 
frequented by the Siddhas. 

72. The trees there have Madhu (honey, wine) for its 
fruit. They put forth perpetual flowers, fruits and sprouts. They 
yield garments and ornaments byway offruits. 

73. Some of the trees are very delightfully charming 
and they bestow all desires. They exude excellent honey full of 
sweet smell, colour and taste. 

1. Hairanvata Varsa is closely associated with the river Hairanvati 
(mod. Zarafshan)both forms of the name of the river mean 'The scatterer of 
gold'. In that case it must be presumed to be adjacent to Sogdiana — M.Ali. 
ibid. pp. 84,85. 

1, *Kuru or Uttarakuru: This region as described here and in other 
Puranas includes the basin of rivers — The Irtysh,the Ob, the Tobol, in other 
words "Western Siberian Regions' M.Ali — Op. Cit. pp. 84,85. 

As M.Ali points out the main tree which is supposed to feed the popula- 
tion indicates the peculiar climate prevailing there.—16.1-3 149 

74. Other trees are ksTrins (Milky ones) byname. They 
are very delightful and they always exude milk comparable to 
nectar having six tastes. 

75. The entire ground is full of jewels with fine golden 
particles for sand. It richly accords happiness in all seasons. 
It is devoid ofmud and dust. It is splendid. 

76. Splendid human beings displaced and dropping down 
from the world of the Devas are born there. They are white- 
complexioned and richly endowed with nobility of birth. All 
have steady perpetual youth. 

77-80. Women on a par with the celestial damsels give 
birth to twins. They drink the milk ofthe Ksirin trees compar- 
able to nectar. The twins are born in a trice and they grow 
together. Their conduct oflife, habits, forms and features and 
lovable qualities are all equal. They love one another and 
have the same activities and practices as the Cakravaka birds 
(Ruddygeese). They are always free from ailments and devoid 
of sorrows. They resort to perpetual pleasure. They are of great 
vigour and vitality. They live for fourteen thousand five hundred 
years. They never carnally approach another men's'wives. 


The Description ofBharata 
SUta said : 

1. "The (mode of) creation of the sub-continents in the 
auspicious Bharata had been viewed thus alone, by those who 
were conversant with the greatest principles. What shall I 
describe once again unto you?" 

The sage said : 

2-3. "We wish to know (more about) this sub-continent 
Bharata' where these fourteen Manus, Svayambhuva and 
others were born in the course ofthe creation of the subjects. 

1. This topic is discussed in details in other Puranas also e.g. AP.118, 
VP.n.3, Va.P. 45.68-137. 

150 Brahmanda Pur&na 

O excellent one, recount that to us." On hearing these 
words of theirs 

Romaharsana said : 

4. "I shall recount to you all the subjects here in the 
Bharata Varsa. 

This is a mysterious sub-continent in the middle (of the 
universe) where the fruits (ofKarmas) are enjoyed whether 
auspicious or inauspicious. 

5. The sub-continent that is to the north ofthe ocean as 
well as to the south ofthe Himavan, is called the sub-continent 
of Bharata where the subjects are Bharatl (pertaining to 

6. Manuis called Bharata because ofhis (efficiency in 
the) maintenance and nourishment of the subjects. That sub- 
continent is thus remembered as Bharata in view ofthe expres- 
sion defined thus.' 

7. It is from here that heaven and salvation are attained 
and people go to the middle (?) and ultimate end.' Nowhere 
else on the Earth has the holy rite been enjoined on the human 

8. Understand that there are nine different divisions or 
zones of Bharata Varsa.' It should be known that they are 
separated by oceans and it is impossible to traverse from one 
to the other. 

1. This is a new definition of Bliarata attributing tlie credit to Manu 
wlio is called Bharata, as he maintained the subjects. This supersedes the old 
tradition which attributed this name to Bharata the son ofNabhi. Cf. 
Mt.P.l 14.5-6. 

2. This is claimed as the special feature of India. Due to this special 
importance, Bharata is called Earmabhumi, cf. Bm.P.27.2, Mk.F.55.21 -22, 
Mt. P. 114.6-7 also Siddhanta Siromani III. 4. 

3. Cf. MK.P. 57.5, Mt.P.l 13.7-9. This is a new definition which inclu- 
des what is known as 'greater Bharata' today. It indicates the period when 
Hindu culture was assimilated by countries in the south and south-east Asia. 
V.S. Agrawala identifies some ofthe divisions of Bharata as follows: 

Indra-dvlpa = lndradyumna or Andamans 

Nagadvipa = Nicobars (Nakkavara in Cola inscriptions) 


Varuna-dvipa = Borneo 

Kaseruman = Malaya -dvipa. 151 

9-11. The nine divisions are— 1) Indradvipa, 2) Kase- 
ruman, 3) Tamravarna, 4) Gabhastiman, 5) Nagadvlpa, 6) 
Saumya, 7) Gandharva, 8) Varuna and this 9) is the island 
surrounded by the sea. This sub-continent (ofBharata) extends 
north-south, from the source of the river Ganga to Cape Comor- 
in, a thousand Yojanas (1 Yojana = 12 Km). The extent 
obliquely(i.e. the breadth)on the northern part is nine thousand 

12. All round in the bordering regions the sub-continent 
is colonized by Mlecchas (barbarous tribes). The Kiratas live 
in the Eastern border lands and the Yavanas in the Western 
border lands. 

13. The Brahmanas, the Ksatriyas and the Vaisyas live 
in the central areas and the Sfldras (are scattered) indifferent 
parts. They are well settled maintaining themselves by means 
of performance of sacrifices, wielding of weapons and carrying 
on trading activities. 

14-16. The mutual inter-dealings among those different 
castes continue (indefinitely), based on virtue, wealth and 
love, in regard to their holy rites. The conception ofthe 
different stages of life as well as ofthe Paficamas (outcastes?) 
is duly maintained here among these people who have the 
tendency and endeavour to attain heaven and Moksa 

The ninth division which is an island is said to extend 
obliquely. He who conquers it completely is called Samrat 

It is suggested that GaBhastimdn and Saumya may be identified witli Java and 
Sumatra (Mt.P. — a study, pp. 191-193). For the different opinions of scholars 
on the above identifications vide M. Ali: Geog. of Purdnas, pp. \16-\11 . M. Ah 
contradicts the claim of Agrawala, Majumdar and others regarding the inclu- 
sion of countries in south East Asia in Bharatavarsa (7d/W. pp. 128-130). M. Ali 
identifies them as follows: 

Tamravarna = Indian peninsula south of the Kaveri. 

Kaserumat = The coastal plain between the deltas of Godavari and 

Gabhastiman=The hilly belt between the Narmada and Godavari 

Saumya = The coastal belt west ofthe Indus. 

Gandharva = The trans-Indus region. 

Varuna = The Western coast of India. 
But these are mere speculations of scholars. 

1 52 Brahmania Parana 

17. Indeed this world is Sam rat. The firmament is 
remembered as Virat. That (other) world is remembered as 
Svarat. I shall mention in detail once again (later on). 

18-19. There are seven mountains ofexcellent knots and 
ridges wellknown a.s Kulaparvatas} They are Mahendra, Malaya, 
Sahya, Suktiman, the Rksa mountain, the Vindhya and the 
Pariyatra. These seven are Kulaparvatas. There are thousands of 
other mountains near these mountains. 

20-23. They are notwell known (i.e. well explored). 
They possess good and essential things. They are vast (in 
expanse). Their ridges and peaks are ofvarious shapes and 
sizes. They are^ Mandara, the excellent mountain, Vaihara, 

1. Out of the seven mountain ranges mentioned here the Mahendra, 
Malaya, Sahya ranges are \v:II-known. The Vindhya of the Puranas included 
the Satpura range south of the Narmada, the Mahadeo Hills, the Hazaribagh 
Range and the Rajamahal Hills. Suktiman, according to De (p. 196) is the 
portion of the Yindhya-range joining Pariyatra and Rksa mountains including 
the hills of Gondwana and Chhota Nagpur. But M. Ali. in the topographical 
Map of Bharata, shows it as a ring of ranges encircling the Mahanadi basin, 
very nearly coinciding the present Mahakosala (Puranic Daksina Kosala) 

The Pariyatra mountain is the ring of ranges north of the Narmada, 
nearly encircling the catchment areas of the Chambal and the Betwa and thus 
corresponds with the Aravallis and (modern) Western Vindhya. 

The Rksa mountain represents the modern Vindhya from the source of 
the Sonar to the eastern ranges marking the catchment area of the river Son. 
(M. Ali. Op. at., pp. 112-113.) 

2. Some of these mountains are identified as follows: 

Mandara — A portion ofthe Himalayas to the east ofSumeru in Garhwal. 
The hill in the Banka sub-division of Bihar is, however, popularly believed 
as Mandara (De, pp. 124-125). 
Vaihara (?) 

Dardura =The Nilgiri hills (De, p. 53) 
Kolahala =The Brahma -yont hill in Gaya (De, p. 101) 
Mainaka =The Sewalik range from the Gaiiga to the Bias (De, p. 121) 
Vaidyuta =The Guria range, south of lake Manasasarovar; the Sarayu is 

said to rise in this mountain (De, p. 16) 
Vatandhama (?) 

Krsnagiri = Th e Karakorum mountain, Mus-tagh (De, p. 104) 
Godhana =Garatha Hills in Bana's Harsa-carita VI (De, p. 70) 
Puspagiri =The part of the Malaya range, the source of the Krtamala or 

Vaiga (De, p. 164). 
Ujjayanta = Mt. Girnar (De, p. 211) 153 

Dardura, Kolahala, along with Surasa, Mainaka, Vaidyuta, 
Vatandhama, Nagagiri, the mountain Pandura (Pale- 
white in colour), Tungaprastha, Krsnagiri, the mountain 
Godhana, the Puspagiri, Ujjayanta, the mountain Raivatalia, 
Srlparvata, Citraliiita and the mountain Kiitasaila. There are 
many mountains other than these. They are smaller than 
these, less well known and lesser number of living beings 
dependent on them. 

24. The regions interspersed with these mountains are 
partially inhabited by Aryas and partially by the Mlecchas 
(tribal-barbarous-people). The following rivers (beginning with) 
the Gaiiga, the Sindhu and the SarasvatI are utilised by them 
for drinking purposes. 

25-2 7a. The foregoing three and the following rivers 
originate from the foot of the Himalayas,' viz. : the Satadru, 
the Candrabhaga, the Yamuna, the Sarayij, the Iravati, the 
Vitasta, the Vipasa, the Devika, the Kuhii, the Gomati, the 
DhiJtapapa, the Budbuda, the DrsadvatI, the KausikI, the 
Tridiva. the Nisthlvl, the GandakI and the Caksurlohita. 

27b. 29a. The following rivers are remembered as depen- 
dent on (i.e. originating from) the Pariyatra mountain :' The 

Raivataka = Mt . Girnar near Junagarh in Gujarat. 

Sriparvata = The famous hill in Eastern ghat in Kurnool Dist. Andhra Pradesh. 

Citrakuta — Kamptanath giri in Bundelkhand, Madhya Pradesh (De, p. 50) 

1. The ranges of mountains described in note 1 p. 152 above are 
watersheds which bound wholly or partly the catchment areas ofimportant 
rivers in India. Here is a list of rivers rising from the Himalayas. The 
modern names of the rivers are given in brackets: 

The Satadru (Sutlej), the Candrabhaga (Chenab), the Iravati 
(Ravi), the Vitasta (Jhelum), the Vipasa (Beas), the Devika (Deeg- 
a tributary of the Ravi), the Kuhu (Kabul), The Dhutapapa (Sarada, with 
its head streams), the Budbuda (misprint for Bahuda-Rapti), the DrsadvatI 
(Chitang, a tributary of the Ghaggar), the KausikI (Kosi) with its three 

The Tridiva (?), the Nisthivi (?) 

The Caksurlohita (Brahmaputra?)— M. All. Op. Cit. pp. 114-115. 

2. The modern names of the rivers are bracketed: 

The Vedasmrti (Banas), VedavatI (Berach), Vrtraghni (Banganga- 
Utangan). These were the big, perennial rivers of ancient Matsya-desha 
{now a part of M. P.) The Varnasa is W. Banas which flows west of Aravallis 

154 Brahmanda Parana 

Vedasmrti, the VedavatI, river Vrtraghni, the Varnasa, 
the Nandana, the Sadanira'^ the MahanadI, the Pasa, the 
CarmanvatI, the Niipa, the Vidisa, the VetravatI, the Ksipra 
and the AnantI (AvantI?). 

29b-32a. These rivers originate from the Rksa van.' They 
are sacred and their waters are crystal-like. They are : The 
Sona, the Mahanada, the Narmada, the Surasa, the Kriya, the 
MandakinI, the Dasarna, the Citrakiita, the Tarn as a, the 
Pippala, the Syena, the Karamoda,the Pisacika, the Citropala, 
the Visala, the Vanjula, the Vastuvahini, the (Sa) Neruja, the 
SuktimatI, Mafikutl, the Tridivaand the Kratu. 

32b-33. The following auspicious rivers of holy waters 
have originated from the foot-hills ofthe Vindhya ranges.^ 

the Nandana (Sabarmati), the Sadanira (Sarasvati), the Maha- 
nadi, the Pasa (If Para= Parbatl), the CarmanvatI (Chambal), 
the Nupa, (Gambhira), the Vidisa (Bes), the Vetravati (Betwa), the 
Ksipra (Sipra); the Anauti (should be Avanti. It rises near Mhow) M. 
Ah. Op. at. pp. 116-117) 

1. The Puranic mountain ranges are so much mixed up in our times 
that some rivers are attributed to either of them: 

The Sona )( These do not rise in the Puranic 

The Mahanada (mahanadi) ) (' Rksa Parvata. 

The Narmada ) ( 

The Surasa (?) )( 

The Kriya (?) )( 

The MandakinI )( 

The Dasarna (Dhasan) )( 

The Citrakuta )( These are rivers 

The Tamasa (Tons) )( from Bundel- 

The Pippala ) ( Seems to be one river called )( khand (M.P.) 
The Syena 7 I Pippalisyeni as in Mt.P., (mod. ) ( 

)( name : Paisuni) )( 

The Karamoda (Karam-nasa) )( 

The Pisacika ) ( 

The Citropala ) ( 

The Visala (Bewas near Sagar in M.P.) 

The Vaiijula (As in Va.P. it should be Jambula mod. Jammi. 
The Vastuvahini (Baghain, a tributary of the Yamuna) 
The (Sa)Neruja (rather Sumeruja as in Va.P. (Sonar-Bearma) 
The Suktimati (Ken)— M. Ah Op. Cit. pp. 118-119. 

2. As noted above Puranic writers include even Satpura hills in the 
Vindhya ranges. The modern names ofthe rivers are given in Brackets: 

The Tap! (The Tapti and Tapi also) 
The Payosni (Pain-ganga — De, p. 150) 155 

viz. : The TapT, the Payosnl, the Nirvindhya, the Srpa ; the 
river Nisadha, the Vera, the Vaitaranl, the Ksipra, the Vaia, 
the KumudvatI, the Toya, the Mahagauri, the Durga, and the 
Annasila. [Probably durgd (difficult to cross) and anna — rather 
anta—sila (rocky within) are adjectives of Mahagauri. ] 

34-35. The Godavarl, the BhImarathI, the Krsnavena, 
the Vanjula, the Tungabhadra, the Suprayoga, the Bahya and 
the Kaverl are the rivers originating form the foot-hills of the 
Sahya range.' They flow to the south. 

36. The following rivers have originated from the 
mountain Malaya.^ All ofthem are auspicious and they have 
cool waters. They are : the Krtamala, the TamraparnI, the 
PuspajatI and the Utpalavati. 

37. The following rivers remembered as daughters ofthe 
mount Mahendra :^ The Trisama, Rsikulya, The Vamjula, the 
Tridiva, the (A)bala, the LahgulinI and the Vamsadhara. 

The Nirvindhya (Newuj) R. mentioned in Meghaduta 

The Srpa or Sipra 

The Nisadha (Sind, on this Narwar, the capital ofNIsadhas was located) 

The VenI (Wainganga) 

The Vaitarani (Bait a rani) 

The Ksipra (Probably, the same as iipra) 

The Vala (?) 

The Kumudvati (Suvarna-rekha) 

The Toya (Brahman i) 

The Mahagauri (Damodar) 
The following : Durgd (difficult to cross) and anna (anta-) sild (full of rocks) 
are probably the adjectives ofthe Mahagauri. — M. Ali — Op. Cit. pp. 120-121. 

1. Most of these rivers continue the same old names though some of 
them are modified e.g. The Bhlmarathl (Bhima), Krsnavena (Krsna), the 
Vanjula (Maiijira), the Suprayoga (Vedavatl. Its original name signifies 
easiness to bathe), the Bahya (Varada, The AP. correctly reads it as 

2. Modern names ofthese rivers are bracketed: the Krtamala (Yaigai), 
the TamraparnI, the Puspajati (or Puspaja=Pambiar), the Utpalavati 

(Periyar). — M. Ali— Op. Cit. pp. 122-23. 

3. The modern names of these rivers are given in brackets: 

The Trisama (Ghoda-hada, Bhagava, Patama — these three headwaters 
of the Rsikulya have this collective name) 

Rsikulya (repeated under rivers from Suktiman), the Vanjula (?), 
the Tridiva (collective name for Vegavati, Nagavati and Suvarnamukhi — 
the three headwaters of the Laiigulini). 

The Langulini (Langulia) — M . Ah — Op. Cit. p. 24. 

156 Brahm&nia Parana 

38. The following rivers are remembered as originating 
from Suiitiman:" The Rsilculya, the Kumari, the Mandaga, the 
MandagaminI, the Ktpa and the Palasinl. 

39. All these rivers are identical with the Sarasvati 
and the Gariga. They flow into the sea. All ofthem are rem- 
embered as the mothers of the universe and dispellers of the 
sins of the worlds. 

40-42. They have hundreds and thousands of ancillary 
tributaries. The following territories and realms have been 
founded on (the banks of) these rivers:^ the Kurus, the 
Paiicalas, the Salvas, theMadreyas. thejangalas, the Sflrasenas, 
the BhadraJcaras, the Bodhas, the Pataccaras, the Matsyas, the 
Kusalyas, the Sausalyas, the Kuntalas, the Kasis, the Kosalas, 
the Godhas, the Bhadras, the Kalingas, the Magadhas and the 
Utkalas. These are the realms in the middle of the country^ 
and most ofthem have been recounted. 

1. The modern names are given in bracliets: 
Tile Rsikulya (tlie same as mentioned above). 

The Kumar! (Suktel, joins the Mahanadi near Sonpur, Orissa),The 
Mandaga (Mand), The Mandagamini (Mahanadi — proper), The Krpa 
(Arpg), Palas'ini <Jonk in Raipur Dist.. M.P.)— M. Alt— Op. Cit. p. 125. 

2. The author of this Purana includes the following parts of India in 
"Madhyadesa". These are originally names oftribes applied to the land where 
they settled: 

Kurus : Between the Ghaggar in the West and the Gaiiga on the east 
and with forest belt on the north and the south. 

Paiicalas : — eoterminus with modern Rohilkhand with the central portion 
of the Ganga-Yamuna doab added to it. 

Salvas: Near Kuruksetra to the west of the Matsyadesa. De thinks it 
comprised of some portion of former Jodhpur, Jaipur and Alwai states (De, 
P- 175). 

Madreya or Madra : The region between the Ravi and the Chinab in the 
Punjab (De, p. 116). 

Jdngala: — generally associated with Kurus and called Kuru-Janjgala. 
Probably it occupied the wooded north eastern part of Kurus (M. Ali. — Op. 

at. p. 135). 

Bhadrakaras and Bodhas (along with Salvas) occupied the border land of 
the Middle country (Madhya-desha of Puranas). 

Pataccaras on the south bank of the Yamuna are located in Banda 
district (M. Ali. Op. Cit. p. 171). 

The Matsyas: — consisted of the territory of the former Alwar state and 
some adjoining areas from former Jaipur and Bharatpur (De, p. 128). 157 

43. The land towards the northern extremity of the 
Sahya mountain where the river Godavari flows, is the most 
fascinating realm on the whole of the earth. 

44-45. A city named Govardhana' was built there by 
Rama. Heavenly trees and divine medicinal herbs liked by 
Rama were planted there by sage Bharadvaja to please Rama. 
Hence the region of that excellent city became charming. 

46-51a. The following ones are the realms in the north- 
ern parts.' The Bahlikas, the Vatadhanas, the Abhlras, the 

1. Now a village in Nasik District of Maharashtra. Formerly it was 
an important centre of learning and Brahmanas coming from that area are 
known as Govardhana Brahmanas. It is mentioned several times in the 
famous Nasik Inscription of usasadata (100 B.C.) — E.I. VIII p. 78. (Epigra- 
phia Indica). 

2. Generally realms or countries are named after the names of the 
tribes or peoples settled there. The identifications of the realms on northern 
part are based on M. All's discussion in his Geog. of the Purdrms, pp. 137-146. 
D. C. Sircar's GAM I is also referred to and only the page no. is mentioned. 

The Bahlikas or Vdhlikas=People of Balistan- region covered by the 
Bolon, Nari and Gokh rivers. It coincides with former British Baluchistan. 
But Balkh (N. Afghanistan) according to D. C. Sircar, p. 32. 

Ihe Vdtadhanas= probably Waziristan. But Panjab-Rajasthan region. — 
Sircar p. 32. 

The ^Mri'fl5=South of Sauvira but east of the Indus-Western Part of 
Hyderabad, District Sind. 

The A^a /a fojaA:(Z5= Residents of Kalat region in Baluchistan. 

The Aparantas=This is the North-Western region called Aparita in Va.P. 

The Suhmas (?) = This is in eastern India. 

The PatoTZ<u = Rohilkhand (?) 

The Carma-manddlas or Carma-khanda at the mouth of the river Hab and 
the Churma island. 

The Gandharas — Kandahar — lower Kabul valley. 

The Tavanas — lonians, Greeks. 

The Sindhu-Sauvlra-Mandals=Smdhu and Sauvira are different regions. 
Sauvira coincides with Rohri-Khairpur region of Sind and the remaining 
portion is Sind. 

The 7H5ara5=Tokharians in north Afghanistan, but people on the Tochi 
according to M. Ali p. 142. 

The Pallavas or Pahlavas=RG^,\on adjoining the Hingol Valley on the 
Parikan river. 

The &j£a = Scythians. 

The Kulinda=The Same as Pulinda in Mt. P. Kunets ofKulu. But formerly 
they extended to Saharanpur and Ambala — Sircar p. 33. 

158 Brahmanda Purana 

Kalatoyakas, the Aparantas (? Westerners), the Suhmas, the 
Pancalas, the Carmamandalas, the Gandharas, the Yavanas, 
the Sindhusauvlramandalas, the Cinas, theTusaras, the Pallavas, 
the Girigahvaras (dwellers of mountain caves), the Sakas, the 
Bhadras, the Kulindas, the Paradas, the Vindhyaciilikas, the 
Abisahas, the Ulutas, the Kekayas, the Dasamalikas the Brah- 
manas, the Ksatriyas, the Vaisyas and the families of the 
Sudras, the Kambojas, the Daradas, the Barbaras, the Angalau- 
hikas, the Atris, along with the Bharadvajas, the Prasthalas, 
the Daserakas, the Lamakas, the Talasalas, the Bhusikas and 
the Ijikas. Now understand the realms ofthe eastern parts.' 

Tlie Parada—Jhe same as Farita in Va.P. = Mithankot region of Dera 
Gazi Khan District Pakistan. But Parthians of Khorasan according to D.C. 
Sircar p. 33. 

Ihe Kekayas=¥eap\e of the country between the Beas and the Sutlej 
(De, p. 97). 

The Kambojas=Feople from Kafirstan who colonised the Kunar basin. 

Uie Daradas=The same ancient tribe living in the valley of the Kisen- 
ganga in Kashmir. 

Ihe 5arAara5= People migrated from Barbaiy or North Africa. 

Ihe Prasthalas — The district between Ferozepur, Patiala and Sirsa (De, 

Ihe DaSerakas— ^^\vi2i ? But Marwar region of Rajasthan — Sircar, p. 35. 

Ihe Z.amofcu= Probably the same as Lampaka or Lamghan of today — 
associated with upper Kabul 

1. The ancient tribes and their locations from Eastern India are identi- 
fied as follows: 

77M Angas=The country about Bhagalpur including Monghyr (De, 7). 

The Colabhadras=The Coromandal Coast (?) 

r^e Airatas = Tipara and Morung west ofSikkim. They lived from Nepal 
to extreme east. (De, p. 100). 

Ihe Tomaras=The Garo hills of south west Assam (De, p. 205). 

Ihe 7anganar= Country from the Ramgaiiga river to the upper Sarayu 
<De p. 204). 

Ihe Hunadarvas — Country round Manasa-Sarovar ? (De, p. 78). 

Ihe Mudgarakas — Monghyr and country around (?) (De, p. 132). 

Ihe .4ntogirii7 = Rajmahal hills in Santal Pargana Bengal (De, P. 8). 
But Sircar locates Antargiri and Bahirgiri towards the north of Assam (p. 36). 

Ihe Maladas=A part of the district of Shahabad — The site of Visva- 
mitra's Asrama near Buxar (De, p. 100) Malda District of Bengal and 
Rajashahi and West Dinajpur of Bengal (M. All p. 15 1). 159 

51b-55a. The Angas, the Vaiigas, the Colabhadras, the 
Kirata tribes, the Tomaras, the Harhsabhahgas, the Kasmlras, 
the Taiiganas, the Jhillikas, fhe Ahukas, the Hiinadarvas, the 
Andhravakas, the Mudgarakas, the Antargiris, the Bahirgiris, 
the Plavahgus, the Maladas, the Malavartikas, the Samantaras, 
the Pravrseyas, the Bhargavas, the Gopaparthivas (cowherd 
kings), the Pragjyotisas, the Puhdras, theVidehas, the Tamra- 
liptakas, .the ,Mallas, the Magadhagonardas. These are re- 
membered as the realms in the East. 

55b-59. Then, there are the other realms ofthe dwellers 
ofthe southern territories.' They are the Paruiyas, the Keralas, 

The Pragjyotifas=K.amaiupa. District in Assam. 

The PHKrfra5'= Between Aiiga and Vanga and on the north side of the 
Ganga (De, p. 155) (M. Ali, p. 151). 

The Videhas=T'vr)mX country between the Kosi and the Gandak to the 
north of the Gariga (De, p. 35). 

The Timraliptakas — Tamluk in Midnapur District including Kontai 
(De, p. 203), (M. Ali, p. 152). 

The Mallas=Country round the Para snath hills (parts. of Hazaribagh 
and Manbhuni Districts), but at Buddha's time they were at Pava and Kusi- 
nagar (De, p. 123). 

The Magadha-Gonardas= Magadha is South Bihar. De identifies Gonarda 
•with Gonda in Oudh (p. 71), but no such combined name is found in De 
and Sircar. 

The Bhargava-Angaya. was the Yamuna-Meghna Doab (M.Ali, Op. Cit. 
p. 152), but he does not mention merely Bhargava as in this text. 

1. The following identifications are based on De. 

The CW<u=The Coromandal Coast to the South of the Fennar including 
Tanjore (p. 51). 

The Afufti< M = Travancore on the Malabar coast (p. 134). But Sircar 
suggests that they were probably people living on the Muri river (p. 36). 

The Mahisikas = Southern Mysore(p. 120). also Sircar p. 39. 

Setukas — People of Setubandha, Ramesvara. — Sircar p. 38. 

The Kalingas — South Orissa. (Puri and Ganjani Districts) — Sircar p. 39. 

The ^M7>"a5= South -eastern portion of Gujarat about the mouth of the 
Narmada (Sircar p. I.). 

The Vaidarbhas=Vid&rbha, a part of Maharashtra. 

77 K Dotwfoit<u = Dandakaranya (Maharashtra) (p. 5 2). 

The Maulika=\£ 'Mulaka', a part of Maharashtra near Asmaka 
{p. 133). Mod. An rang ab ad District (—Sircar p. 39). 

The ^s/naAa5=Aurangabad district and Bodhan country round about in 
Nizamabad District — (Sircar p. 40. 

160 Brahmana'a Parana 

the Colas, the Kulyas, the Setukas, the Mtisikas, the forest 
dwelling Ksapanas, the Maharastras, the Mahisikas, the 
entire realm of the Kalingas, the Abhiras, the Aislkas, the 
Atavyas (Forest-dwellers), the Saravas, the Pulindas, the Vin- 
dhyamauliyas, the Vaidarbhas, the Dandakas, the Paurikas, 
the Maulikas, the Asmakas, the Bhogavardhanas (those who 
increase sensual pleasures), the Korikanas, the Kantalas, the 
Andhras, the Kulindas, the Arigaras and the Marisas. These 
are the lands ofthe south; understand the western regions. 

60-63a. (Now) know the realms in the western regions.' 
They are the Suryarakas, the Kalivanas, the Durgalas, the 
Kuntalas, the Pauleyas, the Kiratas, the Rflpakas, the Tapakas, 
Karltis, the whole ofKaramdharas, the Nasikas, the others who 
are in the valleys ofthe Narmada, the (Saha) Kacchas, the 
(Sa) maheyas, the Sarasvatas, the Kacchipas, the Surastras, the 
Anartas and the Arbudas. The above realms are the western 
ones. Now listen to those who reside on the Vindhyas :' 

ITie Bhogavardkanas= (Mod. Bhokardan Taluqa of Aurangabad District 
(Sircar, p. 40). 

The Ka(Ku)ntalas — Southern Maharashtra and NorthernCanara District 
— now a part of Kamataka. 

i%^ Ifu/imftu=Garhwala (p. 106). But it is surprising that it is mentioned 
as a state in the South. 

1. Some of these can be identified as follows: 

The X//"flfff5=Possibly a reference to Kirata settlement in the West. 
The 7VaitAas=Nasik, now in Maharashtra. 
The Kacchas — Cutch, now in Gujarat State. 
-77M ^arttt=Gujarat and a part of Malwa (De, p. 8). 
The Arbuda=Country around mt. Abu (De, p. 16). 

2. The following can be identified as per De and M. Ali. 

UK Karusas — The country around Rewa (De, p. 95). 

The Mekalas= Country round Amarkaijtaka, the source ofthe Narmada 
(De, p. 130). 

The I/M:a/as=Orissa. 

77i« DaJdrpa^ Modern Eastern Malwa — (Sircar, p. 43). 

The Jihojas=Country around Bhilwara in the Chambal basin (M.Ali 
p. 159). Sircar identifies them with the people of Vidarbha who founded a 
Kingdom in Goa (p. 43). 

77i« Kiskmdhakas= Kikarava in other Puranas. Sircar identifies this 
Kiskandha with mod. Kalyanpur, South ofUdaipur Division (p. 43). 161 

63b-66. The Mai ad as, the Karusas, the Mekalas, the 
Utkalas, the Dasarnas, among the excellent ones the Bhojas, 
the Kiskindhakas, the Tosalas, the Kosalas, the Traipuras, the 
Vaidisa, the Tuhundas, the Barbaras, the Satpuras, the 
Naisadhas, the Aniipas, the Tundikeras, the Vltihotras and the 
Avantis. All these realms are founded on the ridges of the 

Hereafter, I shall recount the realms founded on the 
mountains (Hill-tribes). 

eT^a.' They are the Nihiras, the Harhsamargas, the 
Kupathas, the Taiiganas, the Sakas, the Apapravaranas, the 
Urnas, the Darvas, the Hiihukas, the Trigartas, the Mandalas, 
the Kiratas and the Tamaras. 

68b-69. Sages have said that there are fourYugas, in the 
Bharata sub-continent, viz. Krta, Treta, Dvapara and 
Tisya (Kali). I shall mention their detailed divisions wholly 
later on. 


Ike To/alas — It is the Southern part of Kosala or Gondwan District 
round Tosali (Mod. Dhanti) in Puri District (De, p. 43). 

Ihe Kosdlas — Sircar identifies with Daksina (Southern) Kosala — Mod. 
Raipur, Sitapur, Santalpur Districts. 

Ihe Vaidiia= Eastern Malwa with Vidis'a or Bhilasa as the capital. 

Ihe Iripura=The region round Tewar — This covers upper Narmada 
valley (present Jabalpur and parts ofMandIa and Narasimhapur Districts.) 

Ihe Naisadhas=Ma.rwax with Narwar as the Capital (De, p. 141). 

Ihe Anupas= South Malwa. Country on the Narmada about Nimar 
(De, p. 8). 

Ihe Vitihotras=Tlie country is founded in the South by the Narmada 
and North East, West by the Vindhya. The centre was Satwas 30 miles North 
West ofHarda. 

Ihe Avantis=Country around Ujjain. 

Ihe Iundikera=tA. Ali locates it within the Narmada basin around the 
town Sainkheda (p. 161). 

Ihe 7VyAfl/-a*= Location uncertain, D. C. Sircar GAMI, p. 45. 

Ihe Harhsa-mdrgas=Peop/eot Humzain North West Kashmir. This tribe 
had a location there — D. C. Sircar Ibid. p. 38 and 43. 

Ihe Kupathas=Hill tribes in the North West of India. 

1. The Mountain-system described in this with Mt. Meru as the centre 
is substantiated by the geographer M. Ah. in Geog. of the Purdnas, pp. 47-59. 
For the modern names of the Furanic mountains vide Supra Ch. 1. p.l 1 FN.K 

162 Brahman (la Parana 


Varsas of Jambudvipa, Kimpurusa, Hari and Ildvrta* 

The sages said : 

1. Recount to us the sub-continents of Kimpurusa and 
Harivarsa as actually they are really. The sub-continent of 
Bharata has already been recounted by you. 

Silta said : 

2. Listen attentively, O Brahmanas, to what you are 
•desirous of hearing. There is a very large grove of Plaksa trees 
in the sub-continent Kimpurusa. It can be compared with the 
^heavenly) Nandana park. 

3. It is remembered that the span of life in Kimpurusa 
is for ten thousand years. The men have golden complexion 
and the women are comparable to celestial damsels. 

4. All people there, are free from ailments and sorrows. 
They are perpetually joyous in their minds. They have the 
lustre of hot glowing gold. 

5. In the holy sub-continent of Kimpurusa, there is an 
auspicious tree oozing out (exuding) honey. All the Kimpurusas 
•drink its excellent juice. 

6. They say that the sub-continent Harivarsa is beyond 
Kimpurusa. The people there are born resembling gold in the 
colour of their complexion. 

7. All the people in the sub-continent of Harivarsa are 
those who have been dropped down from the Devaloka (Region 
of the Devas). All of them have the characteristics and racial 
features of the Devas. They drink the auspicious sugarcane 

8. In the sub-continent Harivarsa, all the people live 
for eleven thousand years without any ailment. All of them are 
joyous in their minds. 

9-10. Old age does not affect them nor do they die 
prematurely. 163 

The middle land which had already been described by 
me, is known by the name Ilavrta. The sun does not blaze very 
hot there. The men do not become aged. In Ilavrta, the moon 
and the sun as well as the stars are not very bright. 

11. Men are born there with the lustre of the lotus. 
They have the colour of their complexion resembling that of 
the lotus. They have eyes like lotus and fragrance like that of 
the lotus petals. 

12. Their diet consists of the fruit and juice of the rose- 
apple. They do not have sweat trickling down from their 
bodies. They are sweet-smelling. They are intelligent. They 
enjoy all sensual pleasures, and the fruits of their meritorious 

13-14a. They are fallen down from the world of the 
Devas. They have golden garments. The excellent men who live 
in the sub-continent Ilavrta have a span of life extending to 
thirteen thousand years. 

14b-15. It (Ilavrta) extends to nine thousand (Yojanas) 
in every direction from the Meru. 

Its overall area is thirtysix thousand Yojanas square. 
It is situated like a platter. 

16-17. The Gandhamadana mountain is nine thousand 
Yojanas away from the Meru on the western side. It extends to 
thirtyfour thousand Yojanas from north to south. It extends 
as far as the Nlla and Nisadha mountains. Its height above the 
ground level is fortythousand Yojanas. 

18. It goes down a thousand Yojanas deep into the earth. 
Its girth also is the same. The mountain Malyavan is to its 
(i.e. Meru's) east and its dimensions have been already 
recounted (as the same). 

19. The Nlla mountain is in the south and the Nisadha 
is in the north. The Mahameru is well established in their 
midst with its dimensions. 

20. In the case of all these mountains, the girth is the 
same as the extent to which they go deep down into the earth. 
It is remembered that their total length is a hundred thousand 

164 Brahmanda Purana 

2 1*. (?) Their outward appearance is circular (spherical) 
like the earthern sphere (within the enveloping) ocean. The 
lengths dwindle down and they are then remembered (more or 
less) equal to a square. 

22. There is a river composed of the juice of the rose 
apple. It flows through the middle of the oblong-shaped Ilavrta 
dividing it (into two). It has the colour of the fresh collyrium. 

23. On the southern side of the Meru and to the north 
of the Nisadha, there is an ancient eternal Rose-apple tree 
named Sudarsana. 

24. It is perpetually laden with blossoms and fruits. It 
is resorted to by Siddhas and Caranas. The whole continent is 
called Jambijdvlpa after the name of that tree. 

25. The height ofthat noble-souled lordly tree is one 
thousand and one hundred Yojanas. Everywhere it touches the 
firmament on all sides. 

26. The thickness (diameter) of its fruit is calculated 
by the sages with visions of principles (of reality) as eight 
hundred and sixty one Aratnis (I Aratni = 18-20 Cms.) 

27. As they fall on the ground, these fruits make aloud 
sound. The juice of the fruits of that Jambu (Rose apple) tree 
flows as a river. 

28. This river circumambulates the Meru and penetrates 
into the ground deep down at the root of the Jambii tree. The 
delighted (inhabitants) of Ilavrta always drink the juice of the 
Jambii . 

29. When the juice of the Jambii is drunk neither old 
age nor hunger, neither weariness nor death nor .languor 
oppresses them. \ 

30. A type ofgold named Jambtinada is produced there. 
It is a glowing ornament of the gods. It has the resemblance of 
Indra so far in lustre. 

31. The auspicious juice of the fruits of the respective 
representative trees of all the sub-continents is hailed by all. 

* Va. P. 46. 21b and 22a is found combined here as Bd.P.I. 2.18.21. 
This being the translation of Bd.P., the text of the Bd.P. (though slightly 
confusing) is followed. 

tS^^'j—18.1 165 

When it (the juice) becomes scattered over it (the alluvial 
remains ofit) become shining gold, an ornament fit for gods. 

32. It is due to the grace ofgod that their ( — of the 
inhabitants) urine and faeces scattered over all directions as 
well as bodies of the dead are swallowed up by (absorbed in) 
the earth. 

33. It is declared that the Raksasas, Pisacas and the 
Yaksas — are all 'the residents of the Himavat. It should be 
known that the Gandharvas live on the Hemakflta along with 
the groups ofthe Apsaras. 

34. Sesa, Vasuki, Taksaka — (yes) all the serpents (live) 
on the Nisadha. The thirty three (groups of) Devas (gods) 
authorised to partake ofthe shares in the Yajiia, sport about 
on the Mahameru. 

35. The Siddhas and the Brahmanical sages devoid of 
impurities live on the Nlla full ofVaidurya (Lapis Lazuli). It 
is mentioned that the mountain Sveta belongs to the Daityas 
and the Danavas. 

36-37. The excellent mountain Srn^ga-van is the place 
where the Pitrs frequently move about. Living beings— both the 
mobile and the immobile — are settled in these nine sub- 
continents with their different divisions duly situated. 

Their prosperous growth, both divine and human, is seen 
in diverse ways. It cannot be adequately enumerated. It should 
be believed by those who wish to be* (?) 


Uie Description ofthe JambUdvlpa 

The Bindu Lake — source of the Gangd : 

Its four streams 

Suta said : 

I. In the midst of the Himalayan ridges, there is a 

Va. P. 46. 38b — anububhusata — (be believed) by one desirous to com- 

166 Brahmanda Puraqa 

mountain named Kailasa.' The glorious and prosperous Kube ra ' 
lives there along with the Raksasas. 

2-3. The king, the overlord of Alaka, rejoices (there) 
with the celestial damsels attending on him. The sacred splen- 
did and chill water originating from the foot of the Kailasa 
mountain has formed a lake named Mada^ (Manda, in Va.P. 
47.2). It abounds in white lilies and it resembles a sea. The 
auspicious river Mandakini' (the Gahga) rises from that divine 

4-5. On its banks there is the great divine park called 
Nandanavana. To the North-east of the Kailasa, in front of 
that divine mountain of all medicinal herbs, the mountain full 
ofjewels and minerals, the powerful mountain ofwonderful 
mysteries, there is a mountain named Candraprabha.* It is 
perfectly white and it resembles splendid jewels. 

6. At its foot there is a great divine lake named Svac- 
choda. From that divine lake rises a river named Svacchoda. 

7-8a. There is a great splendid divine park on its banks 
called Caitraratha. On that mountain lives Manibhadra along 
with his followers. He is the ruthless lord of the armies of 
Yaksas. He is surrounded by the Guhyakas. 

1. The description of mount Kailasa, though a poetic one, shows that 
the Purana writer was conVersant with the topographical features of the 
Manasa-sarovara basin. — vide M. All. op.cit., pp. 55-58. 

2. For understanding the Furanic presentation of the ancient river- 
system, the following points are to be noted: 

(1) According to Puranas, a river normally originates from a lake either 
over-ground or under-ground and is associated with a mountain. 

(2) They believed that rivers can penetrate through subterranean 
channels, mountain-ranges and can flow in more than one current, 
if intervened by ridges. 

(3) A river with all its tributaries is sometimes treated as one river. 

3. Unless mentioned otherwise all the references are to M. All's. Geog. 
of Purapas. 

Probably this is the river Uma and the Zhong Chhu which flows through 
Gauri Kunda on the eastern flank of Kailasa into the Raksasa Tal (the twin- 
lake of Manasa Sarovara) — M. Ali, p. 65. 

4. This is probably the Surange La, the north-east range of Kailasa 
from which water flows into Lake KongysTso or Lake Gounche — M. Ali. p. 65. 167 

8b-9a. The holy rivers the MandakinI and the Svac- 
chodaka enter the great ocean through the middle of the sphere 
ofthe earth. 

9b-10. To the south-east ofthe Kailasa, in front of the 
mountain abounding in medicinal herbs and auspicious animals, 
the divine mountain of diversified and wonderful components, 
the mountain full of red arsenic, there is the great mountain 
Stiryaprabha (having the lustre like that ofthe sun). It is red 
in colour and it has golden peaks.' 

11. At its foot there is a great divine lake named Lohita. 
The great holy river named Lauhitya rises from that (lake). 

12-13a. On its bank is the great park named Devaranya 
which is devoid of sorrow. On that mountain lives Manidhara, 
the Yaksa of good self-control. He is surrounded by the 
Guhyakas who are gentle and highly virtuous. 

13b-14. To the southern side ofthe Kailasa is the moun- 
tain abounding in medicinal herbs and cruel, wild animals. In 
front of the three peaked Aiijana that originated from the body 
ofVrtra, there is that very great mountain Vaidyuta' possess- 
ing all sorts of minerals. 

15. At its foot is the holy lake Manasa, frequented by 
the Siddhas. From it rises the holy river Sarayii that is well 
known in all the worlds. 

16-17. On its banks is the well-reputed divine forest 
named Vaibhraja. There lives the son of Praheti, who is a 
Raksasa of self-control, a follower ofKubera, and of unlimited 
exploits (but) who is Brahmapeta (far removed from the 
Vedas). He is surrounded by hundreds ofYatudhanas (demons) 
who are very terrible and who can traverse the skies. 

18. To the west ofthe Kailasa is the mountain aboun- 
ding in medicinal herbs and auspicious animals, Aruna^ (Pink 

1. This red-coloured mountain is Kanglung Kangri (a south-east 
range of Kailasa) and the river Lauhitya is the Brahmaputra. From a smalt 
lake at the foot ofthe mountain, the Brahmaputra enters Tamehok Khambah, 
the headwater of the Brahmaputra. — M . Ali. — p. 66. 

2. This is the peak Guria Mandhata, since Lake Manasa Sarovara 
lies below its northern face and the river Karnali (Map Chhu of Tibetans) — 
a major tributary of the Sarayu rises here — M. Ali. — p. 66. 

3. This is the Ladakh or Leh range — (Ibid). 

168 Brahtnanda Parana 

in colour) the splendid and excellent mountain full of gold and 

19. This glorious mountain is a favourite resort of 
Bhava. It resembles clouds(in colour). It is covered with splen- 
did clusters of cliffs of gold. 

20. The mountain Muiijavan is highly divine. It ap- 
pears to scrape the heaven by means of its hundreds of golden 
peaks. It is very difficult to climb or pass through as it is 
enveloped by show. 

21-22. There stands Girlsa (King of mountains), called 
Dhiimra-locana' (of smoke-coloured eyes). The Lake named 
Sailoda^ is at its foot. 

It enters the briny sea in between the (rivers) Caksus 
and Sita. 

23-24. On its banks is the well known divine forest 

To the left and to the north of the Kailasa is the auspi- 
cious mountain abounding in medicinal herbs and animals. In 
front of the excellent mountain named Gaura, full of Haritala 
(yellow orpiment) there is the mountain Hiranmaya.' This 
mountain is divine, very great and full of precious gems and 

25-26a. At its foot is the highly divine, splendid and 
charming lake named Bindusara.^ It has golden sandy bed. 

1. This is Nanga Parbat. (For details vide M. Ali. — Op. cit. p. 66-67. 

2. The lake Sailoda seems to be the Wular lake which once covered 
the whole of Kashmir valley. The river Siloda is the Jhelum which still flows 
through it and runs towards the west between the Indus and the Sutlej (the 
Caksu and Sita in the Furana) — M . Ah', p. 67. 

3. Gaura, Hiranmaya and Soma (mentioned later in v. 27 and in 
Va.P.) are the Tibetan ranges north of Kailasa and are called now Tanglha, 
Aling Kangri and Nychenthangla — M.Ali. (p. 68). 

4. Bindusara can be explained in two ways: 

(1) a collection of drops ofwater: The basin between Mt. Aling Kangri 
and Kailasa Tanglha is dotted with innumerable small and large 

(2) a lake of frozen particles of snow. In the past , the basin Aling- 
Kangri and Kailasa — Tanglha was an extensive snow-field. The 
Purana writer must have known it through hearsay etc. According 
to De (p. 38) it is on the Rudra Himalaya, two miles south of Gan- 
gotii. 169 

For the sake of getting the Ganga, king Bhaglratha, the saintly 
king spent many years near it. 

26b. He thought — "My ancestors will go to heaven on 
being bathed in the waters ofthe Gaiiga." After determining 
thus, he performed penance with -the concentration of his 
mind in Siva. 

27. The divine river Tripathaga (the Ganga) (lit. the 
river with three courses) was at the outset established there 
as the deity. That river originating from the foot-hills of Soma 
flows in seven channels. 

28. Golden sacrificial posts studded with jewels have 
been scattered there. Sakra performed a sacrifice "there along 
with all the Devas and attained Siddhi(spiritual enlightenment). 

29. The luminous Milky way that is seen at night in the 
firmament near clusters of stars is the divine goddess, the 
Tripathaga' (theGanga). 

30. Sanctifying the heaven and the firmament, the 
celestial river fell on the head of Bhava (god Siva) and got 
blocked up by means of his Yogic Maya. 

31. The lake Bindusaras was formed by those few drops 
of water that fell from the infuriated Ganga. Therefore it is 
remembered as Bindusaras. 

32. Being impeded smilingly by Bhava (Siva), the 
river goddess mentally thought of hurling down Sankara. 

33-34. "I shall pierce (the earth)", she thought (to 
herself), "and enter the netherworlds taking Sankara too along 
with my current". He understood what she was desirous of 

1. Are the three ways of Gaiiga its three stages ? 

(1) Milky way in the sicy, (2) Snowy or glacial Gaiiga. (3) Fluvial 

These are the three stages ofthe formation of that river which are symbo- 
lised in the legend of the descent of Gaiiga (Gatigavatarana). The heavenly 
Ganges (Akasa Gaiiga) is a poetic name for the galaxy in the north. But the 
blocking up of the Gaiiga in the tresses of Siva (mentioned in ¥.30 and 35) 
is the Snowy or glacial stage and the melting ofthe snow-fields and glaciers is 
the release ofthe Gaiiga. The legendary part played by king Bhagiratha in 
bringing the Gaiiga to the scorched plains ofnorthern Bharata is still shrouded 
in mystery. 

170 Brahmanda Pur ana 

doing and having realized her cruel intention, he intended to 
conceal (absorb) the river within his limbs. 

35-38. He blocked the river on his head as it fell on the 
ground with great force and velocity. 

In the meantime he saw the king (i.e. Bhaglratha) in 
front of him, weary with protruding network of veins and with 
all his sense-organs overtaken by hunger. Then he remembered 
the boon granted to him. He thought — "I have been propiti- 
ated by this king earlier for the sake of the river (Ganga)". 
Then he recollected the words of Brahma that he had heard — 
"Hold the celestial river"; thereupon he controlled his anger. 
On being propitiated by means ofsevere penance, he set river 
free for the sake of Bhagiratha. He released the river that had 
been blocked by his own prowess. 

39-41. On being released, the river began to flow in 
seven channels.' Three of them flowed towards the east and 
three to the west. The river Ganga flows through seven chan- 
nels. The NalinI, HradinI and PavanI are those which flow 
towards the east. The Sita, the Caksus and the Sindhu flow 
towards the west. The seventh among them followed Bhagira- 
tha towards the south. 

42. Hence that river is Bhaglrathl. It joined the salt 
sea. All these seven (channels, rivers) sanctify the sub-conti- 
nent named Hima. 

43-45. Originating from the lake Bindusaras, those seven 
splendid rivers flow over different climes almost all of them 
being the lands ofthe Mlecchas (Barbarous tribes) and reach 
the place where Vasava (Indra) showers, namely the lands of 
Sillndhras, Kuntalas, Cinas, Barbaras, Yavarias. Andhakas, 
Puskaras, Kulindas and Aiicoladvicaras* (?). After dividing 

1. M. All. (p. 69) identifies Nalini, Hradini and Pavani — the east- 
flowing rivers — with the Yangtse, Mekong and Salween, the rivers flowing to 
the west, viz. the Sita, the Calisus and the Sindhu with the Yarliand, the Shyoli 
and the Indus, while the southern river Bhaglrathl is the Gaiiga. De however 
identifies Sita with thejazartes (p. 181) and the Calisus with the Oxus or 
Amudaria (p. 43). 

* Anga-loka-varaS caye, in Va.P.48, 43a. 171 

the land of sirhhavan in three parts, the river Sita flowed into 
the western ocean. 

46-47a. The river Caksus flows over the following climes 
viz. Cinamarus, the Talas, the Camasamfllikas, the Bhadras, 
the Tusaras, the Lamyakas, the Bahlavas, the Paratas and the 
Khasas. Then it falls into the sea. 

47b-49a. The Sindhu flows over the following territor- 
ies, viz. the Daradas, along with the Kasmlras, the Gandha- 
ras, the Raurasas, the Kuhas, the Sivasailas, the Indrapadas, 
the Vasati, (?) the Visarjamas* (?), the Saindhavas, the 
Randhrakarakas, the Samathas, the Abhiras, the Rohakas, 
the Sunamukhas and the Urddhvamarus. 

49b-52. The Gaiiga sanctifies the following praiseworthy 
countries (climes) viz. the lands of the Gandharvas, Kinnaras, 
Yaksas, Raksasas, Vidyadharas and the Nagas, the residents 
of Kalapagrama, the Paradas, the Tadganas (their cousin 
tribes), the Khasas, the Kiratas, the Pulindas, the Kurus, the 
Bharatas, the Paiicalas, the Kasis, the Matsyas, the Magadhas, 
the Angas, the Suhmottaras, the Vangas and the Tamraliptas. 
Thereafter, obstructed by the Vindhya (?) it falls into the 
briny sea. 

53-55. Then the sacred HradinI flows towards the east 
flooding the banks on either side, the territories of the Naisa- 
dhas, the Trigartakas, the Dhlvaras( fishermen), the Rslkas, the 
Nllamukhas (bluefaced) the Kekaras, the Austrakarnas, the 
Kiratas, the Kalodaras, the Vivarnas (outcastes), the Kuma- 
ras and the Svarnabhiimikas** (the golden grounds) that had 
been covered up to the extent as far as the sea shore on the 

56-57. Then, the river PavanI too flows towards the east 
flooding the Supathas, the Indradyumna lake, the Kharapathas 
and the Vetrasankupathas. Through the middle of JanakI*** 
it flows over the Kuthapravaranas. It enters the ocean of 
Indradvlpa, the briny sea. 

* Va.P.48.45 reads: vadatimSca visarjayan / 

** Va.P.48.52: Svarnabhiifitan, 'who are beautified witli gold orna- 

*** Va. P. 48. 55a. Madhyenodyana-makaran 

172 Brahmanda Purdapa 

58-61a. Then the river Nalini flows rapidly towards the 
east sanctifying the countries ofthe Tomaras.the Hamsamargas 
and the Haihayas; piercing through the mountains in various 
places it flows over various eastern territories. After reaching 
the Karnapravaranas, it flows over the Svamukhas because they 
are contiguous. After flowing over desert regions abounding in 
sand dunes, it flows over the Vidyadhara lands. It enters the 
briny sea after flowing through the mountainous territories. 

61b-62. These rivers have hundreds and thousands of 
tributaries. All of them flow there where Vasava showers. There 
is a well-known fragrant (Surabhi) forest on the banks of the 
Vasvaukasa (?) 

63. The scholarly Kauberaka (son of Kubera) of great 
self-control stays on Hiranyasriiga (Golden Peak). He practi- 
ses the performance of Yajiias. He is very great and valorous 
and his strength and splendour cannot be measured. 

64. He is surrounded by those scholarly Brahma-Raksa- 
sas who stay there. It is declared that these four followers of 
Kubera are on a par with one another. 

65. The prosperity of the residents of the mountain 
should also be known in the same manner. In regard to virtue, 
love and wealth each is double than the former (?) 

66-67a. On the top ofthe Hemakiita there is a lake 
named Varcovan.' Two rivers viz. the Manasvini and the 
JyotismatI rise from it and they flow on either side falling into 
the eastern and the western seas. 

67b-68a. There is a lake named Visnupada' on the ex- 
cellent mountain Nisadha. 

Two rivers rise from it. They are the Gandharvi and the 

68b-69a. There is a great deep lake at the side of the 
Meru called Candra-Prabha. 

1. Noted as Lake Sayana or Naga in other Furanas is the Lake *Nak 
Tso' which with Pangong Tso forms an extensive water-sheet — M.Ali.p.71 . 

2. Modern Lake Chakmaktin, the source ofthe Wakhan river which 
flows west in the land of Gandharvas. It is in the Wakhan region that Meru 
and Nisadha come closest to each other. — M. All. (p. 71). 173 

The sacred river Jambu rises from it. It is remembered 
that Jambunada (gold) is obtained from it. (The gold obtained 
from it is called Jambflnada). 

69b-70a. The lake Payoda' is on the mountain Nlla. It 
is very clear and it abounds in lotuses. Two rivers rise from it, 
viz. the Pundarlka and the Payoda. 

70b-71a. The sacred Sarayfl flows from the mountain 

It is indeed from the Manasa lake that the two rivers 
Jyotsna and Mrgakama have originated. 

71b-73. In the Kurusis the lake well known as Rudra- 
kanta.^ It abounds in lotuses, fishes and (aquatic) birds — It 
is created by Bhava. There are twelve other deep lakes here. 
They are well known by the name Jaya. They abound in lot- 
uses, fishes and (aquatic) birds and they are like seas. 

From them two rivers, the Santa and the Madhvl have 

74. In the sub-continents Kimpurusa etc., the lord does 
not shower rains. Excellent rivers flow here, with waters that 
pierce through the ground. 

75. The following three mountains of great knotty ridges 
extend towards the east. They are immersed under the briny 
sea. They are the Rsabha, the Dundubhi and the great moun- 
tain Dhumra. 

76. The mountains of great lofty cliffs— the Candra, the 
Kaka and the Drona extend towards the north. In the nor- 
thern end they are immersed under the salt sea. 

77. The mountains Somaka, Varaha and the Narada 
extend towards the west where they have entered the briny 

1. M.AIi. (p. 71) identifies it with tlie Kara Kul of nortliern Pamirs. 
It is a twin-lalce mentioned as Payoda and Fundarika (like lakes Manasasaro- 
vara and Raksasa Tal in tlie Kailasa region). 

2. These are lakes in Siberia. It shows that the Puranic authors had 
some idea that there were big lakes in that region. I doubt All's identification 
of the Balkash and the Baikal with the Jaya lake. 

174 Brahmanda Purana 

78. These great mountains — the Cakra, the Balahaka 
and the Mainaka, extend towards the southern sea. 

79-81. In between the Cakra and the Mainaka in the 
south-east quarter, there is the fire named Samvartaka. It 
drinks the water. This sub-marine fire is known by the name 
Aurva. It has the face of a mare. These twelve mountains had 
entered the briny sea formerly because of the fear of getting 
their wings chopped. They were terrified by Mahendra. This is 
seen in the white (i.e. circular moon on the full Moon night) 
moon in the shape ofa black rabbit (or deer and a rabbit). 

82-84. The different divisions ofBharata have been re- 
counted. They are nine. What has been narrated here is seen 
elsewhere too. The sub-continents vie with one another in 
regard to good qualities, health, span of life, piety, love and 
wealth. The living beings' are endowed with merits. In the 
different sub continents different classes of people live in the 
different parts. Thus this earth sustains the cosmos stationed 
in the universe (i.e. the whole of this universe). 

The Description of Plaksa and other Continents 

SUta said : 

1. I shall succinctly recount (information about) the 
continent of Plaksa' in the manner it really is. Listen to 
this, O excellent Brahmana even as I speak about it 

2. Its width is twice the width of JambQdvTpa. Its 
round girth (perimeter) is twice its width. 

1. This dvTpa is next to Jambudvipa. Its name Plaksa (a fig tree) indi- 
cates a land ofwarm temperate climate. M.AIi, 'without hesitations', identi- 
fies this with the basin of the Mediterranean (Geog. of Purdpas^ p. 41). The 
same Plaksa still persists as Placia, a town in Myria. 175 

3. . The salty sea is encompassed by that continent. 
There the Janapadas (the countries or rural regions) are all 
sacred. People do not die for a long time. 

4. Whence is the fear of famine there ? (i.e. there is no 
fear of famine there). Whence is the fear of old age and 
sickness ? There too, there are seven holy mountains bedecked 
in jewels. 

5-6. They are the receptacle of precious gems. There 
are rivers also. I shall mention their names. In those five 
continents, viz. : Plaksadvlpa and others, there are seven long 
and straight Varsaparvatas (mountains belonging to the sub- 
continents) stationed in every quarter. I shall mention 
the seven extremely powerful (sub) continents in the 

7. Here the first mountain is Gomedaka. It is like the 
clouds. It is on account of its name that the sub-continent is 
also named Gomeda. 

8. The second mountain is thcGandra, which is endow- 
ed with all types of medicinal herbs. It" is from here that 
medicinal herbs were collected by the brothers (Asvins) for 
the sake ofAmrta (Nectar). 

9. The third mountain is high and unscalable. It is 
named Narada. It was on this mountain that Narada and 
Parvata were born formerly. 

10-1 la. (Text partially defective) The fourth moun- 
tain there is named Dundubhi. It was on this mountain 
that the Asura Dundubhi, who had the boon of having death 
as he pleased, was formerly overpowered by the Devas. This 
demon had a great desire for swinging in a rope-swing on a 
Salmali (silk cotton) tree and this brought about his death. 

lib- 12a. The fifth mountain is named Somaka, where 
nectar was formerly collected by the Devas. It was also brought 
by Garutman (Garuda) for the sake ofhis mother. 

12b-13a. The sixth leading mountain is called by the 
name Sumanas. It was on this mountain that Hiranyaksa was 
killed by the divine Boar. 

13b-14. The seventh mountain there is Vaibhraja. It is 
luminous. It is very lofty. It is crystalline. Since it shines with 
its rays, it is remembered as Vaibhraja. 

176 Brahmanda Purana 

I shall mention their sub-continents in due order and by 
their names. 

15. The first sub-continent is Gomeda. It is remembered 
by the name Santabhaya (having all fears subdued). The sub- 
continent of (the mountain) Candra is named Sisira. That of 
the Narada is Sukhodaya. 

16. Ananda is the sub-continent ofthe Dundubhi. Siva 
is remembered as the sub-continent ofthe Somaka. Ksemaka 
is the sub-continent of the leading mountain (Sumanas) and 
Dhruva that ofthe Vaibhraja. 

17. In all these (sub-continents) the Devas, the Gan- 
dharvas and the Siddhas play and sport about along with the 
Caranas. They are being seen along with them. 

18. There are seven rivers in every one ofthe sub-conti- 
nents. They flow into the seas. I shall mention these seven 
Gangas by name, O ascetics. 

19. The following are the seven excellent rivers, viz. 
the Anutapta, the Sukhl, the Vipasa, the Tridiva, the Kramu, 
the Amrta and the Sukrta. 

20. Those rivers grow towards those places where Vasava 
(i.e. Indra) showers (rains). They have plenty of water and 
(swift) currents. Thousands of other rivers flow into them. 

21-22. The delighted people ofthese territories always 
drink (the waters of) these rivers. Those people, viz. the 
splendid Santabhayas, the joyous auspicious Saisiras, the Sivas, 
the Anandas, the Sukhas and the Ksemakas along with the 
Dhruvas. The subjects who have settled in them are endowed 
with the disciplined conduct and behaviour of the Varnas 
(castes) and Asramas (stages in life). 

23. All the subjects were strong and free from ailments. 
They are devoid of sickness. Among them none deteriorates 
and no one goes high up in arrogance (or there is no evolution- 
ary and involutionary eras.' 

1. The terms Utsarpird and Avasarpirti are the Jain terms to indicate 
timecycles. Utsarpipi is the ascending cycle and AvaiarpinT is the descending 
cycle. They are divided into six stages each viz. good-good, good, good-bad, 
bad-good, bad, bad-bad (MW p. 105). The use ofJaina terms like those of 
the Buddhists in a Brahtnanical work is not impossible. The next verse ex- 
plains this by assuming the existence of a perpetual Treta yuga. 177 

24. There is no peculiar state of affairs as pertaining to 
the Yugas, conditioned by the fourYugas. A period like Treta 
yuga is perpetually present there. 

25. These are the things to be understood in the five 
continents, Plaksadvlpa etc. The assignment of period is in 
conformity with the conditions of the region. 

26-27. It should be known that the people in these conti- 
nents beginning with Plaksadvlpa and ending with Sakadvlpa, 
are handsome, well-dressed, strong and free from sickness. 
They possess adequately happiness, long span of life, strength, 
handsome features, health and virtuousness. Men live upto 
five thousand years. 

28-30. The continent of Plaksadvlpa is prosperous and 
vast. All round, it abounds in wealth and food-grains. It 
abounds in divine medicinal herbs and fruits. It possesses 
all types ofmedicinal plants and herbs. Thousands of rural 
and wild animals of all varieties surround the regions. O 
excellent Brahmanas, in its middle there is a great tree 
named Plaksa. It has been reckoned on a par with the 
Jambij tree (in the continent Jambudvlpa). The continent is 
named after that tree. In a place in the middle ofthe inhabited 
country, it is worshipped by all the people. 

31-32. That continent of Plaksadvlpa is surrounded by 
a sea of sugarcane juice.' This sea is equal to Plaksadvlpa in 
length and extent. 

Thus the position of Plaksadvlpa has been recounted to 
you all succ nctly and in the proper order. Now understand 
the continent Salmala. 

33-34. Thereafter, I shall (now) recount the third excel- 
lent continent Salmala.' 

The ocean of sugarcane juice is encompassed by the con- 
tinent Salmala that is twice as much as Plaksadvlpa in extent. 
It should be known that there too are seven mountains 
that are the sources of precious stones. 

1. The Iksu is the river Oxus. The river is talien as asea(De, p. 179). 
Can it be regarded as a boundary surrounding Plaksadvlpa ? 

2. Puranic description of Salmala dvipa leads, M. Ali to identify it 
with tropical Africa bordering on the Indian ocean, including Madagasgar. 

178 Brahmanda Purana 

35. In those seven sub continents even the rivers are 
sources ofprecious gems. 

The first mountain is named Kumuda. It resembles the 
sun in brilliance. 

36-37a. It stands with lofty peaks full of all minerals 
and rugged with clusters of cliffs. 

The second mountain here is well known by the name 
Uttama. It encircles the firmament with its peaks full of Hari- 
tala (yellow orpiment). 

37b-38a. The third mountain there is well reputed as 
Balahaka. It encircles the firmament with its peaks full of 
natural collyrium. 

38b-39a. The fourth mountain is Drona and it is here 
that the great medicinal herbs Visalyakaranl and Mrtasahjivini (are 

39b-40a. Kanka is the fifth mountain there. It rises up 

It is perpetually endowed with flowers and fruits. It is 
surrounded by tree and creepers. 

40b-41a. The sixth mountain there is Mahisa. It is like 
a cloud. On it the water-originating fire named Mahisa lives. 

41b-42. The seventh mountain there is called by the 
name Kakudman. It is there that Vasava saves duly from the 
subjects many precious gems and keeps them to himself and 
approaches Prajapati with them- 

43. Thus, these are the seven mountains in the Sal- 
mala continent. They are bedecked in jewels. I shall mention 
their splendid sub-continents. They are only seven (in 

44-48. The sub-continent of the mountain Kumuda is 
remembered as Sveta; that of Uttama is Lohita; that of Balahaka 
isJimflta; Harlta is remembered as (the sub-continent) of 
Drona. • The sub-continent of Kaiika is named Vaidyuta 
and that of Mahisa is Manasa. The sub-continent of the 
Kakudman is Suprada by name. These are the seven sub- 
continents and (the connected) mountains. Understand the 
rivers in them. 179 

They are theJyoti, Santi, Tusta, Candra, Sukra, VimocanI 
and Nivrtti the seventh among them. They are remembered as 
the rivers in the different sub-continents. There are' hundreds 
and thousands of other rivers flowing near them. No man is 
capable of counting their number. 

Thus the situation of the continent Salmala has been 
recounted to you. 

49. In its middle there is a great Salmali (silk cotton) 
tree reckoned on a par with the Plaksa tree. It has large bran- 
ches. The continent is named after the tree. 

50. The Salmala continent is surrounded on all sides by 
the sea of liquor that is equal to Salmala in extent. 

51. Listen to the subjects in the northern continents, O 
sages conversant with piety. Understand them even as I 
recount properly in the manner I have heard. 

52-53. I shall recount the fourth continent Kusadvlpa' 
succinctly. The sea of liquor is surrounded on all sides 
by Kusadvlpa that is twice as much as Salmala in extent. 
Understand the seven mountains there as they are being 

54. It should be known that the mountain Vidruma is 
the first mountain in the Kusadvlpa; the second one is the 
mountain Hema. 

55. The name of the third mountain is Dyutiman. It is 
a mountain resembling clouds. The fourth mountain is named 
Puspavan and the fifth one is Kusesaya. 

56. The sixth one is Harigiri by name and the seventh 
is remembered as Mandara. The word (Manda means 'waters' 
and the mountain is called Mandara because it pierces or 
splits water. 

57. Their internal diameter is twice as much as the 
cross-section (Pravibhdga). 

The first sub-continent is Udbhida and the second one is 

1. After detailing the main features of Kusa dvipa M. Ali conclude* 
that it is identifiable with the tropical grass-lands viz. Iran, Irac and the 
fringing lands of hot desert, op. cit. (pp. 40-41). 

180 Brahmt&nda Purana 

58. The third sub-continent is Rathakara and the fourth 
one is remembered as Lavana. The fifth one is Dhrtimad Varsa 
and the sixth Varsa is Prabhakara. 

59. The seventh one is named Kapila. In all those (sub- 
continents) the Devas and the Gandharvas are the sancti- 
fiers of the Varsas and the subjects* are the lords of the 
universe (?) 

60. They play and sport about everywhere in great de- 
light. There are neither robbers nor Mleccha (barbarous) 
tribes in them. 

61-62. The people are mostly white-complexioned and 
they pass away in the due order (i.e. the younger ones only 
after the older ones). 

There too the rivers are seven. They are — Dhiitapada, 
Siva, Pavitra, Santati, Vidyut, Dambha and Mahl. There 
are hundreds and thousands of rivers otherthan these. They are 
not well known. 

63-64. All those flow to that place where Vasava showers : 
Externally the Kusadvlpa is incircled by the sea of ghee (clari- 
fied butter). It should be known that the sea ofghee is equal 
to Kusadvlpa in extent. 

Thus the situation and position of Kusadvlpa has been 
recounted to you all. 

65. Hereafter, I shall recount the extent of Krauiica 
dvlpa.' It is remembered to be twice as much as Kusadvlpa in 

66-69. The sea with ghee as its liquid content is in 
contact with Krauiicadvlpa. 

In that continent, the excellent mountain Krauiica is the 
first mountain. Beyond the Krauiica is the Vamana and 
beyond Vamana is the Andhakara. Beyond Andhakara is the 
mountain named Divdvrt. The excellent mountain Dvivida is 

* Va. P. 49. 54a. resids prabhasu (they are like the lords of the universe) 
in brilliance. A better reading. 

1. M. Ali examines the description of this Dvipa from different sources 
and concludes that 'the Krauiica dvipa of the Puranas is represented by the 
basin of the Black Sea. (op. cit. pp. 45-46) 181 

beyond Divavrt. The great mountain Pundarlka is beyond 
Dvivida. The Dundubhisvana is mentioned as the mountain 
beyond Pundarlka. 

These are the seven mountains of the continent Krauiica- 
dvlpa. They are full of precious gems. 

70. They are covered with different kinds of trees and 
creepers endowed with plenty of flowers and fruits. They are 
twice as much as each other in extent. They increase the 
delight of residents. 

71-74. I shall recount the sub-continents thereof by 
name. Understand them. 

The land (i.e. Varsa) pertaining (adjacent) to Krauiica 
is Kusala; that of Vamana is Manonuga; Usna is mentioned 
as the third Varsa and it is beyond Manonuga. Plvaraka is 
beyond Usna a'nd Andhakara is beyond Pivara. Munidesa (land 
ofthe sages) is remembered by the learned men as the land 
beyond Andhakara. Dundubhisvana is mentioned as the land 
beyond Munidesa. The land is populated by Siddhas and 
Caranas. The people are remembered as mostly white com- 
plexioned. There too the rivers are remembered as seven in 
number in every sub-continent. They are splendid. 

75. The seven rivers Gaurl, KumudvatI, Sandhya, 
Ratri, Manojava, Khyati and Pundarlka are remembered as 

76. There are thousands of other rivers flowing near them 
and approaching them (i.e. flowing into them like tributaries). 
They are large with plenty of water. 

77. The glorious Krauiica Dvlpa is surrounded on all 
sides by the sea with curds and whey as its liquid content. This 
sea is equal to the Krauiica Dvlpa in extent. 

78-79. The Plaksadvlpa and other continents have been 
succinctly recounted. It is impossible to describe in due order 
the natural features ofall these continents in detail even in the 
course ofhundreds ofyears according to divine reckoning. It 
is difficult to describe in detail the creation and annihilation 
ofthe subjects therein. 

182 Brahmanda Parana 

80. I shall recount SakadvTpa' definitely as it exists. 
Listen even as I recount factually and realistically. 

81. Its extent is twice as much as that ofKraufica 
Dvlpa. It stands encircling the sea with curds and whey as its 
liquid content. 

82. There the territories of the general public are very 
sacred. The people die after a long life. Whence is there famine 
among them ? (i.e. they do not experience famine). Whence 
is the fear from old age and sickness ? 

83. There too there are only seven splendid mountains 
bedecked in jewels. The seven rivers are sources of origin of 
precious gems. Listen to their names from me. 

84. The first mountain Meru is said to possess (i.e. to 
be inhabited by) the Devas, the sages and the Gandharvas. The 
mountain named Udaya is golden and it extends towards the «ast. 

85-86. The clouds take their origin there or go there 
for the sake of rain. To the west of it is the extremely great 
high mountain Jaladhara from which Vasava perpetually 
receives a large supply ofwater. Therefore, it pours showers 
among the subjects during the rainy season. 

87. To the north of it is the Raivataka, where the con- 
stellation RevatI is perpetually established in the firmament as 
ordained by Lord Brahma. 

88. To the west of it is the extremely great mountain 
named Syama. Due to it, it is said, that the subjects here 
attained darkness of complexion formerly. 

89. To the west of it, it is remembered, is the great 
silvery mountain Astagiri. To the west thereof is the"impossable 
mountain" [Durgasaila), the great mountain belonging to 
Ambika (Ambikeya) (but Ambikeya in Va.p. 49.83) 

90. To the west of Ambikeya is the beautiful mountain 
Kesarin equipped with all medicinal herbs. It is from this that 
Vayu, the Prajapati, became possessed ofKesara* ? 

1. strangely enough, two scholars come to different conclusions about 
the location of Sakadvipa. M. Ali identifies it with the Monsoon lands of 
Asia where teak abounds viz. Malaya, Siam, Indo-China and southern China, 
while De identifies it with Tartary including Turkestan in central Asia (pp. 

*Va.P.49.74 reads : sa caiva KesarTtyukto yato Vayuh pravdyati. 'That moun- 183 

91. The first Varsa (sub-continent) is (away) from the 
mountain Udaya. That great Varsa is remembered as'Jalada'. 
The second (Varsa) ofJaladhara is remembered as Sukumara. 

92. The (Varsa) ofRaivata is Kaumara; that of Syama 
is Manlvaka. The splendid sub-continent of the Asta mountain 
should be known as Kusumottara. 

93-95. The sub-continent of the mountain Ambikeya is 
Modaka and that of Kesara is Mahadruma. The dimensions 
of the continent such as narrowness, length etc. is to be reckon- 
ed in accordance with the Kraufica Dvlpa. The great tree, 
the emblem of that continent is Saka by name and it has great 
height. It has great following (?) It deserves worship*. The 
territories of the rural folk are holy. They are endowed with 
the system of Cdturvarnya (having the four castes). The rivers 
too are extremely sacred (like) Ganga. They are of seven 
varieties (i.e. they are seven in number). 

96. They are : — Sukumarl, Kumarl, NalinI, Venuka, 
Iksu, Venuka** (?) and the seventh one Gabhasti. 

97. There are other rivers too, thousands of them with 
sacred waters and cool currents. They are splendid rivers 
flowing in the places where Vasava showers. 

98. Neither their names nor their magnitude can be 
adequately understood or fully enumerated. Those excellent 
rivers are very holy. 

99. The delighted folks of the clime, O Samsapayana, 
drink the (waters ofthose) rivers. This continent is vast and is 
situated in the form ofa wheel. 

100. It is covered with the waters of the rivers and 
mountains that'resemble clouds, 'that are wonderful and variegat- 
ed by means of all sorts of minerals and that are embellished 
with jewels and corals. 

tain is designated as Kesarin, wlience the wind blows (all over tlie world). 

* Va. P. 49. 77b reads : Tasya pujam prayunjate for Bd.P.'s tasya pujyd 

* * Though the list of the seven rivers of this continent is somewhat 
different in Va.P. 49.91-94., the reading Dhenukd from that list may be accept- 
ed here to avoid repetition of Vertukd in the list of seven rivers in this text. 

184 Brahmanda Purana 

101. It is endowed with different kinds of cities and 
flourishing rural territories. The trees therein are laden with 
flowers and fruits all round (the year) and the continent 
abounds in wealth and food grains. 

102. It is surrounded on all sides by the sea with milk 
for its liquid content. The sea is equal to Sakadvipa in its 

103. Therein, the rural regions, the mountains, and the 
rivers are splendid and sacred. The lands (sub-continents) are 
fully inhabited by persons following the discipline of the four 
castes and the stages of life. They (the sub-continents), are 
seven in number. 

104. In those sub-continents there is no clash of castes 
or mixed castes. Since Dharma is practised unswervingly, the 
subjects enjoy exclusive happiness. 

105. There is no greediness amongst them nor the 
eagerness for deception as a result of rivalry and jealousy. 
There is no adversity among them. Everything is extremely 
natural and timely. 

106. In them there is no acquisition (imposition) of 
taxes. There is neither punishment nor persons worthy ofbeing 
punished. They are conversant with virtue and piety. They 
protect one another by means of their adherence to their own 
respective duties. 

107. Only this much can be described in regard to that 
continent. Only this much need be heard in regard to the resi- 
dents of Sakadvipa. 

108-111. I shall describe Puskara' the seventh continent. 
Understand it. The ocean with milk as its liquid content is 
externally surrounded on all sides by the continent Puskara' 
which is twice as much as the Sakadvipa in extent. There is 
only one glorious mountain with huge rocky cliffs. It possesses 
peaks, clusters of cliffs of various (sizes and shapes), full of 
precious jewels. It is extremely lofty and it has variegated 

1. Puskara is identified by M. Ali witli Japan, Mancliuria and the 
South-eastern Siberia op. cit. (pp. 42-44), while De identijles it with a 
portion of central Asia from the north of the Oxus includingWestern Tartary. 
Puskara is a Sanskritisation of Bhushkara or Bokhara, op. cit. (p. 163). 185 

ridges. This great mountain has diversified ridges in the 
eastern half of the continent. It is very extensive— of twentyfive 
thousand (Yojanas)— with a number ofridges. It rises up from 
the ground level upto thirtyfour thousand (Yojanas). 

112. The mountain range Manasottara covers half of 
the continent. It is situated near the sea-shore just lilce the 
rising moon. 

113. It rises upto a height offifty thousand Yojanas. Its 
circular extent all round is also the same (number of Yojanas.) 

114. The same mountain is known as Manasa in the 
western halfofthe continent. There is only one great mountain 
ofinherent strength situated in two parts. 

115. The continent is surrounded on all sides by the sea 
with sweet water as its liquid content. This sea is as extensive 
on all sides as the continent of Pusliaradvlpa. 

116-117. It is remembered that there are two splendid 
and sacred countries on that continent. They are opposite to 
the two ranges of the mountain Manasa. The sub-continent 
Mahavlta is outside the Manasa mountain range. It is said 
that Dhataklkhanda is on its inner side. 

118. The men there live for ten thousand years. They 
are free from sickness. They have plenty of pleasurable experi- 
ences. They have attained mental powers (to a great extent). 

119. The span of life and the handsome features of all 
the people in both the Varsas are declared to be the same. 
There is no distinction among them as superior or inferior. 
They are equal in features and conduct. 

120. There is neither a robber nor an oppressor. There 
is no jealousy nor the fear of malicious envy. There is neither 
seizure nor the meting out of punishment. There is neither 
covetousness nor (secret) acceptance (ofgifts). 

121. There is no (such distinction as) truth and false- 
hood or virtue and evil (i.e. all are truthful and virtuous) . 
There is no agricultural activity or breeding of cattle or trade 

122. The three Vedas, the (fourteen) Vidyas, the system 
of civil and criminal administration, the desire to serve and 
arts and crafts— all these are not present in either of the two 
sub-continents of Puskara. 

186 Brahmanda Purana 

123. There is neither rain nor (the flow of) rivers. There 
is neither chillness nor hot atmosphere. There are no water 
fountains breaking through (the ground) here. There are no 
mountain cascades or springs. 

124. The season there is just the same as in the northern 
Kurus. The people are well pleased and contented in all the 
seasons. They are devoid of the onslaught of old age. 

125. Thus the entire mode of activity and life in the 
Dhataklkhanda and Mahavlta in the continent of Puskara has 
been recounted in the due order. 

126. The continent Puskara is surrounded by the sea 
with sweet water for its liquid content. This sea is equal to 
Puskara in extent and circumference. 

127. Thus, the seven continents are surrounded by the 
seven seas. The sea that is immediately after a continent is 
equal to that continent. 

128. Thus, the mutual increase in size, ofthe continents 
and the seas should be understood. The sea is called Samudra 
on account ofthe Samudreka (the state of being plentiful) of 
the waters. 

129. The sub-continent is called Varsa because the four 
types of subjects enter (Visanti)' or live (Nivasanti) in it and 
also because it accords pleasure unto the subjects. 

130. The root y'rs means "to sport about" and the root 
•v/vis means "to strengthen." Since the sub-continent enables 

the people to sport about and to stengthen their power for 
sexual dalliance, it is called Varsa. 

131. The sea is always filled (is in flow-tide) in the 
bright half along with the increase in the size ofthe moon. 
When the moon wanes and decreases in size in the dark half, 
the sea also subsides. 

132. It is natural that the sea gets filled when it 
fills itself. When it becomes reduced it gets reduced (with- 
drawn) in itself. 

1. A popular etymology of Samudra 'a sea'. 

2. Varsa 'a sub-continent' is traced to — ais — 'to enter', ni — vas^ 
live', — rs — 'to sport' and — vrs — 'to strengthen'. 187 

133. Just as the water in the boiler appears to increase 
due to its contact with fire, so also the water in the great 
ocean becomes increased by itself naturally. 

134. During the bright and dark fortnights when the 
moon rises and sets, the waters in the sea increase and decrease 
irra quantity that is neither more nor less than usual. 

135. The increase and decrease in the quantity of 
water ofthe sea in accordance with the increase and decrease 
in the size ofthe moon is five hundred and ten Aiigulas. 

136. During the Parvan days the increase and decrease 
ofthe waters ofthe ocean can be seen. The continents sur- 
rounded everywhere by water are remembered as Dvtpas because 
of Dvirdpkatva (i.e. the state of having water on either side. 

137. The sea is called udadhi' because it is the ultimate 
rest ('4V'W"'.) of water (Udaka).' Mountains without knotty ridges 
are remembered as Giris and those with them are Parvatas. 

138. The mountain Gomedain the Plaksadvlpa is there- 
fore called Parvata. The Salmali (Silk-cotton tree) is worship- 
ped by persons of great holy rites in the continent Salmala- 

139. In the Kusadvlpa, the stump ofKusa grass is (wor- 
shipped) and it is called after its name. In the Krauiicadvlpa 
there is the mountain Krauiica in the middle of the clime. 

140. The main tree in the Saka DvTpa is Sdka and it is 
called after its name. In the Puskaradvlpa, the NjSgrodha 

(holy fig tree) is bowed to by the inhabitants therein. 

141. The great lord Brahma, the overlord of the three 
worlds is worshipped there. Brahma, the Prajapati, lives in that 

(sub-continent) along with the Sadhyas. 

142. There, the thirtythree Devas perform the worship 
along with the great sages. That lord, the most excellent of all 
the Devas is worshipped there by the Devas. 

243-144. Different kinds of jewels and precious gems 
originate (are quarried) in Jambudvlpa. 

1. Etymology of udadhi 'a sea'. 

2. yy 138-140 explain why particular continents are named Salmala, 
Kraunca, etc. 

188 Brahmunia Parana 

In all these continents, the size of the subjects is respect- 
ively twice those of the earlier ones on account of the span of 
life and state ofhealth, their adherence to celibacy, truthful- 
ness and control of the sense-organs. 

145. The self-born lord protects the subjects both the 
sluggish as well as scholarly in the two sub-continents that had 
been mentioned in the Puskaradvlpa. 

146. Raising up his rod of chastisement, lord Brahma, 
the overlord of the three worlds, protects the subjects. That 
lord is the Minister of Visnu. He is the father and grandfather. 

147. The subjects always take in the meal that approa- 
ches them( automatically) by itself. The meal has great nutritive 
value and it consists of all the six tJksfST^ 

148. The great sea with sweet water as its liquid content 
envelops the halves ofPuskara. The sea encircles it all round. 

149. Beyond it, appears the existence of a great world. 
It is golden. The entire ground is like a single rocky slab. It is 
twice as large as the sea. 

150. Beyond that world is a mountain that is circular at 
the terminals. It is partially visible and partially invisible. It is 
called Lokaloka. 

151. On this side of that Mountain is all brightness 
and beyond it is all darkness. Its height is remembered as ten 
thousand Yojanas. 

%52. Its extent is also that much. It can go over the 
earth as he pleases. The Aloka (brightness) is in the midst of 
worldly activities and the absence of brightness (i.e. darkness) 
is beyond the mundane. 

153. All theworlds are included in the half that is bright 
and the dark regions are external ones. The (region having the 
absence ofbrilliance outside extends all round to the extent of 
the worlds within. 

154. It is circumscribed all round. It is encircled by 
water. (That portion) beyond the brilliant region stands encircl- 
ing the cosmic egg. 

155-156. These worlds and the earth consisting of the 
seven continents are within the cosmic egg. The worlds are 
Bhflrloka, Bhuvarloka, Svarloka, Mahas, Jana, Tapas and Satya 

1,2.19.157-168 189 

lokas. This much constitutes the group of worlds. This much 
alone need be known about the ultimate end of the worlds and 
the great expanse beyond. 

157. In the beginning of the bright half of the lunar 
month the moon appears as though it rests on a pot (i.e. is cre- 
scent-shaped) in the western quarter. The body of the cosmic 
egg too is like that. 

158. It should be known that there are thousands and 
crores of cosmic eggs like this, above, below and sideways. The 
cause of origin thereof is the unchanging Atman. 

159. Each of these is encircled by seven Dharanas*' 
(? Fflj-anas— coverings) evolved of the Prakrti. In groups of ten 
or more (?), they sustain one another. 

160. All of them are encircled mutually and are evolved 
mutually. All round this Anda (Cosmic egg) is situated the 
Ghanodadhi — sea of solidified waters. 

161-163. It stands, on being held all round by Vanoda 
(? Mistake for Ghanadd), solidified water. 

The circular zone of the solidified water stands on being 
held by Tejas (fiery matter) all round, sidways and above. This 
fiery matter is like a ball of iron. It has a circular shape. 

It stands on being held all round by solidified air. Simi- 
larly, it is the ether that holds and sustains the solidified air. 

164. The Bhutddi (the cosmic Ego) holds the ether and 
Mahan (the great principle) sustains (supported) by the Infinite 
principle, the Avyakta (the unmanifest one). 

165-168. It. is endless and unmanifest. It is subtle in 
ten ways (?). It is boundless It is non-selfpossessed. It has 
neither a beginning nor an end. When compared with the 
supreme Being, it is non-permanent. It is Aghora (not terrible). 
It has no support. It is free from ailment. It is many thousand 
Yojanas away. It is non-concealed. It is darkness itself. It has 
no brilliance. It is unlimited. It has no space (or support). It 
is unknown even unto the Devas. It is devoid of all activities. 
It is well known as the extremity of darkness. It is non-brilliant 

* Va. P. 49. 152b reads Karanaih 'By causes'. 

1. This is the Puranic concept of protective 'sheaths' round the uni- 
verse (Brahmanda). The inlluence of Sankhya categories is obvious. 

190 Brahmanda Purana 

at the extremity of the ether. It is within the limit. It is the 
great abode ofthe lord. 

169-170. The Sruti says that that divine abode is inacces- 
sible to the Devas. The regions well-known to the learned ones 
are called 'Loka's. They are situated within the jurisdiction 
ofthe great lord ofthe Devas. The regions which are beneath 
the Moon and the sun, are called the worlds ofthe universe, 
by the wise. 

171. The nether-worlds beneath the Rasatala are seven 
in number and those above them are also seven in number. O 
Brahmanas, there are seven Skandhas (layers) ofthe wind 
along with the Brahmasadana (abode of Brahma). . 

172. Its movement is five-fold from the Patala (Nether- 
world) to the heaven. This is the extent ofthe universe. This 
is the ocean of worldly existence. 

173. The Living beings, originating from many species 
go about (here and there). They are beginningless and endless. 
The Prakrti stationed in (resting on) the Brahman is the 
cause ofthe universe. It is mysterious and variegated. 

174. The creation of the lord is extensive. It is not 
comprehended even by the Siddhas, of great fortune and nobi- 
lity who can understand things beyond the pale ofsense-organs. 

175-176. O excellent Brahmana, there is neither decline 
or decay nor transformation, nor end ofthe earth, water, fire, 
wind, ether, darkness, mind and the infinite body. This is 
endlesr everywhere. So it is cited in wisdom. 

IJ7-179. Previously his name has been mentioned by 
me while recounting the names (of deities). It is he who has 
been wholly glorified by the name of Padmanabha. He is 
omnipresent. He is worshipped in all abodes, viz. on the earth, 
the nether-worlds, the firmament, the wind and the fire.' Un- 
doubtedly He is worshipped in all the seas and in the heaven. 
This self-same Lord of great splendour is worshipped in 
darkness as well, it should be known. 

180. Lord Janardana is a great Yogin. His limbs are 
divided in many ways. This lord ofthe worlds is worshipped in 
all the worlds in diverse ways. 

181. Thus the worlds born of each other are sustained 
mutually. These Vikdras (products or effects) ofthe Avikdrin 191 

(that which does not undergo change or distortion) are sustain- 
ed by the relationship of the supporter and the supported. 

182. The earth etc. are" the Vikdras (effects). They are 
restricted by each other. They are superior to each T>ther and 
they have penetrated mutually. 

183. Since they have been created mutually, they have 
attained stability. In the beginning they were without VUesas. 
They are called VUesas because they qualify others. 

184. The three (Elements) beginning with the earth and 
ending with Vahni (fire)* are limited ones. In view of the 
essence of the increase of qualities, they have Pariccheda (exact 
determinateness, concrete state) in particular. 

185. The accurate decision or judgement about the 
remaining principles is not perceived, owing to their subtle- 
ness (Sauksmya). That earth is remembered as Vydlokd (some- 
thing that has a special brilliance?) beyond all these other 

186-187. All the Bhutas (elements) are circumscribed 
on all sides (and hence accommodated) in the space, (or firma- 
ment) just as in a big vessel smaller vessels are accommodated 
and due to their mutual support become smaller (to each other). 
Similarly, the different elements are considered ensconsced in 
the lustre of the firmament. 

188. The whole of these four elements are bigger and 
superior to one another. As long as these elements exist the 
period of creation lasts to that extent. 

189. It is as though like an interturning of threads that 
the different elements are considered enmeshed into one another. 
There can be no generation of an effect if Bhfltas (elements) are 

190. Hence, the differences which are of the nature of 
effects are declared to be limited. The differences such as Mahat 
and others are of the nature of cause. 

191. Thus, O Brahmanas, the real situation comprising 
ofthe seven continents, oceans etc. has been recounted by me 
topic by topic as it exists— (realistically). 

* The reading in the printed text is vddyanta which is meaningless. 
It should be vahnyanta in view of the mention of three elements. 

192 Brahmanda Parana 

192. The partial transformation of the Pradhdna with the 
cosmic form has been mentioned in detail. The zones have been 

193. This entire universe is presided over by the glorious 
Lord. Thus the seven groups of elements have mutually 

194. Only this much of the situation (of the universe) 
can be recounted by me. Only this much has to be heard (i.e. 
listened to and understood) in regard to the situation of the 
earth and things connected with it. 

195. These seven Prakrtis sustain one another. I am not 
able to enumerate them with reference to their extents and 

196. The Prakrtis are innumerable, above, below and at 
the sides. The situation of the constellations is in firmament in 
different zones and regions. 

197. The situation of the earth is thereafter in the form 
of circle or globe. 

Henceforth, O clever ones, I shall recount the situation 
of the earth. 


Tha Description of the Netherworlds* 

Sula said : 

l-2a. Understand the details of the earth, the w.nd, the 
ether, the water and the fire which is the fifth one — that are 
being recounted later on, that had been recounted earlier along 
with the proofs thereof. 

•The Cosmic Egg consists of fourteen worlds arranged vertically as 
follows: 193 

These elements are proclaimed as constituted of infinite 
ingredients and they are all-pervading. 

2b-4a The earth is the mother of all living beings. It 
sustains all animals and living beings. It is full ofmany Isinds of 
rural regions and territories. It consists ofmany towns and places 
of shelter. It possesses many rivers, streams and mountains. It is 
crowded with many species of living beings. 

The earth, the divine goddess, is sung about as infinite 
and extremely extensive. 


I. The Upper Regions 

II. The Middle Region 

Satya Loka 


Jana Loka 

Maliar Loka 

Svar Loka 
• I 
Bhuvar Loka 

The Earth 

III. The Lower ' 

Regions or Nether-worlds: 






All these are supported by Lord Sesa, the Serpent-King. 
These lower regions are not dark or devoid of sunlight. They are full 
of light and have the affluence and comforts of the world of gods. Cf. Bh. 
P.V.24, VP.V.2. Va. P. 50.1-54. 

Baladeva Upadhyaya makes out a plausible case for identifying the 
]N£lhei>worlds with the continent of America, (vide Purana-Vimarsa, pp. 

194 Brahtn&nt& a Parana 

4b. The waters also should be understood as infinite — 
the waters contained in the rivers, streams, oceans and small 
Teceptacles such as ponds and puddles, those situated on the 
mountains and in the firmament and those within the bowels of 
the earth. 

5. Similarly, the element of fire pervades all the worlds. It 
is cited as infinite, all-pervasive and originating from everything. 

6. Similarly, the Ether is remembered as unscrapable, 
beautiful, and accommodating all or various objects, endless 
and infinite. 

7. The Vayu (wind) originated from the Ether. The 
waters are stationed within and above the earth. The earth is 
established on the water. 

8. The Ether or the sky is that which has nothing else 
greater than it. Then the earth and then the water. This is the 
opinion that there is no state of being endless in regard to the 
Bhautika (objects evolved of the elements) * 

9-lOa. Understand that the earth becomes developed 
due to the interaction (of. the elements). The sequence — the 
earth, the water and the Ether is well known. In the seventh 
(Netherworld) Rasatala this is the situation (?) 

lOb-Ua. The nether-world called Rasatala has the land 
portion extending to ten thousand Yojanas. It has been reckon- 
ed by noble-souled persons that each of the netherlands is 
more extensive than the former. 

lib- 13a. The first one is Atala by name. Thereafter is 
Sutala. The next one, one should know, is Talatala. Atala (? 
or Vitala) is very extensive. Beneath that is the world, named 
Tala (should be Mahdtala?) and beyond that is Rasatala. 
Beneath all these, it is remembered, is the seventh world, the 

13b-15a. The first portion of the ground is glorified as 
one with black soil. 

The second world has pale white coloured ground. The 
third one has blue soil. The fourth one has yellow soil and the 
fifth one has a gravel-covered sbil. 

* The text is a bit obscure. Va.P.50.9 (corresponding verse) reads: 

•taam onto hyanantasya bhautikasya na vidyale. 'In this way, there is no end to the 

objects evolved from bhutas as they are infinite.' 195 

The sixth world should be known as (consisting of) rocky 
grounds and the seventh one is remembered as one with golden 

15b-20a. The well-known palace of the lord of the Asuras — 
Namuci, the enemy of Indra is in the first nether-world. 
The following abodes too are in the first nether world, viz. 
the abode of Mahanada, the city of Sankukarna, the palace 
of Kabandha, Niskulada's town fully inhabited by delighted 
(jolly) people, the abode of the demon Bhima, the abode of 
Suladanta, the city of Lohitaksas and Kalihgas, the town of 
SvapaHa, the city of Dhanaiijaya and of the noble-souled 
Nagendra (Lord of serpents), the city of Kaliya the serpent 
and that of Kausika. Thus it should be known that there are 
thousands of cities (and abodes) of the serpents, Danavas and 
Raksasas in the first Nether-world with black soil. 

20b-25a. In the second nether-world Sutala, O Brahmanas, 
are the abodes ofthe following, viz. the city of the first lord 
of the Daityas and Raksasas i.e. of Mahajambha, the palace of 
Hayagrlva, Krsna and Nikumbha, the city ofthe Daitya named 
Sankha and that ofGomukha, the abode ofthe demons Nlla; 
Megha and Kathana, the abode of Kukupada and that of 
Mahosnisa, the city of Kambala the serpent and that ofAsva- 
tara and the city ofTaksaka the noble-souled son of Kadru. 
Thus there are, O Brahmana, thousands ofcities belonging to 
the serpents, Danavas and the Raksasas in the second nether- 
world of pale white coloured soil. 

25b-31. In the third nether-world is the well known city 
ofthe noble-souled Prahlada, Anuhrada and Agnimukha, the 
city of (the Daitya) named Taraka, the city of Trisiras, the city 
of Sisumara the city ofTripura, the demon Puraiijana's city 
full of commotion, due to the gay, well-nourished people, 
the palace of Cyavana the Raksasa, the city of Kumbhila and 
Khara the leading Raksasas, the city of the ruthless Viradha 
with fire-emitting mouth, the city of Hemaka the serpent as 
well as that ofPanduraka, the city of Maninaga, the palace of 
Kapila, the palace of Nandaka the lord of the serpents, and 
that ofVisalaksa. Thus there are thousands of cities of the 

196 Brahman$a Parana 

serpents, Danavas and Raksasas, O Brahmanas in the third 
netherworld with blue soil. 

32-34. In the fourth netherworld is the city of Kalanemi 
the lion among Daityas, that ofthe noble-soulcd Gajakarna, 
the city of Kuiijara, the vast and extensive city of Sumali the 
leading Raksasa, the abode of Muiija, Lokanatha and Vrka- 
vaktra and the city ofVainateya, that extends to many Yojanas 
and that is crowded with many birds. All these are in the 
fourth netherworld. 

35-38. In the fifth netherworld that is covered with sand 
and full of gravel is the intelligent Virocana, the lion among 
Daityas, the abodes ofVaidyuta, Agni-Jihva and that ofHir- 
anyaksa, the city ofthe intelligent Vidyujjihva, the lord of 
Raksasa, the city of Sahamegha, that of Malin, the leading 
Raksasa, the city ofthe serpent Kirmira and those of Svastika 
and Jaya. Thus there are thousands ofcities ofthe serpents, 
Danavas and the Raksasas in the fifth netherworld full of gravel. 
This should be known (as the situation) for ever. 

39-42a. In the sixth netherworld is the excellent city of 
Kesari, the lord ofthe Daityas, the cities of Suparvan, Puloman 
and Mahisa, and the city of the noble-souled Suresa, the leading 
Raksasa. It is there that Sataslrsa the son of Surama lives 
joyfully. The king of serpents named Vasuki, the affluent and 
glorious friend of Mahendra (stays there). Thus there are 
thousands of cities of the serpents, Danavas and the Raksasas 
in the famous sixth netherworld, Rasatala with rocky ground. 

42b-46a. It should be known that the city of Bali is in 
the seventh and the last netherworld Patala. It is beyond every 
world. It is gay and full of men and women. It is full of Asuras, 
serpents and the happy and joyous enemies ofthe Devas. There 
itselfis the great city of Mucukunda, the Daitya. It is teeming 
with innumerable great cities of Daityas full of bustle and com- 
motion, thousands ofthe brilliant cities of the serpents, the 
great rising (flourishing) cities ofthe Daityas and the Danavas 
and the many flourishing abodes ofthe Raksasas. 

46b-47. O leadingBrahmanas, atthe extremeend ofPatala 
that extends to many Yojanas resides Sesa the noble-souled 
(king ofserpents). His eyes are like the red lotus. He is devoid 197 

of death and old age. His body is as wliite as tiie inner part 
of well-waslied Sankiia (conciisiiell). He wears blue clothes. 
He is very powerful. r" 

48-49. His physical body is huge. He is lustrous and 
mighty. He wears garlands of variegated colours. He has a 
thousand faces (hoods) with mouths shining and brilliant and 
resembling the golden-peaked (mountain) in purity (lustre). 
He has single Kundala (Ear-ring). He appears splendid with 
his thousand faces. He is refulgent, due to a series of tongues 
emitting sparks of waving flames of fire. 

50-54. With his two thousand eyes that have the reddish 
splendour of the rising sun and with his body that is white and 
glossy, he appears like the mountain Kailasa surrounded 
by clusters of flames. He has the white complexion like 
the Moon as well as the Kunda flowers. Hence the cluster 
of his eyes shines like the cluster of midday suns on the peak 
of the white Mountain (Sveta Parvata). 

He has a huge terrible body. With it (resting) in his 
reclining pose on his couch, he appears like^a thousand-peaked 
mountain ofvast dimensions (resting) over the earth. 

This (enormously) huge lord of serpents, himself ofgreat 
splendour, is being attended upon by extremely wise and noble- 
souled great serpents of huge physique. He is the king of all 
serpents. He is Ananta, Sesa, of excessive brilliance. 

55. That is the commandment (or act) ofVisnu. That 
is the final established boundary (ofthe Nether-world). Thus 
the seven netherworlds that could be discussed have been 

56-58. They are always inhabited by the Devas, the 
Asuras, the great serpents and the Raksasas. Beyond this is total 
absence of light. It cannot be traversed by the Siddhas and 
the Sadhus (good people). It is unknown even to the Devas. 
With a desire to expatiate on the general position, O excellent 
Brahmanas, the greatness ofthe earth, water, fire, wind and 
the ether is undoubtedly narrated thus. Hereafter, I shall 
recount the movement ofthe sun and the Moon. 

198 Brahm&nda Purana 


The Solar System. Movements of Heavenly Luminaries: 
Division of Time 

SUtasaid : 

I. As long as the Sun and the Moon revolve, they are- 
elevated by means oftheir lustre and brilliance through their 

2-3. (?) The space covered by the brilliant refulgence 
ofthe sun and the moon is the extent ofthe seven seas and the 
continents. The light falls over half the extent ofthe earth and 
the other side remains external. The sun and the moon 
illuminate the area around facing them. 

In extent and magnitude the heaven (i.e. the firmament) 
is remembered as equal to that ofthe Earth. 

4. The root \/av means illumination and protection. 
Revolving all round, the sun illuminates and protects the 
three worlds. Hence, on account of illumination and protection, 
he is remembered as 'Ravi.'^ 

5-6. Hereafter, I shall recount the magnitude of the moon 
and the sun. 

The word Mahi (earth) is (arbitrarily)-assigned to this 
sub-continent because of its state of being honoured (Mahitatvdt) 
The Solar disc is as extensive as the diameter of this sub con- 
tinent of Bharata. Understand that in Yojanas (1 Yojana = 
12 km.). 

7. The extent of the disc ofthe sun is nine thousand 
Yojanas. Its girth is three times the extent. 

1. The present chapter deals with the ancient astronomical ideas in 
the pre-telescope age. Similar information about the stellar region regarding 
the size ofthe planets and other stars, movements ofthe Sun, the Moon etc. 
are found in other Puranas like the Bh.P. V Chs. 21-24, Mt. P. Chs. 124-128, 
V.P. II Chs. 8-12 and Va. P. 1.50. 57 to Ch. 53 — the last being textually the 
same as the Bd. P. and was useful in correcting the misprints in the present 
text. The astrological aspect ofthese planets etc. is found in GP. 59-64 and 
AP. 121 etc. Some ofthese ideas regarding the distances, positions and dimen- 
sions ofplanets are outdated due to advance ofmodern astronomy. 

2. The author of this Purana is fond of giving popular etymologies. 
Thus Ravi 'the Sun' is normally traced to *yjru — according to Utjaii IV 13ft 
Ujjvaladatta, but here the author traces it to \/av — "to protect". 199 

8. In diameter as well as girth (Circumference), the 
moon is twice as much as the sun. 

Now I shall recount the extent of the earth in Yojanas. 

9. The extent and girth (circumference) of the earth 
consisting of seven continents has been reckoned in proper 
measure in the Puranas. 

10. I shall recount that, after enumerating the current 
Abhimdnins (Deities etc. who preside or have the sense of 
possession etc.). Those Abhimdnins who have gone by are on a 
par with the current ones. 

1!. The Devas who have gone by are on a par with the 
current ones in forms and names. Hence, I shall describe the 
surface ofthe earth through the current Devas. 

12. (I shall recount) the situation of the heavenly 
world entirely through the current (Devas). 

The entire Earth is remembered as fifty crores (ofYojanas) 
in extent. 

13-16. Its situation from an upword measure (?)is as far 
as the Meru. Half the extent ofthe earth is stated in terms of 
Yojanas. The extent of the earth towards all the sides 
(quarters) from the middle ofthe Meru is remembered as orte 
crore and eightynine lakhs (ofYojanas) and fifty thousand*. 
Hence, the extent ofthe circular section ofthe earth is roughly 
eleven crores and thirtyseven lakhs. This is reckoned as the 
extent of the surface of the Earth. 

17-18. (This is reckoned as the extent of the earth) 
namely as much is the extent in the firmament of the fixation 
of constellations, so much is the situation of the revolution 
as far as the sphere ofthe earth. By the measure ofthe Parydsa 
(Revolution, Rotation), it is remembered that the firmament 
is equal to the earth. This is recounted as the abode of the 
seven continents. - 

19. The situation of the spheres ofthe worlds is one over 
the other with the girth gradually reduced falling within the 
previous sphere. 

It is considered as the radius of tlie circular zone. 

200 Brahmanda Parana 

20. The entire situation lias been laid down tiius and 
in tliem tlie creatures stay. Tliis magnitude of tlie bowl of the 
Cosmic Egg has been recounted. 

21-22. These worlds as well as this earth with its seven 
continents are within this cosmic Egg. The worlds are Bhiirloka 
Bhuvarloka, Svarloka, Maharloka, Janaloka, Tapoloka and 
Satyaloka. These seven worlds have been created and they are 
arranged in the shape of an Umbrella. 

23-24. They are held by means of their own subtle 
coverings individually. These sources of origin are exterior 
coverings and they are ten times more than (what they enve- 
lope). They are filled with special characteristics originating 
mutually. All round this Cosmic Egg is present (as a fixed 
envelop) the solidified ocean.' 

25. The entire sphere of the Earth is held by the solidi- 
fied water. The solidified ocean is held by a greater solidified 

26. The solidified fiery element is surrounded on all 
sides externally, sideways and upwards by a solidified wind 
element. Being held thus it rests stabilized there. 

27. The solidified wind is surrounded by the firmament. 
The entire firmament is enveloped by the Bhatddi (i.e. Ahamkara 
— Ego). The Bhatddi is enveloped by the (principle called) 

28. The Mahat is enveloped by the Pradhdna that is infi- 
nite and it is ofimmutable nature. 

I shall mention in due order the cities of the guardians 
of the worlds. 

29-32. (It is being mentioned) for the achievement of 
the proofof spreading the qualities of the luminary bodies* (?) 
[Rather : The extent of the movements of the host of luminary 
bodies will now be described.] 

1. Puranas believe that this cosmic egg is protected by sheaths consis- 
ting of solid (ghana) gross elements, the earth being covered by the sheath of 
solidified water and the sheath ofwater being enveloped in the sheath ol^ soli- 
dified fire (ghana-teja)a.nd so on. These sheaths of gross elements are progres- 
sively protected by sheaths of Ahahkara Mahat and Pradhdna. Sahkhya 
influence is evident on this belief. 

* The text is corrupt here. The line in Va. P. 50. 86b is as follows : 201 

To the east ofMeru and on the top of the Manasa is the 
city of Mahendra.' It is the excellent abode ofVasus (ofwhom 
Indra is the head). It is decorated with gold. 

To the south of the Meru and on the top ofthe Manasa 
itself, lives Vaivasvata Yama, (Yama the son of the Sungod) 
in the city called Samyamana. 

To the west ofthe Meru and the top of the Manasa it- 
self, is the beautiful city named Sukha. It belongs to the intel- 
ligent Varuna. Varuna, the lord of the aquatic beings, lives in 
the city named Suliha. 

33. To the north of the Meru, on the top of the 
Manasa itself, is the city of Soma, named Vibhavarl. It is on 
a par with the city of Mahendra. 

34. It is for the stabilization of Virtue (Dharma) and 
for the protection of all the worlds that the guardians ofthe 
worlds (i.e. quarters) have stationed themselves in all the four 
quarters on the top ofthe Manasa. 

35. Understand the movement of the sun during the 
southern transit, as he goes to that quarter. His movement is 
above all the guardians ofthe quarters. 

36. During his southern transit, the sun rushes forward 
lilce an arrow that is discharged. He revolves always, taliing 
the circle ofluminaries with him. 

37-38a. When the sun is in the middle (of the firma- 
mant) at AmaravatI (city of Indra) his rising is seen in Samya- 
mana belonging to Vaivasvata (i.e. Yama). At Sukha it shall 
be the middle of the night and the sun (appears to) set at 
Vibha (i.e. Vibhavarl). 

38b-39a. When the sun is in the middle (ofthe firma- 
ment) at Samyamana belonging to Vaivasvata (i.e. Yama), he 
is seen rising at Sukha belonging to Varuna. At Vibha it shall 
be the middle of the night and (the sun appears to) set at 
Mahendri (AmaravatI, the city oflndra). 

39b-41. When it is afternoon for the people of the south- 
east (or the South and the East), it is mentioned as forenoon for 

Jyotir-gana-pracarasya pramanam parivaksyate. The translation is given in tlie 
bracket, in tliis verse above. 
1. Cf V. P. II 8.9-11. 

202 Brahmanda Purina 

the people of the South-West (or, ofthosewho are other than 
the people ofthesouth). It is the latter part ofthe night for 
them who are in the north. It is earlier part of the night for 
the people of northeast. It is in this manner alone that the sun 
shines in the northern worlds. 

42. When the sun is (in the middle ofthe sky) during 
midday at Sukha, (the city) belonging to Varuna, he (the 
sun) (appears) to rise in Vibha, the city ofSoma. 

43-44. It is midnight at AmaravatI and it (appears to) 
set at Yama's city. 

When the sun is (in the middle ofthe sky) during mid- 
day at Vibha the city of Soma, the sun appears to rise at 
AmaravatI ofMahendra. It is mid-night at Samyamana (Yama's 
city) and the sun sets at the city belonging to Varuna. 

45. The sun revolves rapidly like the whirling firebrand. 
Moving about, the sun traverses the revolving constellations. 

46. ' Thus the sun thereby moves to the south among the 
four quarters. The sun rises and sets again and again. 

47. The sun warms two Devalayas (abodes of gods i.e. 
those of Indra and others) in the forenoon and two (other) 
Devalayas in the afternoon. During the midday also, he blazes 
with his own rays. 

48. After rising up the sun blazes and increases in warmth 
by means of his own rays till the midday. Thereafter, with his 
rays decreasing (in warmth) the sun sets. 

49-50. The two quarters of the East and West are 
remembered by means of sunrise and sunset. While it blazes in 
front, (the heat is felt) behind as well as at the sides. 

Where the sun appears rising, it is remembered as sunrise 
to the people there-of, where the sun vanishes, it is called sunset 
in regard to the people there.* 

51-54. The Meru is to the north of all and the Lokaloka' 
is in the south. 

* Cf. Ait. Br. 111.44 which clearly states that there is rising or setting 
ofthe Sun. Also VP.Il.8.16. Contrast the Greek idea of having a new sun 
every day. 

1. This is a mythical mountain surrounding the outermost border of 
the world. It is so called as it divides the visible wOrld from the region of dark- 
ness. For its description vide W. 104-107 below. 203 

Due to the far distant position of the sun and due to his 
being covered by the line (horizon) of the earth, the rays of 
the sun disappear (obstructed from sight). Hence it (the sun) 
is not seen at night. 

The setting and rising of the planets, stars and the moon 
should be understood through the magnitude of the altitude of 
the sun. So also their rising and setting. 

The fire and the water have a white glimmer (?), while 
the earth has a dark shadow. 

Since the sun is far off, it has no (fiery) rays even when 
it has risen. Its redness is due to the fact that it has no rays 
and the absence of heat is due to the redness. 

55. Wherever the sun is seen occupying the line (hori- 
zon), it is seen more than a hundred thousand Yojanas above. 

56., When the sun sets along with his rays, the lustre 
of the sun enters the fire at night. Hence it shines from a 

57. The heat of the fire enters the sun when it rises up. 
The sun blazes during the day time on being united with the 

58. The lustre and the heat are the brilliance of the sun 
and the fire. They shine and flourish day and night, due to 
their mutual penetration. 

59. In the northern as well as southern halves ofthe 
earth, the night enters the water when the sun rises. 

60-64. Hence due to the penetration ofthe night during 
the day, the waters are cool then. When the sun sets, the day 
penetrates the waters. Hence the waters are warm during the 
night due to the penetration of the day. Both in the south- 
ern half and the northern half of the earth, it is in this order 
that the day and night enter the waters when the sun sets or 

That (part of time) is called 'day' when there is sun- 
light and the night is called TamasI (full of darkness). The 
night is well defined due to this. The day is remembered 
at that (period of time) which is dependent on the sun. 

Thus, when the sun traverses the middle of the sky, it 
passes through parts ofthe earth in the course of a Muhiirta 

204 Brahmanda Pur ana 

as it were (?) Understand the number ofYojanas here in the 
course ofa Muhiirta. 

65-67. It is one hundred and eightyone thousand 
Yojanas. This is the speed of the sun in a Muhurta. 

When the sun proceeds to the southern quarter with 
this velocity, it covers the middle and the extremity ofthe 

Then during the Daksinayana, it whirls in the middle of 
the firmament. 

68. Understand that it traverses in the southern quarter 
in the mountain Manasottara. The Visuva (Equinox) is in the 
middle (?) 

69. The circumference ofthe sun is estimated to be nine 
crores ofYojanas as well as fortyfive hundred thousands (i.e. 
9,45,00000 Yojanas). 

70-72. This is laid down as the movement (? total dis- 
tance traversed) ofthe sun in the course ofa day and a night. 
When the sun, after returning from the south, remains 
in the equinox, it traverses the northern regions ofthe milk- 
ocean. Understand its girth in Yojanas. It is estimated that 
during the equinox it is three-crores and eightyone hundred 

73-74. When the sun is in the (constellation) Sravana 
and Uttarasadha it traverses the regions (quarters) to the north 
of the sixth (continent) Sakadvipa. O Brahmanas, the magni- 
tude ofthe northern quarter and the sphere (? of the sun 
therein) is estimated to be a crore ofYojanas. 

75-77a. The divisions of the planetary system are :,' the northern one and Ajavithi, the southern one. 
These divisions comprise three asterisms each. The constel- 
lations Mula, Purvasadha Uttarasadha are the points of 
rising in the Ajavithi while the contellations AsvinI, BharanI 
(lit. that of which Yama is the deity) and Krttika are the 

1. According to Varahamihira's Brhatasamhitdy Vitki is a particular 
division of tlie planetary sphere comprising of three asterisms. Thus the 
division comprising asterisms Mula, Purvasadha . and Uttarasadha 
constitutes the Aja-Vithiy while As'vini, Bharani and Krttika form the Ndga- 
vUhl. 205 

three points (constituting) in tiie Nagavlthi. Tlie magnitude 
of tlie nortliern orbit as well as the southern orbit is eighty 
hundred thousand and five thousand eight hundred Yojanas (?) 
(or 804-58= 138 lakhs ofYojanas.) 

77b-79a. I shall henceforth mention the distance bet- 
ween the quarters in Yojanas. 

This distance is eight hundred thousand four hundred 
and thirty three Yojanas (?) 

Thus the distance between the quarters has been mention- 
ed in Yojanas. 

79b-80a. I shall mention the distance between the two 
quarters and Meridians, the southern as well as the northern, 
in Yojanas. Understand it. 

80b-81. The exterior and the interior distances between 
the quarters and the meridians are seven million and one 
hundred and seventyfive thousand Yojanas. 

82. During Uttarayana the sun goes round the internal 
zones. During the Daksinayana it goes round the external 
zones always in the due order. 

83. There are one hundred and eightythree zones in 
the north. In the south also the sun traverses that much. 

84-85. Understand the magnitude of the zone in Yojanas. 
It is seventeen thousand two hundred and twentyone Yojanas 
(in magnitude). 

86. This magnitude of the zone has thus been recount- 
ed in so many Yojanas. *iflJ'ct( 

The diameter ofthe zone is laid obliquely., ZyJeli"** 

87-88. Everyday the sun traverses those (zones) m due 
order. Just as the outer rim ofthe potter's wheel comes back 
quickly (i.e. revolves), so also the sun functions quickly during 
his Southern transit. Hence, he traverses a major portion of 
the Earth in the course of a shorter period. 

89-91. During Daksinayana, on account ofhis rapidity, 
the sun covers thirteen and a half constellations in the course of 
a day of twelve MuhQrtas. He covers the same number of cons- 
tellations during the night of eighteen Muhiirtas. 

Just as the central region of the potter's wheel whirls 
slowly so also, during his northern transit the sun traverses 
with less rapidity. Hence, during his northern transit, the sun 

206 Brahtnanda Parana 

traverses with less velocity. Hence, he covers a lesser portion of 
the earth in the course of a greater period. 

92-93. After the advent of the northern transit, the 
day consists ofeighteen Muhflrtas, the sun ofslow speed traver- 
ses thirteen and a half constellations during the day. He covers 
the same number of constellations during the night oftwelve 

94. The Potter's wheel whirls still more slowly at the 
Navel, in the same manner, like the lump of clay in the middle, 
the pole star (Dhruva) revolves. 

95-96. They say that the day and the night together 
consist of thirty Muhiirtas. Whirling in between the two 
quarters, Dhruva revolves in circles. 

Just as the navel of the potter's wheel remains there 
itself, so also, it should be known that Dhruva whirls there 
(without changing its place) itself 

97-99. It (pole star) whirls in circles in between the two 
quarters. The movement of the- sun is slow by day and quick 
at night. Dur ng the northern transit the' movement of the 
sun by day is slow and very quick by the night. 

During the southern transit the movement of the sun by 
the day is quick and that by the night is slow. 

100. Thus, by means of regular and irregular move- 
ments and proceeding along its orbit, the sun divides days 
and nights. 

101. These guardians ofthe four quarters are stationed 
on the Lokaloka mountain. Agastya (the star Canopus) quickly 
traverses over them. 

102-106. Day and night he undergoes these diverse 
motions to the south of the Nagavlthi and to the north ofthe 

Outside the path of Vaisvanara, he is the extender of 
the worlds. 

As long as the lustre ofthe sun shines from behind, there 
is brightness in front of and at the sides of the Lokaloka. 

The mountain is ten thousand Yojanas in height. It is 
partially lighted and partially not lighted (in darkness). It is 
circular all round. The stars, the moon and the sun, along with 207 

the planets and the groups of constellations shine within the 
boundary of the world encircled by the mountain Lokaloka. 

The world is only this'lar. Beyond this is darkness. 

107-111. This (mountain) has the illumination on the 
side ofthe world. Beyond the worlds, it is devoid ofillumina- 
tion. The inter-space between, Usa (Night or Dawn) and 
Vyusti (Morning) joins the Lokaloka accepted by the sun*(?) 
Therefore, they call it Sandhyd (Twilight). Usa is remember- 
ed as night and Vyusfi is remembered as the day, by the 

The demons were bent on devouring the sun and the fire 
at the time of dusk. A curse was cast on these wicked persons 
at the instance of Prajapati. 

(They had) Aksayalva (the state of imperishability) ofthe 
body but they were made to die. 

Three crores of demons are well known as Mandehas. 
Every day they seek the rising sun. These evil-minded ones 
wish to devour the sun that blazes. 

112-113. A terrible battle ensued \between the sun-god 
and those demons. Thereupon, the Devas, the most excellent 
Brahmanas and god Brahma performed the Sandhya-prayer 
and poured water charged with the Mantras of Gayatri along 
with Omkara (the symbol of) Brahman. 

114-115. With a sudden flash of splendour then the sun 
shone with fierce rays. He became excessively resplendent with 
great strength and valour. Protected by the Brahmanas, he 
rises a hundred thousand Yojanas upwards and proceeds ahead. 
Protected by the sages Valakhilyas and his brilliance along 
with his rays (he is held aloft.) 

116. Fifteen Nimesas constitute one Kastha. Thirty 
Kasthas make one Kala. Thirty Kalas make a Muhurta and 
thirty such Muhurtas make a full day consisting of day 
and night. 

*Va P. gives a better reading : suryab, parigraham i.e. It is the sun who 
joins and therefore the period is called Sandhya (the joining period). 

Or : As itjoins together Lokaloka which surrounds the sun, it is called 
Sandhya (the connecting link between light and darkness). It is the interim 
period between us as (dawn) and the morning. 

208 Brahmanda Purana 

117-123. The shortening or the lengthening of days by 
means of units of time happens duly. The Sandhya (junction) 
spreads over a period ofa Muhurta. It is remembered as the 
limit for the shortening or lengthening of the days. 

Rising from the circle of the horizon, when the sun 
traverses for a period of three Muhurtas, that is remem- 
bered as Forenoon.' It is a fifth of the daytime. The period 
of time of three Muhtirtas after the forenoon is called Saiigava. 
The period of three Muhiirtas from Saiigava is called Madhy- 
dhna (Midday). The period ofthree Muhiirtas from the midday 
is remembered as Apardhna (Afternoon). A period of three 
Muhflrtas alone is remembered by scholars as the unit of time, 
(A period of three Muhiirtas) after the Apardhna is called 
Sdydhna (Evening). There are only three (sacred ?) Muhiirtas 
in a day of fifteen Muhiirtas. It is remembered that an equi- 
notical day has fifteen Muhiirtas. During the southern transit 
and the northern transit, the nights and days increase and 
decrease. The day swallows the night and the night swallows 
the day. 

124. The equinox is expected to be in the middle of 
the Autumn and the Spring. The moon has equal number of 
Kalas in the night and day. 

125. A period of fifteen days is mentioned as a Paksa 
(fortnight). Two Paksas make a month and two solar months 

make a season. 

126-129. Three seasons (make one Ayana), and two 
Ayanas make a solar Year. 

(Defective Text). Nimesas are Yidyutas'*. Fifteen of them 
make a Kastha. Thirty Kaslhas make a Kala (?) It consists 
of one hundred and sixty Matras. 

Thirty Matras increased by two and seven consist of thirty- 
six ofthe latter (?). With sixtytwo and seventythree Matras 
constitute Kala. It has forty thousand and eight hundred 

1. These verses state the five parts ofthe day, each part being ofthree 
Muhurtas in duration. 

2. It appears that a new term called Vidyut is introduced in the units 
of Time here, 

*Va.P.50.179 reads ;nimesadi krtah Kalah "The time covered by twink- 
ling of the eye 'etc'. 209 

Vid.vv.ts . They are seventy (?) Know for certain that they are 
ninety. They say that there are four hundred' and two 
Vidyuts (?) 

130. This should be considered as the excellent part. 
Nadika Ghati (24 minutes) is the cause hereof. The five (units of 
time beginning with Sarhvatsara are diversified, due to four 
measures' (?) (See verse 137). 

131-132. The decisive basic unit of all time is called 
Yuga (Age).^ The first year is Sarhvatsara. The second is 
Parivatsara. The third is Idavatsara. The fourth is Anuvat- 
sara. The fifth is Vatsara. Their period of time is called Yuga. 

133-134. In a solar Yuga, there shall be three thousand 
(lit. thirty hundred) Parvans (junctions) and one thousand 
eight hundred and thirty risings of the sun (i.e. days.) 

There shall be thirty Rtus and ten Ayanas (Defective 
Text). There are three hundred and sixtyfive days (5 + 300 
+ 60) in a solar year. 

135. Thirty units of days and nights make one solar 
month. Sixtyone such days make one Rtu. 

136. The extent of a solar Ayana is one hundred and 
eightythree days. 

137. The following are the four measures (for calculating 
time) viz.: Saura (Solar), Saumya (Lunar), JVaksatra (sidereal) 
and Savana (based on Savana calculation of days from sunrise 
to sunset). These measures are decisively mentioned in the 

1. V. 137 gives the four measures of systems in calculating time (or 
year) viz. Saura (Solar), Saumya (Lunar), Naksatra (sidereal). 

2. This Purana records the age-old tradition that the Yuga period 
consisted of five years. Even in the Vedic times Yuga was of five years and the 
names of those five years (with a slight variations in the name Idavatsara viz. 
Idd-ldu — Vatsara) are the same as given here (vide Tai.S.V.7. 1-3, Vaj.S.27.45, 
Atharva VI 55.3). Tai. Br. I. 4.10.1 identifies Sarhvatsara, Parivatsara etc. with 
god Agni, Aditya etc. Kautilya in ArthaSaUra II Ch. 20 in measures of time 
declares "A Yuga consists of five years" (Paiica-Sarhvatsaro Tugam). This. 
Purana records the same. 

210 Brahmanda Parana 

138. There is a mountain named Srngavan towards the 
north of the Sveta. It has three peaks which appear to touch 
the surface of the firmament. 

139. That mountain is said to be Srngavan, due to 
those peaks. Its girth and sectional diameter are equally glori- 
fied (? are the same). 

140. Its middle and eastern peak is golden. The southern 
peak has crystal-like lustre and it is made of silver. 

141. The excellent northern peak is full of all kinds of 
jewels. Thus, due to the three peaks, the mountain is 

well known as Srngavan. 

142. During the time in between the Autumn and 
the Spring, the sun proceeds with a medium speed and he 
resorts to its eastern peak. 

143. Hence, the dispeller of darkness makes the day and 
night equal. Divine green-coloured horses are yoked to his great 
chariot. They appear as though they are smeared with the 
rays red as lotus. 

144. To the close of Mesa and Tula, the duration of the 
day from sunrise to sunset is fifteen Muhurtas. The night is 
also equally long. 

145. When the sun enters the first degree or part of the 
constellation Krttika, it should be known that the moon enters 
the fourth part of the constellation Visakha. 

146. When the sun moves through the third part of the 
constellation Visakha, it should be known that the moon has 
occupied the top of the constellation Krttika. 

147-149. The great sages say that one should know that 
time as Visuva (Equinox). One should understand the equinox 
through the position ofthe sun and should see the time through 
the moon. When the day and the night are of equal duration, 
it shall be the Visuva. Then during the equinox, religious gifts 
should be offered to the manes and to the Brahmanas parti- 
cularly "because it happens to be the face of gods. 

150. (The following are to be known in connection with 
the various units of time) : they are Unamdsa (month of a 
shorter duration), Adhimasa (Intercalary lunar month), Kala, 
Kastha, Muhiirtaka, PaurnamasI (full moon), Amavasya (New 154 211 

moon), SinlvalT, Kuhu (different kinds of new moon), Raka and 
Anumati (kinds offuU moon day).' 

151. The months of Magha, Phalguna, Caitra, Vaisakha, 
Jyestha and Asadha constitute Uttarayana (Northern transit). 
The months ofSravana, Bhadrapada, Asvina, Karttika, Marga- 
sTrsa and Pausa constitute Daksinayana.^ 

152-154. The five years called Artavas should be known 
as the sons ofBrahma. 

Hence, the Rtus should be known. They are remembered 
as Artavas on account of the Rtus. Hence, from this Parvan, 
Amavasya should be known as having Rtus as its face. Hence, 
from this Parvan, the Visuva should be known. It is always con- 
ducive to the welfare of the Devas and the Pitrs. One should 
not lose sense regarding rites concerning the Pitrs and the Devas, 
after knowing the Parvan. 

1. The Amavasya (the new moon day) mixed with the 14th Tithi 
is Sinivali and that which merges with the 1st Tithi of the next fortnight is 
Kuhu. It is treated as a divinity and invoked for wealth and Sons, (vide 
Atharva VII 47.1). According to Nirukta XI 29, Paurnamasi (the full moon 
day) mixed with the 14th tithi is Anumati, while that mixed with the 1st day 
of the next fortnight is Raka. In vedic times it was worshipped for a rich and 
famous son. 

2. This verse records the ancient names of the months with which 
modern names Caitra, Vaisakha came to be identiHed. For the convenience 
of readers the modern names are given in translation. The correspondence 
of ancient and modern names of the months is as follow: 

O UTerm New Term 

Tapas Magha 

Tapasya Phalguna 

Madhu Caitra 

Madhava Vaisakha 

Sukra Jyestha 

suci Asadha 

Nabhas Sravana 

Nabhasya Bhadrapada 

Isu Asvina 

Orja Karttika 

Sahas Margasirsa 

Sahasya Pausa 

2 1 2 Brahtnanda Parana 

155. Hence, Visuva that is present everywhere (?) is al- 
ways remembered by the subjects. The (mountain) Lokaloka 
is called so because the world is remembered on account of(?) 
its being illuminated (by the sun). 

156. The guardians of the quarters are stationed in the 
middle of the Lokaloka. Those four (?) noble-souled guardians 
remain till the annihilation of all living beings. 

157. They are Sudhama, Vairaja, Kardama, Sankhapa, 
Hiranyaroman, Parjanya, Ketuman and Rajasa. (Perhaps they 
are in pairs and hence called four ?). 

158. They are free from Dvandvas (mutually opposed 
pairs) and false prides. They are boundless and free from pari- 
grahas (acceptances of'gifts from others). These guardians of 
quarters are stationed on the Lokaloka in all the four directions. 

159. To the North of the star Agastya* and to the south 
of Ajavlthi is the pathway called Pitryana. It is outside the 
path Vaisvanara. 

160. There stay the sages who are endowed with progeny 
and who perform Agnihotra sacrifices. Those who stay in the 
path of pitryana are those who continue the series ofworlds 
(who perpetuate the lines or race ofthe worlds). 

161. The southern path is of those who, hein% Rtviks,. 
commence the work of procreation of living beings by their 
blessings and are desirous ofthe world. 

162. In every Yuga, they establish Dharma that goes 
astray. They perform austerities. They strictly adhere to the 
bounds (of decency) and pursue the art of learning. 

163. Here, in this world the predecessors are born in 
the houses of the successors (those who come after) and the 
successors are born on the death ofthe predecessors. 

164. Repeatedly being born thus, they remain till the 
annihilation of all living beings. These sages who are house- 
holders are eightyeight thousand in number. 

165-168a; They resort to the southern path of the sun 
as long as the moon and the stars are existent. This is the total 

* Tadapastasya is wrong. Va.P. 50.209a reads correcdy yad Agastasya. 
'of the star Agastya*. 213 

sum (i.e. 88000) of those persons who perform holy rites and 
•who resorted to the cremation grounds. Their routine activities 
in the world consist of creation of living beings, activities 
prompted by desire or hatred, indulgence in sexuallntercourse, 
activities induced by lust and resorting to sensual objects. 

Those Siddhas (persons with spiritual attainment) who 
resorted to cremation grounds on these or similar grounds and 
those sages who seek progeny are (re-born in the Dvapara 

168b-169. The pathway that is towards the north of 
NagavithI and to the south of the group of seven sages (i.e. 
the Great Bear) is the northern path of the sun. It is remem- 
bered as Devaydna. Those who stay there are Siddhas of great 
celibacy, free from impurities. 

170-173. They contemptuously hate progeny. Hence, 
death is conquered by them. These sages ofsublimated sexual 
urge are eightyeight thousand in number. They closely cling 
to the northern path, till the annihilation of all living beings 
Due to their association with the world, avoidance of sexual 
intercourse, abstention from desires and hatreds, eschewal of 
creation of living beings, non-lustful contacts and seeing 
defects in sound etc. (i.e. sensual objects), they have become 
Siddhas. And also due to various other reasons also. Hence they 
became immortal. Immortality is considered to be (the attain- 
ment) of those who stay till the annihilation of all living beings. 

174-175a. They approach their wives once again for 
the sustenance of the three worlds.* Others of sublimated 
sexual urge are sinners as well as meritorious on account 
of their killing the child in the womb or performing horse 
sacrifices. They wither away at the end of annihilation of 
all living beings. 

175b-76. To the north and above the worlds of the 
sages, where Dhruva is remembered to be present, is the divine 
region ofVisnu, the third one in the firmament. It is the shining 

* This is strange of tliose Orddhva-retas sages. Va.P.SO. 222a reads: 
TTailokya-stkiti-kdlo'yam apunarmirgagdminah / 

214 Brahmanda Pur ana 

world on reaching which no one is affected by sorrow or pain. 
It is the greatest region of Visnu where Dharma, Dhruva and 
other Sadhakas of the world stay. 


The Description of the Divine Luminaries 

Varieties -of clouds: Divisions of Stratosphere : 

The chariot of the Sun-God 

SUta said : 

1. All the Antaras (i.e. Manvantaras) during the creation 
of Svayambhuva have been recounted. I shall recount all the 
future ones in due order. 

2. On hearing this, the sages asked Romaharsana about 
the movement of the Sun, the Moon and the planets. 

The sages said : 

3-4. "How do these luminaries revolve in the strato- 
sphere without any clash or confusion or without any structural 
formation? Does any one make them revolve or do they re- 
volve of their own accord? O excellent one, we wish to under- 
stand this. Narrate this unto us. 

SUta said : 

5. This is something that confounds all living beings. 
Understand this even as I tell you. Although this is visible 
and directly perceptible, it perplexes the people. 

6. The star that (diffuses light) in the four quarters 
and is established at the tail of the Sisumdra(i.e. a collection of 
stars resembling a dolphin or a Gangetic porpoise) is Dhruva, 

•This chapter corresponds to Va.P. Ch. 51. 215 

the son of Uttanapada. ' He is, as though, the main pivot to 
which all the stars and planets are attached. 

7. It is reported that it is he who perpetually makes the. 
moon and the sun revolve along with the planets. As it (the 
sun) revolves like a wheel, the stars also follow it. 

8. The group of luminaries, the sun and the moon, the 
stars-and constellations along with the planets move about, 
at the will of Dhruva.^ 

9-10. They are fastened to Dhruva by means of bonds 
in the form of rows of winds. Their junction, difference, time, 
movement, rising and setting, portentious phenomenon, the 
southern and northern transits, the equinox and the colours of 
the planets (?) — all these function, due to Dhruva. 

11. Rain, heat, snowfall, day, night, the twilight, the 
welfare and woes of the subjects — all these take place due to 

12. Presided over by Dhruva, the sun takes up water 
and showers it.' This sun whose rays are ablaze, is the fire of 
the destruction of the universe. 

13-15. In the course of his revolution, O Brahmanas,. 
he illuminates the quarters. With the mass of his rays and 
accompanied by the wind all round, the sun takes away the 
water of the entire world, O excellent Brahmanas. The moon 
transmits the entire water drunk by the sun. The torrential 
current of water (Downpour of rain) functions through JVadis 
(veinlike vessels) accompanied by the wind. The water that 
oozes out of the moon remains in the food (i.e. plants and food 

1. For a better and detailed description liow all the stars and constel- 
lations are located as different parts of the body of this heavenly porpoise 

(SUumdra) vide Bh. P. V. 23.4-7. This system of heavenly luminaries is poeti- 
cally compared to the body-of a porpoise and Lord Yasudeva is stated therein 
to have assumed the form of the SiSumara. 

2. Bh. P. ibid \ . 2 attributes the power of setting in motion this stellar 
system to the Almighty Kala (Time) and not to Dhruva. 

3. W 12-17 describe the ancient concept of the water-cycle. Their 
belief in the indestructibility of water (V.17) is surprisingly modern, but the 
later description from 19b fF shows old climatological concepts. 

216 Brahmanda Parana 

16. Being obstructed by the wind, tlie clouds scatter 
water over the earth. Thus water is continuously thrown up 
(i.e. turned into vapour) and dropped down. 

17. There is no total distruction of water. The same 
water gets transformed. It is for the sake of sustenance of 
all the worlds that this cosmic Maya has been created (by the 

18-19a. The three worlds along with the mobile and 
immobile beings are pervaded by this Maya. The sun is the 
lordly creator of the worlds. Endowed with a thousand (innu- 
merable eyes) he is the lord ofthe universe. He is the mighty 
lord ofthe subjects, the creator ofthe entire universe. 

19b-20. The water that has fallen down from the moon, 
from the sky, is conducive to the welfare of all the worlds. The 
entire universe has the moon as its support. This has been 
truthfully recounted. The Usna (hot virility) oozes out of the 
sun, and the Sita (chill virility) functions from the moon. 

21. These two, viz. the moon of cool virility and the 
sun of hot virility, sustain the world by means of their combi- 

The river Ganga with the Moon as support, is holy. Its 
waters are free from impurities. 

22. (The Ganga), the great rivers beginning with Bha- 
drasoma and the waters (humids) that flow within the bodies 
ofall living beings mobile and immobile, become smoke (i.e. 

23. When the mobiles and immobiles get heated (and 
burnt) they spread everywhere as vapour. 

24. Clouds are formed thereby. It is remembered that 
the abode (waters) is full of clouds (or, is in the form of 

With his rays the sun takes up water, the very splendour, 
from all living beings. 

25. In combination with the wind, the rays (ofthe sun) 
carry the waters from the ocean that water (then) becomes 
the nectar-like life-giver unto the plants. \ 

26. Then, as the season approaches at the proper time, 
the sun changes (the saltish water into sweet water) and gives 


water to the clouds by means of his white and non-white 

27. The waters stationed in the clouds fall down when 
they are wafted by the wind. Accompanied by the wind (they 
spread everywhere), for the welfare of all living beings. 

28-29. Then for six months it continues to rain in order 
that all living beings may flourish. The thundering sound per- 
tains to the wind and the lightning originates from fire. The 
Meghatva (the state of being a cloud) is indicated through the 
root y/Mih (to pour down), since the cloud showers (rain). The 
wise people know the cloud as Abhra because the waters do not 
fall down (na bhramsyanti). 

30. The origin of the clouds is threefold.^ They are of 
different kinds in view of their sources of origin. They are 
Agneya (fiery ones), Brahmaja (born of Brahma) and Paksaja 

(born ofWings). 

31. The three kinds of clouds have been enumerated. I 
shall mention the manner of their origin. 

Agneyas are said to be originating from heat. They produce 
smoke (vapour). 

32. Cold winds and winds on cloudy days are their 
characteristics. They take the shapes of buffaloes, boars and 
intoxicated elephants. 

33. Assuming these forms, they come to the Earth, 
sport about and wander here and there. They are named 
Jimutas. Living beings are born of these clouds. 

34. They are devoid of lightning streaks. They hang 
down with torrents of water. They are silent clouds of huge 
bodies. They are under the control of Avaha (A kind ofwind) . 

1. This is a fanciful derivation of Abhra *a cloud*. Normally Abhra 

is derived from \/abkr l-sufllx — ac (i.e. — a) or from ap + bhr — suffix — a, 

meaning "bearer of water. 

2. VV. 30-46 give the pseudo-scientific classification of clouds as believ- 
ed by the ancients. Some of the poetic flashes of imagination herein are 
interesting. Avaha, Pravaha, Vioaha, Udvaha, Samvaha, Parivaha are wind- 
bearing clouds of different types and functions. 

218 Brahmanda Purana 

35. They shower rain from within one and a half to 
three kilometres. They shower rain on the tops and ridges of 
the mountains and roar out. 

36. Those clouds named Brahmajas are born of the 
breath ofgod Brahma. They cause impregnation of the white 
cranes and they sustain their young ones in the womb. 

37. Indeed they are endued with streaks of lightning 
and reverberations of thundering that are pleasing. Due to 
their continuous rumbling sound, the earth expresses horri- 
pilation in the from of (plants and trees) sprouting from it. 

38. Like a queen who has been installed (on the throne 
of) a kingdom, she attains the freshness of youth once again. 
Strongly attached to the rains, she becomes the source ofthe 
life of beings. 

39. Those clouds depend on Pravaha, the second type of 
wind. These clouds (shower rain) from within twelve to 
eighteen kilometres. 

40. Those clouds named Puskardvartakas are born of the 
Wings. Its conception is threefold. The shower is glorified as 
continuous downpour. 

41. The wings of very powerful mountains that had in- 
creased in size and who used to go wherever as they pleased, 
were chopped oflfby Indra who wished to secure the welfare 
of all living beings. 

42. Those clouds named Puskara (were born of those 
wings). They increased in size competing with the waters. For 
the reason, they are termed Puskardvartakas (revolving Puskaras). 

43. They assume many forms. Their thundering sound 
is very terrible. They are the creators of the torrential rain at 
the end of the Kalpas. They control the Sarhvartaka fire 
(which burns down the universe then). 

44. These (clouds) shower rain at the close of the 
Yugas. (Thus) those third (sets of clouds) have been recount- 
ed. They have many forms, configurations and aggregates. 
They fill the Earth. 

45-46. They carry the wind ahead. On being resorted 
to, they conclude the Kalpas. An$a-Kapdlas are the pieces of 
the shell of the cosmic egg (evolved out of Prakrti) which 219 

were formed when the egg was broken and the four-faced, self- 
potent god Brahma was born therein, — those very pieces of 
the cosmic egg are all known as clouds. 

47-48. Smoke is conducive to development of all 
of them without any distinction. The most excellent among 
them is Parjanya. The Elephants of the quarters are four in 
number. (Although) these are separate, the source of origin 
of elephants, mountains, clouds and serpents is the same and 
water is remembered as that origin. 

49. On being directed to make the plants and trees 
flourish, Parjanya and the Diggajas (Elephants of the quarters) 
shower snowdrops during Hemanta (early winter), born of 
cool virility. 

50-52a. The sixth wind named Parivaha is their support. 
This powerful (wind) holds up the Ganga of the firmament, 
the holy divine river of exquisite nectar-like water. The Gariga 
is situated in the path of Sviti (i.e. firmament) in three cur- 
rents. With their huge trunks, the elephants ofthe quarters 
receive the waters oozing from the Ganga and scatter them in 
the form ofwater spray. That is remembered as dew-drops. 

52b-53. There is the mountain remembered as Hema- 
kuta in the southern region. To the north of the Himalaya 
mountain, there is the extensive city mentioned by the name 
Pundra stretching from north to south. 

54-56. The rain that falls over it has originated from 
snow-drops. Thereupon the wind named Vaha flows over the 
Himalaya, sprinkling the great mountain with water. It brings 
the mountain under its control by means of its own effort. 
After crossing the Himalayas it utilises the balance of rain- 
water for the development ofthe western region. 

(Thus) two types of rain for the purpose of develop- 
ment of two types ofvegetation have been recounted. 

57. The clouds and their activity of causing the develop- 
ment (of various things) —all these have been recounted. The 
sun alone is mentioned as the creator of showers. 

58. The rainfall has its root (source) in the sun water; 
proceeds from (functions on account of) the sun. It is after 
being presided oyer by Dhruva that the sun works for rain. 

220 Brahtnanda Parana 

59-60. The wind presided over by Dliruva withdraws 
the shower once again. 

The planet comes out of the sun, wanders throughout the 
entire assemblage ofthe stars and constellations and in the 
end enters the sun presided over by Dhruva. 

Henceforth, understand the structure of the chariot of 
the sun.' 

61-62. The sun-god proceeds by means of a golden 
chariot that has a single wheel with five spokes and three 
naves, and a single rim with six phases. Its horses are green. 
The whole chariot embellished with gold, shines brightly. 

63. The girth and the extent of the chariot is ten 
thousand Yojanas (1 Yojana=12 km.) In magnitude, its pole- 
shaft is twice the central cockpit. 

64. His chariot is divine and golden. It is yoked with 
horses as swift as the wind. It has no impediment anywhere. 
It was for a specific purpose that it was created by Brahma. 

65. The Cchandas (Vedic Metres) have assumed the 
forms of horses and are stationed in the direction ofthe wheel. 
The chariot has characteristics similar'to those ofthe chariot of 

66. It is by means of this shining chariot that the sun 
traverses the firmament. 

Now (know) that the following are the different parts of 
the chariot ofthe sun. 

67-68. The parts are duly constituted by the parts of 
the year. 

The day is remembered as the nave ofthe single wheel of 
the solar chariot. The five Artavas are the five spokes. The six 
seasons are remembered as constituting the rim. This is remem- 
bered as the inner seat of the chariot. The two_Ayanas {Ua.n&\ti) 
are the two poleshafts. 

69. Muhiirtas and Kalas are remembered as the beauti- 
ful trappings and fittings. Kastha is remembered as its nose 
and the Kfana (Moment) is its axle. 

1. VV. 61-62 give a symbolic description ofthe Chariot ofthe Sun. 
The significance of each part ofthe chariot, the horses yoked etc. is givenin 
VV. 67 ff below. 221 

70. The Mmesa is its axle tree at the bottom. The Lavas 
are remembered as its shaft. The night is its wooden fender. 
Dharma is its flagstaff that has risen up to (a great height). 

71. Artha (Wealth) and Kama (Love) these two are 
remembered as the tips of the yoke and the axle. 

The Vedic metres in the form ofthe seven horses carry 
the yoke by the left. 

72. The seven Metres are Gayatrl, Tristup, Anustup, 
JagatI, Pankti, BrhatI and Usnik. 

73. The wheel is fixed to the Axis and the axis is laid 
on Dhruva. The Axis whirls along with the wheel and Dhruva 
whirls (?) along with the Axis. 

74. Propelled by Dhruva, the great wheel whirls along 
with the Axis. Thus is the structure of his chariot in view of 
specific purpose. 

75. Similarly, by means of combination the shining 
chariot has been evolved. By means of that shining chariot, 
lord sun-god traverses the firmament. 

76. There are two rein-cords fixed to the extremities of 
the yoke and the axis ofthe chariot. Those two rein-cords re- 
volve in Dhruva (and perform the function) of a pair of wheels. 

77-78. The extremities of the yoke and the axis ofthe 
chariot that move in circles in the firmament are caught hold 
ofby Dhruva. Both the rein-cords whirl on the axis and they 
follow Dhruva who too revolves. 

79. The extremities ofthe yoke and the axis ofthe 
chariot revolve all round along with the rein-cords like the 
rope fixed to a peg. 

80. During Uttarayana the rein-cords become reduced 
(in length) as they move in circles. During the Daksinayana 
they increase in size. 

81. The two rein-cords ofthe chariot fixed to the extre- 
mities of the yoke and the axis are caught hold ofby Dhruva 
and the two rein-cords lead the sun. 

82. When presided over by Dhruva, those two reincords 
are dragged, the sun revolves in circles within (the orbit). 

222 Brahmanda Purana 

83-84. The intervening distance between the quarters 
is eight thousand circles (?) When the rein-cords are released by 
Dhruva, the sun once again revolves in circles outside (the 
orbit). It moves round in quick circles. 


Information about Heavenly bodies 

(Stars, Planets etc.).: The movement 

of the Polar Star 

SUta said : 

1. That chariot is occupied and presided over by the 
Devas, Adityas, sages, Gandharvas, Divine damsels, Grdmanis, 
Serpents and demons.' 

2-5a. These abide in the sun for the period of two 
months each in due order.' 

The following reside in the sun continuously in the 
months of Madhu and Madhava (Caitra and Vaisakha) viz. 
(gods) Dhatr and Aryaman; (sages) Pulastya, Pulaha, the 
Prajapati; (serpents) Airavata, Vasuki, Karhsa, Bhima; Ratha- 
krt, and Rathaujas — these two are cited as Yaksas; (Gandh- 
arvas) Tumburu, Narada; (divine damsels) Susthala and 

1. This sublime concept of the Solar chariot is based on Tajurveda 
15.15.19. Here Devas, Sages and Gandharvas represent light and immortality- 
the actinic portion of the solar spectra. The serpents, Gramanis and Ralisasas 
signify heat or death or the Thermal field of the spectra. This Heptad of the 
sun signifies the mutual difference in the different "Wave lengths" of the seven 
colours. This may be called the Puranic VIBGYOR. 

2. These verses (2-24) enumerate the names of the different devas, 
sages etc. — the heptad who occupy the solar chariot every month. These 
verses are common to the description of the Solar chariot in other Puranas 
<hg. the Mt. P. 125. 1-34, Va. P. 52. 1-26 with slight differences in the names 
of the occupants of the chariot. 223 

Punjikasthala, (protector-demons), Heti and Praheti these two 
are cited as Ydtudhanas. 

5b-8a. The following reside (in the sun)^ during the 
months of Suci and Sukra: (Jyestha andAsatfha); (Gods) 
Mitra and Varuna; the sages cited being Atri and the famous 
Vasistha; (Apsaras) Sahajanya, Menaka; Pauruseya, and 
Vadha who are cited as Raksasas, the Gandharvas Haha and 
Hijhtj; Yajfia (probably Yaksa and not Yajfia): Rathasvana, 
Rathacitra, another named Nagasaksaka (rather Naga called 
Taksaka) and Rambhaka. 

8b-ll. Other deities also reside in the sun. The follow- 
ing group (ofDevas and others) resides in the sun during the 
months of Nabhas and Nabhasya (Sravana and Bhadrapada) 
viz. (Gods) Indra and Vivasvan; (sages) Angiras, Bhrgu; 
the serpents: Elapatra and Saiikhapala; (Gandharvas) Visva- 
vasu and Ugrasena, Sveta and Aruna; (the two Apsaras) well- 
known as Pramloca and Anumloca and the two Yatudhanas 
(demons) Sarpa and Vyaghra. 

12-15. Other pure deities and sages reside (in the sun) 
during the autumn (Asvina and Karttika); (gods) Parjanya and 
Pijsan; (sages) Bharadvaja along with Gautama; Paravasu and 
Suruci the Gandharvas; Visvaci andGhrtacI the two (Apsaras) 
of splendid characteristics; Airavata and Dhanafijaya the well- 
known serpents and Syenajit and Susena who are Senanis 
(commanders) and Grdmanis (or Yaksas). Apas and Vata these 
two are cited as Raksasas— All these always stay in the sun 
during the months of Asvina and Karttika. 

16-19. The following stay in the sun during the two 
months of Hemanta (Early Winter) ;they are the two (Devas) 
Arhsa and Bhaga; (the two sages) Kasyapa and Kratu; the two 
serpents Mahapadma and Karkotaka; the two Gandharvas 
Citrasena and Urnayu; the two celestial damsels UrvasI and 
Pflrvacitti; Tarksa and Aristanemi who are SenanI (com- 
manders) as Yaksas and Vidyutsphtirja and Satayu who are 
•cited as Yatuhanas (demons) — these reside in the sun in the 
months of Saha and Sahasya (Margaslrsa andPausa). 

20-23. The following reside in the sun during the 
months ofSisira (late winter). They are (gods) Tvastr, Visnu 
(sages) Jamadagnya, Visvamitra; the two serpents Kambala 

224 Brahmanda Purana 

and Asvatara who are the sons of Kadru; the two Gandharvas 
Dhrtarastra and Sflryavarcas; (the two celestial damsels) 
Tilottama and Rambha; the demon Brahmapeta and the other 
wellknown demon Yajnapeta, and Rtajit and Satyajit who are 
cited as Gandharvas* (rather Yaksas) — all these, O excellent 
sages, reside in the sun during the months of Tapas and Tapasya 
(Magha and Phalguna.) 

24. Making the Pitrs, Devas and Human beings well 
nourished, O Brahmanas, Savitr the cause of days and nights 
goes on revolving. 

25. These Devas reside in the sun for periods of two 
months in due order. These twelve groups of seven (or hep tads) 
identify themselves with their place of office and residence. 

26. By means of their splendour they increase the excel- 
lent splendour of the sun. By means ofwords (and prayers) 
composed by themselves, sages eulogise the sun. 

27. The Gandharvas and the Apsaras serve him by 
means of songs and dances. The Gramanis, Yaksas and Bhiitas 
perform the worship of his rays. 

28. The serpents carry the sun, the demons follow him. 
From sunrise to sunset, the Valakhilyas surround the sun 

and lead him on. 

29-31. The sun who is the lord of all these, blazes with 
his brilliance in accordance with the virility, austerities, virtues, 
contacts, realities and strength ofthese (Devas etc.) 

Thus, these stay in the sun for periods of two months 
viz. the sages, the Devas, the Gandharvas, the serpents, the 
groups of celestial damsels, the Gramanis (or groupleaders) or 
the Yaksas and especially the demons. 

32-33. These blaze, shower rains, shine, blow and create. 
On being glorified they dispel the inauspicious demerits of all 
living beings. 

These remove the auspicious merit of evil-minded men. 
In some respects they remove the sins of men of good character 
and conduct. 

* This is wrong as tlie pair of Gandliarvas is already cited. Tlie reading 
sliould be Grimattyau as in Va.P.52.22. 225 

34. All these followers ofthe day revolve along with the 
sun. They shower rain on the subjects, they scorch them and 
they delight them (too). 

35-36. They protect all the living beings till the desti- 
nation ofthe Manus. In the Manvantaras of the (Manus) of 
the past and future as well as those who are present, this is 
the abode of those who identify themselves. 

Thus those fourteen sets ofseven reside in the sun in the 
course ofthe fourteen Manvantaras. 

37. The sun releases heat energy during the summer. 
He scatters rain during the rainy season and snow (during 
winter). He is the maker of day and night. He keeps up his 
movement in accordance with (the changing) seasons and 
gratifies the Devas, the Pitrs and the human beings with the 
rays suitably adapted. 

38. By means of the (ray) named Susumna, the sun 
develops the moon in the bright half day by day and makes 
it complete (on the full moon day). He propitiates the Devas 
by means ofthe nectar. The Devas imbibe it during the dark 

39. When the nectar of the moon is drunk, the moon 
loses all his digits except one during the dark half At the 
close of it, the moon does not ooze out nectar from its rays. The 
Devas, the pitrs, the Saumyas and the Kavyas imbibe that 

40. Men conquer (satisfy) hunger by means of food- 
stuffs and beverages and medicinal herbs developed by means 
of rain, with waters lifted up and released by means of his rays 
by the sun. 

41. It is during the bright halfthat the Devas are pro- 
pitiated by means of nectar and the pitrs (are done so) during 
the dark half (of the month). (The sun) perpetually sustains 
the human beings by means of food. He holds them well by 
means of his rays. 

42. The sun is being led by green horses. At that time, 
he removes (evaporates) water by means of his green rays. 
At the time of discharge (of water), he releases the water. 
Thus the sun sustains the mobile and immobile beings. 

43. The sun is being led by green horses. He drinks 

226 Brahmanda Parana 

water by means ofthousands of green rays. Being carried by 
green liorses, tire sun releases it.' 

44. Tlius tire sun traverses tlie quarters by means ofhis 
swift clrariot with one wlreel. Tlie liorses are splendid but they 
do not have the usual pace* (? Akramaih). 

45. In the course of a day and night, the sun traverses 
the earth consisting of the seven continents and oceans by 
means ofhis chariot with a single wheel. 

46-48. The chariot is yoked with only seven horses. 
They are the Vedic Metres that have assumed the form of 
horses. They are stationed towards the place where the wheel 
is fitted. They assume the forms as they wish. They are green, 
imperishable; they (? are accompanied) by tawny-coloured 
masters expounding the Brahman. In the course of a year 
those horses traverse eightythree hundred circles. 

It traverses the external as well as the internal circular 
zones, in the course of days. They have been yoked in the 
beginning of the Kalpa and they continue to bear till the anni- 
hilation of all living beings. 

49. Surrounded by Valakhilyas, they wander both night 
and day. The sun is eulogised by great sages by means of 
words (and prayers) of the highest order and composed by 

50. He is served by Gandharvas and groups of celestial 
damsels by means of songs and dances. The lord ofthe day 
(i.e. the sun) thus revolves and wanders by means of horses 
that gallop and that are as swift as birds. 

51. The chariot of Soma (the Moon) has three wheels.^ 
His horses have the lustre of Kunda (white Jasmine) flowers. 
They are ten in number and they are yoked to the left as well 
as to the right. The moon traverses by means of this. 

52. They traverse the stars supported by the Vlthi (the 
path ofthe firmament). They gain velocity by means ofthe 

1.. This verse practically repeats V. 42 in dilTerent words. 

* Tlie text is defective. The corresponding verse in the Va.P. 52, 
43b reads: bhaaraU fair aksatairasvaih sarpate 'sou divi ksaye /' with those auspi- 
cious unbroken horses he proceeds in the region ofthe sky. 

2. W 51-79 describe the mythological description of the chariot of 
the moon. Its scientific significance is not clear. 227 

support ofDhruva. The shrinking and lengthening ofits rays 
are remembered as being lilce those of the sun. 

53. It shouldbe known that the chariot ofthe moon has 
three wheels with horses on either side. The chariot is born 
(i.e. evolved) out of the womb of the waters along with the 
horses and the charioteer. 

54. It has three wheels with hundred spokes. It is yoked 
with ten excellent white horses. They are slim and divine. 
They are unimpeded and they have the swiftness ofthe mind. 

55-57. They are yoked but once and they continue to 
bear it till the elapse of the Yugas. In that compact chariot, 
there are white serpents encircling the chariot (?) Horses of 
the same colour, having the lustre of conchshells carry him 
(the Moon). The names of the ten horses ofthe moon are 
Yajus, Candamanas, Vrsa, Vajin, Nara, Haya, the famous 
horses Gavisnu, Hamsa, Vyoma and Mrga. 

58. These (horses) carry the Moon-lord with great 
dedication (and respect). The moon traverses (its orbit) 
surrounded by the Devas and the pitrs. 

59. At the end of the dark half and at the beginning of 
the bright half, when the sun is steady in the opposite direction, 
the moon is filled up, and as days pass by (the digits are 

60. When the (nectarine) body ofthe moon has been 
imbibed by the Devas, it becomes exhausted on the fifteenth 
day. Then, with a single ray the sun makes it well developed. 

61. By means ofthe ray called Susumna (the sun) fills 
a part (of the moon) (digit by digit) every day. On being 
replenished thus by the Susumna (ray), the white and bright 
digits increase. 

62. During the dark half, the digits become reduced and 
they are developed (replenished) during the bright half. The 
moon is thus developed, due to the power of the sun. 

63. On the full Moon day, it appears bright in a com- 
plete disc. In the bright half, the moon is thus fully replenished 
day by day. 

64-65. From the second day of the dark half to the 
fourteenth day, the Devas imbibe the nectar of the moon that 
is ofthe nature ofthe essence ofthe waters and that is wholly 

228 Brahmanda Purana 

juicy. Drinking this liquid nectar of the moon, the Devas 
become delighted. It is due to the splendour of the sun that, 
this nectarine juice has been collected together in the course of 
halfa month. 

66. The nectar of the moon is for their food (consump- 
tion). It is resorted to for a single night on the full moon day by 
all the Devas and Pitrs along with the sages. 

67. On being imbibed gradually by the Pitrs and the 
Devas at the beginning of the dark half, the digits of the moon 
which face the sun become reduced gradually. 

68. Thirty three, three hundred (?) and three and three 
thousand and three Devas imbibe (the juice of) the moon. 

69. On being sucked thus, the black digits of the moon 
increase. Hence, the white digits become reduced and the dark 
ones become increased. 

70-72. Thus, the moon is sucked daily by the Devas. 
After imbibing it for a period of halfa month, the excellent 
Devas go away on the New Moon day. The Pitrs (thereafter) 
resort to the Moon on the New Moon day. Then on the fifteenth 
day when the digits are left over a little, the groups of Pitrs 
resort to the last remanant (ofthe digits) in the afternoon. For 
a period of two Lavas, they imbibe the Kalas (of the moon) 
that are left over. 

73. The nectar of Svadha oozes from its rays on the New 
Moon day. After drinking that Svadha for their own satisfac- 
tion (to the full) for the period ofa month, those (Pitrs) go 

74. The moon is scorched by the sun (i.e. sunlight) that 
is present in the Susumna. Similarly, the nectarine moon is 
imbibed by the Devas in the dark half. 

75. They are of three (varieties), the Saumyas, the 
Barhisads and the Agnisvattas. Those who are mentioned as 
Kavyas are all Pitrs. 

76. The Kavyas are Sarhvatsaras, those who are remem- 
bered by the Brahmanas as Pancdbdas (the five years). Saumyas 
should be known as the Rtus and Barhisads are remembered as. 
the Mas as (Months). 

ll-li,. The Agnisvattas are the Artavas, O Brahmanas, 
these are the creations of the Pitrs. On being drunk by the 229 

Pitrs on the fifteenth day, the digit ofthe moon that is one 
fifteenth. part becomes reduced on the New moon day. Then 
in the next fortnight it becorpes replenished. 

79. The increase and decrease ofthe moon are remembered 
(as occurring) on the sixteenth day at the beginning of a fort- 
night. It is thus that the increase and decrease in the moon 
occur on account ofthe sun. 

80. Again (i.e. henceforth), I shall describe the 
chariots ofthe stars, planets and Rahu.' 

The chariot of the son ofthe Moon (Budha) is bright 
and full ofthe splendour ofwater. 

81. The chariot ofBhargava (the Venus) is glorious and 
it resembles the sun in splendour. It has the rambling sound of 
the cloud. It is equipped with banner, flagstaff and other 

82-83. It is yoked with various excellent horses of 
different colours born ofthe earth. It is fitted with the following 
ten horses, viz. Sveta, Pisaiiga, Saranga, Nlla, Pita, Vilohita, 
Krsna, Harita, Prsata and Prsni. They are of great grandeur. 
They are not lean. They have the speed ofthe wind. 

84-86. The excellent chariot ofthe Mars also is glorious 
and golden. It has eight horses. With unimpeded red horses 
born of fire and capable of going everywhere, the prince 
(i.e., the Mars) goes about. They have straight movement as 
well as those curved clockwise and curved anticlockwise ones. 

The Jupiter (Brhaspati) of the family of Angiras, the 
scholarly preceptor ofthe Devas, moves about in golden chariot 
by means of eight grey horses born ofwater. They are divine 
horses with the speed ofthe wind. 

Staying for a year in a constellation, he goes ahead along 
withVedhas* (Brahma) (?) 

87-90a. Riding in a chariot of black steel (iron) fitted 
with strong horses born of the firmament, the Saturn proceeds 
ahead very slowly. 

1. W 80-92 describe the chariots of other planets such as Budha, 
Sukra etc. 

* Sarvagah 'one who can go everywhere and anywhere' in Va. P. 52-87. 

230 Brahmanda Purana 

The horses ofRahu are eight in number, and black in 
colour. They have the speed ofthe mind. His chariot is full of 
darkness. The horses are yoked but once and they draw it 
(to the end). 

Having come out of the sun, Rahu goes to the Moon 
during Parvan days (the Full moon days). 

90b-91. The horses ofthe chariot of Ketu are eight in 
number and they have the speed ofthe wind. They have the 
colour ofthe smoke of straw. They are strong. They are tawny- 
coloured like donkeys. 

Thus these horses ofthe planets along with the chariots 
have been described. 

92. All of them are fastened to Dhruva by means of 
gaseous rays; They are fully developed. While whirling duly 
they blaze as well. 

93. (Repetition) They are fully developed due to 
invisible gaseous rays. Being bound (to Dhruva) by means of 
these, the moon, the sun and the planets revolve in the 

94-95. Those groups of luminaries follow Dhruva that 
whirls. Just as the boat is carried on along with the (current 
of) water in the river, so also these abodes of gods (? planets 
etc.) are carried by the gaseous rays. The groups of gods mov- 
ing about in the firmament are not seen. 

96. There are as. many bonds of gaseous rays as there are 
stars. All of them are fastened to Dhruva. They whirl them- 
selves and they make others also revolve. 

97. Just as the oil-rollers whirl and cause the wheel also 
to whirl so also do the luminaries fixed (to Dhruva) on all 
sides by means of gaseous rays. 

98. Urged by the whirlwind, they move about like a 
firebrand. (Since the wind) carried the luminaries, (the wind 
is remembered as Pravaha. 

99. Thus the group of planets attached to Dhruva, 
moves about. This Gangetic porpoise and Dhruva should be 
known as made up of constellations in the firmament. 

100-107. Ifa sin is committed in the day, it is dispelled 
by seeing it (Dhruva) during the night. 231 

He lives as many or more years as there are stars support- 
ed by the Gangetic porpoise in the firmament. 

The heavenly Gangetic porpoise should be known with 
its parts (The various limbs of this porpoise are mentioned 


Auttanapada (Dhruva the son of Uttanapada) should be 
known as its upper jaw. Yajfia should be known as the other 
(i.e. lowerjaw). Dharma is based on its head, (i.e. constitutes 
its head). 

Narayana should be sought for in the heart and the pair 
ofAsvins in the forelegs. Varuna and Aryaman are its hind 

Its penis is Sarhvatsara and Mitra clings to the Apina 
(anus), Agni, Mahendra, Marica, Kasyapa and Dhruva are in 
the tail. 

The four stars in the milky way do not set. 

The stars, the moon, the sun and the planets along with 
the constellations are fixed in the heaven, some with the faces 
up, others with faces turned away and all of them curved. They 
are presided over by Dhruva. They go round Dhruva who is 
the central pivot in the heaven and who is an excellent lord. 
Dhruva is remembered as the fourth and the last one after Agni, 
Indra and Kasyapa. 

108. On the top of the Meru Mountain, single-handed 
he whirls when he pulls them with face down. He observes 
Meru at the border and circumambulates it. 

I. W 100-104 describe the various parts of the heavenly (stellar) 
porpoise (Sisumara). 

232 Br ah m an da Pur an a 


The arrangement of the Heavenly Luminaries 
The sun, the source of Light to Luminaries 

Suta said 

1. On hearing this, the sages who were in doubt asked 
Romaharsana once again the answer (for the same). 

2. What has been described in details by your honour 
is about the abodes. Now describe to us how may be the abodes 
cfgods and how are the luminaries. 

3-6. Mention everything decisively, the facts concerning 
the Luminaries. 

Vayu (The Wind god) said 

On hearing their words, Siita of great concentration and 
mental purity, delivered the most excellent speech that dispelled 
their doubts. 

Suta said 

"I shall mention to you the origin of the sun and the 
moon, the details as mentioned by the wise and intelligent 
sages of great wisdom. I shall recount how the sun, the 
moon and the plants came to be remembered here as Devagrhas 
(Divine abodes, abodes of the Devas). 

Thereafter, I shall recount the origin of the three types 
of Agni' (Fire) viz. the divine one, the terrestrial one and the 
one born ofwater (i.e. lightning) . 

7. When the night ofBrahma, born of the unmanifest 
one, dawned, this (visible comet) that had not been manifested 
and developed was completely enveloped by the darkness ofthe 

1. Agni (the fire god) was regarded as a very great deity by the Vedic 
Aryans and dilTerent names according to its functions were given to it in the 
RV. The Puranas amplified the tradition. The fire is given the credit ofmove- 
ments ofthe Sun which is regarded as the source of all the planets — nay even 
ofthe three worlds. It is the fire who through the different Nadis or rays ofthe 
sun evaporates water and causes seasons — the summer, the rainy season and 
the winter. Cf. Mt.P. 128.4-23. 233 

8-9a. When this universe remained in the form of all the 
original. BAate (Elements )and the specific particularities (distinc- 
tions) had been destroyed (i.e. had not been developed), the 
self-born lord who manages the activities of the universe, moved 
about like a Khadyota (glow-worm) i.e. he who illuminates 
firmament) with a desire to manifest himself. 

9b- 10. At the beginning of the world he saw the fire 
supported by the Earth and Water. The lord encased it for the 
purpose of light and divided it into three parts. The fire that 
is sanctifying in this world is called the Parthiva (Terrestrial 

11. That which blazes in the sun is remembered as Suci 
(pure). Abja (born of water) should be known as Vaidyut 

(Lightening etc.) I shall recount their characteristics. 

12. The fires born of water are three, viz. : Vaidyut 
(Lightening) Jdthara (gastric) and Saura (Solar). It is on 
account of this, that the sun blazes in the heaven after drinking 
water by means of his rays. 

13. The (fire) Vdrsya (originating from Varsa or rain) 
contained in lightening, does not become cool by means of 
water. The fire that abides within the stomach of human beings 
does not become cool by means ofwater. 

14. Hence, the solar fire, the Vaidyuta fire and the 
gastric fire are fires that have water for their fuel. 

Some among the waters are considered Tejas (fiery splen- 
dour) and some are seen as having water for their fuel. 

15. The Nirmathya fire (i.e. the fire produced by churn- 
ing or friction) has wood for its fuel. That fire is brought under 
control by means of water. 

The Pavamdna fire (sanctifying fire) has sparks and fiames 
and the gastric fire is remembered as devoid of lustre. 

16. (The same is the case with) the fire without heat 
that is in the zone (ofthe sun). It is white and it illuminates. 

When the sun sets along with its rays (i.e. withdrawing 
all the rays), the solar lustre enters fire during night. Hence it 
glows from far off. 

17-18. The heat ofthe fire, ofthe terrestrial fire, enters 
the sun as it rises with its rays. Hence the fire blazes. The 

234 Brahmanda Pur&na 

power of illumination, and heat are (respectively) the solar and 
fiery splendour. 

19-20. By permeating each other, they make each other 
nourish and develop. 

In the northern hemisphere as well as in the southern one, 
when the sun rises, the night enters waters. Hence, waters become 
hot during the "day and cold on account of the entrance and 
permeation by the night. 

21. When the sun sets, the day enters waters. Hence, 
during the night, the waters are seen white (and sparkling). 

22. It is in this order that in the southern and northern 
hemispheres, the day and the night enter water at the times 
of sunrise and sunset. 

23. The sun that blazes imbibing water by means of his 
rays, is remembered as the divine Suci (pure) fire that is com- 
bined with the terrestrial fire. 

24-27. This fire Suci has a thousand feet (rays). It 
resembles one holding a pot. With a thousand JVddTs (vein- 
like rays) spread all round, it takes up the waters of the rivers, 
oceans, wells, canals etc. both blowing and stationary. 

Its thousand rays exude cold showers, snowfall as well as 
hot ones. Among them, four hundred veins have variegated 
forms and they shower (rain). 

These veins that cause downpour of rain are named as 
follows : Candanas, Sadhyas, Ktitanas, Aktitanas and Amrtas. 

28-31. There are three hundred rays other than these 
and they exude snow. These Veins that bring about snowfall 
are by name Drsyas (visible), Meghas, Yamyas and Hradinis 
( Rumbling ones). 

Those rays of limited lustre are called Candras by name. 

The white (pure) rays that cause heat are three hundred 
in number and their names are Suklas, Kuhakas, Visvabhrts. 

The sun brings about the satisfaction of human beings, 
Pitrs (Manes) and Devas after distributing them impartially 
among them. 

He gratifies human beings by means of medicinal herbs, 
the manes by means of Svadha-offerings and all the Devas by 
means ofnectar. 235- 

32-33. During Vasanta (spring) and Grisma (summer), 
tlie sun blazes by means of three liundred rays. 

During the rainy season and autumn he showers (rain) by 
means of four hundred rays. 

During Hemanta (early winter) and Sisira (later winter), 
he scatters snow by means ofthree hundred rays. 

(Thetwelve suns) are Indra Dhatr, Bhaga, Ptisan, Mitra, 
Varuna, Aryaman, Amsu, Vivasvan, Tvastr, Savitr and Visnu. 

34-35. The sun during the month of Magha is Varuna;' 
Ptisan in Phalguna; lord Amsu in the month of Caitra and 
Dhatr in the month ofVaisakha. Indra is the sun in the month 
of Jyestha and the sun in the month of Asadha is Savitr. 

36-37a. Vivasvan is the Sun in the month of Sravana, 
Bhaga is remembered as the Sun in the month of Prsthapada 
(Bhadrapada). Aryaman is the Sun in the month ofAsvayuja 
(Asvina) and Tvastris the sun in the month ofKarttika. Mitra 
is the sun in the month of Margaslrsa and Visnu, the eternal 
one, is the sun in Pausa. 

37b-40. In the activity as the sun, Taruna has five 
thousand rays. Ptisan blazes with six thousand rays and Lord 
Amsu blazes with seven thousand rays; Dhatr with eight 
thousand and Indra with nine thousand rays. 

Savitr moves (about) with ten thousand rays and Bhaga 
with eleven thousand rays. Mitra blazes with seven thousand 
rays and Tvastr blazes with eight thousand rays. 

1. This tabular statement shows the monthwise distribution of the- 
sun-gods and their capacities and functions: 

Month Name of the ruling Sun Rays 

Caitra Amsu 7000 

Vaisakha Dhatr 8000 

Jyesfha Indra 9000 

Asadha Savitr 10000 

Sravana Vivasvan 9000 

Bhadrapada Bhaga 11000 

Asvina Aryaman 10000 

Karttika Tvastr 8000 

Margasirsa Mitra 7000 

Pausa Visrui 6000 

Magha Varuna 5000 

Phalguna Pusan 6000 

236 Brahmanda Purt&na 

Aryaman moves about with ten thousand rays and Vivas- 
van (not Parjanya as in the text) blazes with nine thousand 
rays. Visnu scorches the earth by means of six thousand rays. 

41-42. During the Vasanta season, the sun is tawny- 
coloured ;" during the Grisma season, the sun has golden lustre: 
during the Varsa (rainy) season, he is white in colour and during 
autumn, he is yellowish white in colour. 

During Hemanta (early winter) the sun is copper-coloured. 
During Sisira (late winter) he is red in colour. Thus the colours 
of the sun caused by the seasons have been (traditionally) 

43. The sun infuses strength in the medicinal herbs; he 
makes the Pitrs (stronger) by means of Svadha; he infuses 
nectar in the Devas. Thus he gives three things to the three. 

44. In this manner the thousand rays of the sun achieve 
the requisite things of the people of the world. They differ inas- 
much as they exude snow, rain or hot rays. 

45. Thus, is the white resplendent sphere named sun. It 
is the foundation and source of origin of the stars, planets and 
the moon. 

46. All these, viz. the moon, the stars and the planets 
should be known as originating from the sun. The moon is the 
lord of all stars and the sun is the king ofplanets. 

47. The remaining five planets should be known as gods 
moving about as they please. 

48. Understand the sources of origin of the remaining 
planets being described well. Skanda, the commander-in-chief 
of the army of the Devas, is cited as the planet Aiigaraka (the 

49-51. Scholars conversant with the Vedic knowledge 
call Narayana by the name Budha (the Mercury) . 

Yama (an incarnation of) Rudra, the son ofVivasvan and 
the lord of the world, is the great planet Sanaiscara (the Saturn) 
•who is the most excellent among Brahmanas and who orbits 
very slowly. 

1. W . 4 1 - 4 2 give the traditional seasonwise colours or complexions of 
the sun. 237 

The two resplendent great planets are the preceptors of 
the Devas and Asuras. 

Both of them viz. Sukra (the Venus) andBrhaspati (the 
Jupiter) are the sons of Prajapati. 

There is no doubt that the entire unit of the three worlds 
has the sun as its root (source). 

52-54. The entire universe including the Devas, Asuras 
and human beings originate from the sun, O, leading 

All the brilliance ofRudra, Upendra (Visnu), Indra and 
Candra (the Moon), the dwellers ofthe heaven, the brightness 
of all luminaries, the entire splendour of all the worlds (is 
that of the sun). He is the soul of all; he is the lord of all 
the worlds; he is a great god; and Prajapati the lord ofthe 
subjects). The Sun alone is the root ofthe three worlds. He is 
the highest deity. It is from him that everything is born and 
everything gets merged in him alone. 

55. The existence and non-existence of the worlds have 
formerly emanated from the sun. The plant that should 
be understood by the whole universe, O, Brahmanas, is the 
brilliant sun of great lustre. 

56-57. (The units of time) Ksanas, Muhflrtas, days,, 
nights, fortnights, the whole months, the seasons, the years and 
the Yugas get merged into this and are born again and again. 
Hence, there is no reckoning of time without the sun. 

58-60. Without the reckoning of time, there is neither 
(the study of) scriptures, nor (religious) initiation nor the 
daily routine of religious duties. If the seasons are not. well 
defined, how can there be flowers, roots and fruits ? How can 
the crops or fruits of trees come out ? How can medicinal herbs 
and grasses grow? 

Without the sun that blazes in the universe and who robs 
(evaporates) water, there will be complete cessation and non- 
existence of all sorts ofhuman activity and the activity of other 
creatures both in the earth and in the heaven. 

He alone is the 'Time'. He is the 'Fire'. He is the lord 
of the subjects. He has twelve souls (in the form of twelve 
Adityas (the sun god). 

238 Brahmanda Pur ana 

61. He scorches the three worlds inclusive of the mobile 
and immobile beings, O excellent Brahmanas. 

He is the mass of splendour that dispels the darkness of 
the entire world. 

62. After resorting to the excellent path of the wind, he 
gives heat to this entire universe by means of his rays, at the 
sides, above and below, nay, at all sides. 

63-64. Just as a bright lamp suspended in the middle of 
a house dispels simultaneously the darkness at the sides, above 
and below, so also the sun who has a thousand (innumerable) 
rays, who is the lord of planets and the universe, illuminates 
by means of his rays the entire universe everywhere on all 

65. The most excellent among the thousand rays of the 
sun cited by me before, are the seven rays that are the sources 
of origin of the planets.' 

66-68. They are declared as follows: — Susumna, Hari- 
kesa as well as Visvakarman; Visvasravas (and again another 
ray) Sampadvasu, Arvavasu and Svarat. 

It is the solar ray Susumna that causes the nourishment 
of the Moon that wanes. This Susumna is glorified as one that 
spreads sideways and upwards. 

Harikesa, that is in front, is glorified as the source of 
origin of the stars. 

69-72a. Visvakarman, the ray to the south, right, nur- 
tures Budha (Mercury). Visvasravas the ray to the west, behind, 
is remembered by learned men as the source of origin of Sukra 
(the Venus). 

The ray Sampadvasu is the source of origin of Lohita 
(the Mars.) 

1. This is a peculiar way of associating the particular ray of the sun as 

the source of origin of particular planet: 

Name of the ray of the sun Name of the planet or star so introduced 

Susumna The moon 

Harikesa stars in general 

Visvasravas Sukra (The Venus) 

Sampadvasu The Mars 

Arvavasu The Jupiter 

Svarat The Saturn 

Visvakarman Budha (Mercury) 239 

The sixth ray Arvavasu is the source of origin of Brhas- 
pati (the Jupiter). 

The ray Svarat causes the development of^Sanaiscara 
(the Saturn). 

Thus, it is due to the power of the sun that the planets, 
stars and constellations remain in the firmament. Nay, this 
entire universe is sustained. 

72b-73. The stars are termed Naksatras because they do 
not become reduced (TVsi-notKsiyante become reduced).' 

These Ksetras (abodes) happen before on account of the 
rays (?) The sun, the creator of the star, takes up their abodes. 

74-76. The stars are so called because they redeem 
(tdrandt) those persons who have crossed the planets by means 
of merit and who have resorted to them (once again) at the 
end of the merit (i.e. when merits had been enjoyed fully.) 

They are Tdrakas because they are white and sparkling. 

The sun is named Aditya because it takes up (d-s/dd- 'to 
take') and dispels the splendour and darkness pertaining to 
the heaven, earth and night (Addndt). 

The root \/Su-\/Savana is considered in this connection 
in the sense of Syandana (flowing) .The sun is considered Savitr 
because it causes the exudation of waters and sparkling 

77. The root \/Cad is cited so as to mean "to delight". 
It is considered to mean "to be white", "to be nectarine", 
and "to be cool". 

78. The divine spheres of the sun and the moon are 
sparkling and white. They are of the form (or full of) of fire 
and water. They move about in the firmament. They resemble 
auspicious round pots. 

1. W. 72-77. Our author takes interest in popular etymologies. 
Here are some specimens: 

(i) Naksatra 'a star' — m ksTyanU "Those which do not get diminished* 

but grammatically it is \Znaksa . — +tron. 
(ii) Aditya is normally Aditi — nya=ya (the son of Aditi) but here it 
is traced to a + y'di — 'to take*. 

240 Brahmania Purana 

79. The sphere of the moon is remembered to be consist- 
ing of dense water. The white and brilliantly sparkling sphere 
of the sun is composed of dense fiery splendour. 

80-83. All the divine ones enter these abodes completely 
during all the Manvantaras.' They resort to the stars, planets 
and the sun. 

They are the abodes of the divine ones and are called 
after them respectively. 

The sun enters the Saura Sthdna (the Solar abode) and 
the moon the Saumya Sthdna (the Lunar abode). 

Sukra (the Venus) enters the abode pertaining to Sukra 
that is very brilliant and has sixteen flames. 

Brhaspati (the Jupiter) enters Jaiva (intended for Jupiter) 
abode and Lohita (the Mars) enters the Lauhita abode. 

Lord Sanaiscara (the Saturn) enters the abode pertain- 
ing to the Saturn. Budha (the Mercury) enters the abode meant 
for Budha, and Svarbhanu (Rahu) stays in the abode pertain- 
ing to Svarbhanu (Rahu). 

84. All the stars enter the Naksatras (abodes meant for 
constellation) and stars. All these are the luminary abodes of 
those who are pious-souled and meritorious. 

85. These (abodes) have been created by the self-born 
lord (Brahma) at the beginning of a Kalpa and they have 
begun to function since then. These abodes remain till the 
annihilation of all living beings (at the end of the world). 

86-87. In all the Manvantaras, the same are the abodes 
of all the Devas. The Abhimdnins (those who identify themselves) 
abide by these divine abodes. The past ones live along with 
the past ones and the future ones along with the future Devas. 
The present ones live along with the present Sthdnins (those 
who identify themselves with the abodes) and Devas. In this 
Manvantara the planets are remembered as Vaitdnikas (pertain- 
ing to Sacrifices). 

1. W. 80-92. The idea is that what we see as stars or planets are the 
abodes, the occupants of which change per Manvantara. In this Manvantara, 
the occupants have got their position due to performance ofsacrifices and hence 
they are called Vaitanikas. The names of the present gods occupying these 
planets are also given e.g. Vivasvan (the present sun god), Vasu, son ofTvisi 
(the present moon god). 241 

83. Vivasvan, the son of Aditi, is the sun in the Vaivas- 
vata Manvantara. The lord Vasu named Tvisi, the son of 
Dharma, is remembered as the moon. 

89. Lord Sukra, belonging to Bhrgu clan, should be 
known as the performer of sacrifices on behalf of the Asuras. 

The lordly son ofAngiras, of massive splendour is remem- 
bered as the preceptorof the Devas. 

90. Budha is fascinating to the mind. He is remembered 
as the son of Tvisi. Sanaiscara (the Saturn) is the ugly son of 
Sarhjiia and Vivasvan. 

91. The youthful lord Mars was born of Vikesi and 

The stars that are named Rksas are remembered as the 
daughters of Daksa. 

92. Svarbhanu (Rahu) is the son ofSirhhika. He is an 
Asura causing distress to all living beings. 

Thus the Abhitnanins (those who identify themselves) 
with the moon, the stars, the planets and the sun have been 

93. These are mentioned as the abodes and those who 
occupy the abodes are deities. 

The abode ofVivasvan (the Sun) of a thousand rays is 
Sukla (white and resplendent) and fiery. 

94. The abode of Tvisi of a thousand rays is white and 
sparkling and consists of water. 

The abode of Manojiia (i.e. the Mercury) of five rays, 
is remembered as dark in colour as well as Apya (watery). 

95. The abode of Sukra is a lotus among the sixteen 
rays. It is watery, white and sparkling. 

The Lohita (red) abode ofBhauma (the Mars) is watery. 

96. The big abode of Brhaspati is green and watery. It 
has twelve rays. The abode ofManda (the Saturn) is said to 
be black and watery. It has eight rays. 

97-99a. The abode of Svarbhanu is Tdmasa (dark). It is 
the abode of those who cause the distress of all living beings. 

All the stars should be known as watery and they have a 
single ray each. 

They are the shelters unto those of meritorious fame. In 
colour they are perfectly white. They should be known as full 

242 Brahmanda Purina 

of dense water. They have been created even at the beginning 
of the Kalpa. They are remembered to be intrinsically lumi- 
nous due to the contact with the rays of the sun. 

99b-103. The diameter ofthe sun is remembered as nine 
thousand Yojanas.' The extent of its sphere is three times that. 
The area ofthe moon's sphere is remembered as twice the 
area of the sun. 

Svarbhanu is equal to them both. It moves beneath them. 
It has been created after taking out the shadow of the Earth 
and has a spherical shape. 

The third large abode of Svarbhanu which is full of dark- 
ness, comes out ofthe sun during Parvan days (i.e. New Moon, 
Full Moon etc.) and goes towards the moon. During Solar 
Parvans it comes back to the sun from the moon. 

It is called Svarbhanu because it pushes away (Nudate) 
the heaven (Svar) by means of its splendour (Bhdsd). 

104. The diameter and extent ofthe sphere of Bhargava 
(the Venus) it laid down as one-sixteenth of that of the moon. 

105. Brhaspati (the Jupiter) should be known as one- 
fourth less than the Venus (i.e. three fourths of its size). 

The Mars and Saturn are remembered to be three-fourths 
of Jupiter in extent. 

106-107. In diameter and extent. Mercury is three- 
fourths of either of them. 

The forms ofthe stars and constellations are similar to 
those of Mercury. Those that have bodies are equal in length 
and extent to Mercury. 

A man conversant with reality should know that the 
stars are usually in conjunction with the moon. 

108. The stars and constellations differ in extent from 
one another by five hundred, four hundred, three hundred and 
also two hundred Yojanas. 

109. The spheres ofthe stars are lesser than the earlier 
ones. There is no star smaller than the ones with one and a 
half Yojanas. 

1. VV. 99-126. These are the ideas ofthe ancient Indians about the 
locations, dimensions and "movements of planets and the heavenly bodies 
in the pretelescope days. Cf Bh. P. V. 22. 8-17. 243 

110. Three planets among them which orbit very far 
away and above all are the Saturn, the Jupiter and the Mars. 
It should be known that they orbit very slowly. 

111. The great planets beneath them are the four fast 
moving ones, viz. the sun, the moon, the Mercury and the 

112. There are as many crores of stars all round as there 
are constellations. The movement of these constellations has 
been duly regulated by god Brahma. 

113-116. The movement of the sun through them in 
accordance with the Ayanas (Solar transit) is high and low. 
When (the sun) is in the northern transit, the moon is seen 
moving fast during the Parvan days with its rays, not very 
clear. This is because it is very high. (?) 

When the sun is in the southern path, it resorts to the 
lower path. It is always surrounded by the line ofEarth (? 
horizon) during the New Moon and the Full Moon days. It is 
not seen at the regular time and it sets quickly. 

Hence, on the new moon day, the moon stationed in the 
northern path is seen in the southern path; but it is not seen 
so regularly. 

117. Hence, in view of the movements of the luminaries, 
the sun and the moon set and rise at the same time (every 
day) during the equinotical days. 

118. In the northern paths, the times of rising and 
setting are different. During the new moon and full moon, 
they should be understood as following the circle of luminaries. 

119. When the sun orbits through the path of the south- 
ern transit, it does so beneath all the planets. 

120. Making its sphere vast and wide, the moon orbits 
above it. The entire galaxy of stars orbits above the moon. 

121. The Mercury orbits above all the stars. The Venus 
orbits above the Mercury. The Mars does so above the Venus 
and the Jupiter above the Mars. 

122. The Saturn is above it and the sphere of the seven 
sages (Great Bear) is above it. Dhruva (the Pole Star) is 
situated above the Great Bear. 

123. The intervening distance between the stars and 
the planets high above is two hundred thousand Yojanas. 

244 Brahmanda Parana 

124. The planets, the moon and the sun orbit in the 
firmament with divine splendour. In their regular movement, 
they duly come into contact with the constellations. 

125. The planets, the stars and the sun may be low, 
high or straight during their mutual contact or when separate, 
yet they look at the subjects simultaneously. 

126. These are situated face to face. They come into 
contact mutually. That their mutual conjunction is without 
any confusion should be understood by learned men. 

127-128. Thus is the regulated arrangement of the 
Earth, the luminaries, the continents, the oceans, the mountains, 
the sub-continents, the rivers and those who stay in them. 

The planets have their origination in these constellations. 

129. Vivasvan, the son of Aditi, the first among the 
planets, the sun-god, was born in .the constellation Visakha in 
the Caksusa Manvantara. ' 

130. Tvisiman, the son of Dharma, the lord moon god, 
the son ofVasu, the cool-rayed cause of nights was born in 
the constellation Krttika. 

131. Sukra (the Venus) who is endowed with sixteen fiery 
flames (rays) and who is the son of Bhrgu and who is the 
most excellent among stars and planets was born in the star 
Tisya (Pusya) after the sun. 

132. The planet Brhaspati (the Jupiter) who has twelve 
fiery flames (rays), who is the son ofAngiras and who is the 
preceptor of the Universe, was born in the Piirvaphalgunl. 

1. W. 129-137 give the stars (or constellations) under whicli tliese 
planets were 'bom'. 

Name of the Planet The star of birth. 

(i) The Sun god, the son of Aditi Visakha 
(ii) The moon god, Tvisiman, the son 

ofDharma Krttika 

(iii) Sukra (the Venus) the son of Bhrgu Tisya (Pusya) 

(iv) Brhaspati (Jupiter) the son ofAngiras Purva-Fhalguni 

(v) Mars, son ofPrajapati Purvasadha 

(vi) Sanaiscafa, son of the Sun god Revati 
(vii) Budha (Mercury) son of the moon 

god Dhanis{ha 

(viii) Ketu, son of Mrtyu Aslesa 

(ix) Rahu Bharani 245 

133. It is mentioned in the Sruti that the planet (Mars) 
of nine fiery flames, who has a red-complexioned body and who 
is the son of Prajapati was bofii in the constellation PQrvasadha. 

134. Sanaiscara (the Saturn), the son of the" sun, was 
born in the constellation Revatl. He has seven fiery flames. 

The planet Budha (Mercury), the son of the moon was 
born in the constellation Dhanistha. He has five fiery flames. 

135. Sikhin (i.e. Ketu)who is full of darkness, who is 
the sun of Mrtyu, who causes the annihilation and decline of 
the subjects and who is a mighty planet that destroys every- 
thing, was born in the constellation of Aslesa. 

136-138. The daughters of Daksa (i.e. the 27 stars) 
were born in their respective stars named after them. 

Rahu who has a naturally dark sphere, who has the 
virility ofthe Tamas quality and who is the planet attacking the 
moon and the sun, was born in the constellation Bharanl. 

These stars and planets beginning with Bhargava (the 
Venus) should be comprehended because they become devoid 
ofgoodness at the time when the constellation of nativity is 
being harassed. They are affected by that defect (and are redeem- 
ed), due to the devotion to the planets. 

139. The first among all these planets, it is said, is 
Aditya (Sun) -' 

Sukra is (thefirst) among the stars and the planets and 
Ketu is the first among meteors. 

140. Dhruva is the pivotal peg among the planets scatter- 
ed about in all the four quarters. Srav stha i.e. Dhanistha (is 
the first ?) among the stars and the northern transit is the first 
among transits. 

141. The first among the five Varsas (years) is remem- 
bered as Sarhvatsara. Sisira (late Winter) is the first among 
seasons and Magha is the first among the Months. 

1. W. 139-144 give what is the 'first' or the most important one among 
the stars, divisions of time etc. It is worth noting that Magha is regarded as 
the first month of the year (probably due to Vasanta Sampata therein) and 
Sisira as the 1st Rtu (season) and not the spring. The second point of impor- 
tance is the emphasis ofthe Yuga being a period of five years beginning with 
Dhanistha and ending with Sravana Naksatra. 

246 Brahminia Purina 

142. Among fortnights, the bright halfand among Tithis 
(lunar fortnightly days) Pratipat is the first. The day is glorified 
as the first among the divisions of day, night etc. 

143. The first among the Muhtirtas is that which has 
Rudra as its deity. The unit oftime Ksana has nimesa as its first, 
O excellent ones among those who know Time. 

144. The Yuga (Era) consisting of five years begins 
with Dhanistha and ends with Sravana. 

Due to the peculiar movement of the sun, this revolves 
like a wheel. 

145. The sun is hence remembered as Kala (Time) by 
those who know that (i.e. time). He is the lord. It is he who 
makes the four, types of living beings function or desist from 

146-147. The venerable lord Rudra himselfis the cause 
of the functions of Time. Thus is the regulated arrangement of 
luminaries as conditioned by the affairs (of the world). It 
is evolved by the Lord (God), for the sake of regular 
functioning of the world. 

This is compressed (?) in Dhruva by means ofUttara- 
sravana* (?) 

148. It is extensively spread all round among them. He 
is situated in the form of a circle. He is made to function in- 
telligently at the beginning of the Kalpa by the Lord. 

149. He is the support. He is the Abhimdnin (one who 
identifies himself) with all. He is the soul of the luminary 
bodies. He is the miraculous transformation of Pradhana of the 
Cosmic form. 

150. It is impossible for all human beings to compre- 
hend factually the movements both inward and outward, of 
the luminary bodies, by means of their physical eye. 

151. The learned man should comprehend and retain 
in belief, by means of scripture, inference, perception, and 
reasoning after testing intelligently and carefully. 

Va. P. 53. 119a reads: utpannah iravanenasau : 'It started by Sravana' — 25.5 247 

152. O Brahmanas of the most excellent intellect these 
are five expedients (means) to comprehend the group oflumin- 
aries viz. : eye, scripture, water, picture and calculation. 


The Origin of the Epithet Milakantha' 
Siva swallowing poison. 

Suta said 

1. After recounting this (astronomical information in 
the last chapter) Lord Vayu (The Wind god) of very great 
intellect and who is (always) engaged in what is conducive to 
the welfare ofthe world, commenced the Japa (muttering in an 
undertone the Mantra) that was to be chanted when the sun 
reached the middle ofthe sky. 

2. All those sages who had assembled there and who had 
perfect control over their Own selves, stood up with palms 

joined in reverence. 

3. The Wind god prayed : "O Nllakantha, obeisance 
to you who ought to be worshipped at the end of religious 
observances, and who are the lord ofall living beings, anima- 
ting them all." 

4-5. On hearing this, those sages ofpure souls, of Praise- 
worthy religious observance and famous as Va akhilyas, 
eightyeight thousand in number, who, of sublimated sexual 
impulse, walked by the side of the sun (as his associates) and 
subsisted on leaves, (of trees), wind and water, submitted to 
Vayu as follows : 

1. This popular story as to how Siva's throat became blue due to drink- 
ing the deadly poison Kalakufa appears in the Mbh. (Adi. 18.41-43)and other 
Puranas. The text of this chapter from V. 6 onwards is the same as that ofthe 
Va. P. 54.10 tr. 

248 Brahmanda Parana 

G-1 . "O excellent Wind-god, O most excellent one 
among those conversant with meritorious things, we wish to 
hear (more about) what is mentioned by you as "Nllakantha". 
It is the most meritorious thing among sacred ones. O excellent 
one, recount that unto us. O Prabhanjana (Wind-god), by 
your grace, we wish to hear everything. 

8. What is the reason whereby the neck of the lord of 
Ambika (i.e. god Siva) had become blue ? O lord, we wish 
to hear this particularly from your mouth (i.e. as directly 
mentioned by you). 

9. All verbal utterances are impelled by you, O Vayu. 
The function of speech is dependent on Varna (sound of 
letters) and Sthdna (place of articulation). 

10. The intelligent enthusiasm is activated by you. It is 
(only) when you sanctify them that the remaining Vamas be- 
gin to function. 

11. The existence of the Vamas is only due to you, from 
•whom the utterances recede and wherein the colours of the 
body are rare. O Anila (wind god), you are always omni- 
present (and have access everywhere). 

12. Excepting you, O Samlrana (wind god), there is no 
one who pervades everything. This living world is directly 
perceptible to you from all sides, O Anila (wind-god). 

13. You know the lord of speech, Isvara, the leader 
(controller) of minds. Tell us wherefore (for what) is there 
an aberration of the colour and feature in the region ofhis neck 

14. On hearing the words of those sages of sanctified 
souls, Vayu who has great splendour and who is revered by 
the world, replied. 

15. "Formerly, in Kxtayuga, there was aBrahmana called 
Vasistha who was extremely interested in deciding the (mean- 
ing of) Vedas. He was a righteous soul. He was the mental son 

(ofBrahma). He was a Prajapati. 

16-19. He asked Karttikeya who has a peacock as his 
excellent vehicle. He had stolen the collyrium from the 
eyes of the wives of the demon Mahisa (i.e. he made them 
widows by killing Mahisa). He is a noble soul (named) 
Mahasena, whose voice resembles the rumbling sound of the 249 

clouds. He appeared to see the joyous ebullitions of the mind 
of Uma, by assuming the false form of a boy. He took away 
the life ofKraunca, and delighted the heart of Gaurl, (He 
submitted) : "O excellent one, what is this radiant thing, 
resembling collyrium, seen in the necli (of Siva) which is as 
(white and) lustrous as the Kunda flower and the Moon ? 
How has it happened so ? Narrate this to me, a suppliant who 
am brilliant, devoted and have perfect self-control. 

20. O extremely fortunate one, it behoves you to detail 
everything without excluding anything. Narrate this auspicious 
and sacred story that destroys all sins. Please tell us this 
story for my delight." 

21. On hearing those words of that noble-souled Vasistha, 
Skanda, the extremely resplendent destroyer of the army of 
the enemies of gods (i.e. Asuras), replied: 

22-23. '"Listen to these words repeated by me, O most 
excellent one among eloquent persons, (I am repeating) what 
has been heard by me before, as I sat on the lap of Uma. This 
is the conversation of the noble-souled Sarva (Siva) with 
Parvatl. I shall recount that, O great sage, for your delight. 

24-40. On the beautiful peak ofthe Kailasa mountain, 
lord Siva the destroyer ofthe body of Madana (God of Love) 
was seated comfortably on a rocky slab covered with gold and 
bedecked with pure pearls, jewels, and gems. 

The beautiful peak ofthe Kailasa is variegated on account 
of different kinds of minerals. It resembled the sun at 
midday and had the lustre of molten gold. It had stairs built of 
diamonds and crystals, with steps of rocky surfaces ofvariegated 
forms. It was full of gold and was divinely variegated on 
account of the different kinds of minerals. It is interspersed with 
various kinds of trees and creepers laden with different kinds of 
flowers and fruits. It was filled with Hamsas (swans) and 
Karandavas (ducks). It was beautified by Cakravaka birds (Rud- 
dy geese). Many bees were singing (humming) at a high pitch 
there. It was resonant with the continuous sound of water-falls. 
Its caves were resounded with the sounds of intoxicated peacocks 
and Krauiica birds. It was filled with bevies of celestial dam- 
sels. It was beautified by Kinnaras. The chirping sound ofthe 
different varieties of Jlvamjivaka birds (a mythial bird with 

250 Brahmanda Pur ana 

two heads) spread everywhere in it. In many places, the 
cooing sound of the cuckoo-birds was heard. It was frequented 
by Siddhas and Caranas. It had the sound of oxen whose sound 
resembled the rumblings ofclouds. There were other sounds as 
well. The elephants were agitated on account ofVinayaka and 
they left their caves. There were sounds of the musical 
instruments like Vina (lute) and other (musical instruments). 
They were fascinating to the ears. Groups of people were swing- 
ing by means of Dolds (swings). It was resorted to by be- 
vies of ladies. It was echoing with the sound of the bells 
fitted to the swings suspended from the flagstaff. There were 
many musical instruments such as the Vallakis (lutes) and 
Venus (flutes). It was as much resounded as though there were 
thirty peacocks (crying). The caves were filled with the sounds of 
vocal music, drums, musical instruments which were played 
upon and which were beaten and also with (hurryings for play) 
and disputes (arguments). Swans, pigeons and'royal cranes were 
happily perched there. The lord of the Gatias (i.e. Vighnaraja) 
was sporting about with various kinds of fixations (poses), of 
the body. The lord of thcBhiitas (Spirits) was surrounded by 
Bhutas of various sorts. (Forexample) some had the faces of lions 
and tigers. Some were producing terrible cries. They had 
terrific speed. Others had the faces of deer, sheep, elephants 
and horses Others were hideous with faces ofcats or form of 
foxes. Some were short, some were tall; some were very lean. 
Some had protruding bellies; some had huge bellies; some 
had short-shanks; some had lips hanging loose; others had 
huge palm-like shanks. Some had the ears of cows; some had a 
single ears; some had huge ears; some had no ears; some had 
many feet; some had huge feet; some had single foot; some 
had no foot; some had many eyes; some had large eyes; 
some had a single eye; some had no eye; some had a single 
curved tooth; some had huge curved teeth; some had 
many curved teeth; some had no curved tooth at all. 
Some had huge heads; some had many heads; some had 
no head at all. Some had a single tongue; some had huge 
tongues; some had many tongues; some had no tongue at all. 

The daughter ofthe King of mountains spoke thus to 
lord Siva. 251 

41-43. "O lord, Master of the past and the future, O 
lord whose authority has been marked by a bullock (i.e. bull- 
bannered one), there is something sparkling in your neck, O 
great lord, resembling a cloud. O lord, O destroyer of the body 
of Kama, what is this that shines in your white neck ? It is not 
very deep and manifest. What is the cause ? What is the 
reason that your neck is bluish, O lord? Narrate all these duly 
(as I have got curiosity and) I am eager (to hear it)." 

44. On hearing the words of ParvatI, the lover of 
ParvatI, Sahkara, recounted the story fully endued with 

Mahesvara said : 

45. Formerly, when the milk-ocean was being churned 
by the Devas and Danavas for the sake of Amrta (nectar), 
a terrible poison as sparkling as the dark fire cropped up. 

46. On seeing, O lady ofexcellent face, the multitudes 
of Devas and Daityas became dejected. All of them appro- 
ached Brahma. 

47. On seeing the frightened groups of Devas, Brahma, 
of great splendour, asked : "O highly fortunate ones, why are 
you frightened? Why are you dejected in the mind? 

48. Three-fold prosperity and power has been conferred by 
me on you all, O excellent Devas. By whom has your prosperity 
been turned off? 

49. You are the lords and masters of the three worlds. 
All of you are free from ailments. In the creation of subjects 
there is no one who dares to transgress my behest. 

50. All of you move about in aerial chariots. All of you 
go about as you please. (All of you are very competent) in 
regard to spiritual things, worldly beings and providential ones 
for ever). 

51. You are competent to make all the subjects function 
in accordance with the consequence of their previous actions. 
Hence, why are you all agitated due to fear like the deer 
harassed by lion ? 

52. What is your misery? What is your distress? Whence 
has fear befallen you? It behoves you to explain quickly all 
these things duly". 

252 Brahmanda Parana 

53. On hearing the words of Brahma, the supreme soul, 
those Devas, leading Daityas and Danavas accompanied by 
the sages said: 

54-59a. "O Pitamaha (Brahma, the grandfather) when 
the ocean was being churned by the Devas and Asuras, a 
terrible poison had turned up. It resembled serpents and black 
bees. It was like the blue cloud. It had the sparkling lustre of the 
Sarhvarta fire (the fire that burns down " - universe at the 
end ofa Kalpa). It had cropped up like tue god of death and 
destruction. It had the fiery splendour of the sun at the end of 
the Yugas. It had the brilliance of the sun capable ofannihi- 
lating the three worlds. It spread all round. 

Janardana of reddish white body had been rendered 
black on being scorched by that poison whose lustre is on a 
par with the dark fire of ultimate destruction. 

On seeing Janardana of white reddish limbs being render- 
ed black by its burning, all of us became frightened and we 
sought refuge in you alone". 

On hearing the frightful words of the Devas and the 
Asuras, Brahma of great splendour, the grandfather of the 
worlds replied: 

59b-63. "O Devas, sages and ascetics, listen all ofyou. 
"The poison that has the lustre of the dark fire of destruction 
and what we all know as Kdlaku(a has appeared while the great 
ocean was being churned. Immediate by its very appearance, 
Devas lost all lustre and they did not shine the moment it 
cropped up. Neither Visnu, nor I nor all the leading Devas can 
bear the brunt of its attack excepting god Sahkara". 

After saying this, Brahma who had the lustre of the 
interior of a lotus, whose source of origin is lotus, who was 
not born of any womb and who was the foremost among those 
who were canversant with the Vedas, remembered Orhkara 
and meditated on the divine lustre (that is present all round. 
Thereafter god Brahma, began to eulogise. 

Eulogy of God Siva z' 

64. "O Virflpaksa (Lord ofuneven-three-eyes) obeisance 

1. In Puranas it is customary to attribute the higliest epitliets to tlie 
<leity eulogised. Sometimes it results in a string of names or adjectives. Here 253 

unto you. Hail to you of divine eyes. Salute unto the lord with 
the Pinaka bow in his hand. Obeisance to the god with a 
thunderbolt in his hand. 

65. Obeisance to the lord of the three worlds. Salute to 
the lord of all living beings. Bow to the slayer of the enemies 
of the Devas. Hail to the lord with the moon, the sun and the 
fire for his eyes. 

66. Obeisance unto thee who are Brahma, Rudra and 
Visnu. Bow to the Samkhya; to the Yoga. Obeisance to the 
assemblage ofall spirits (incarnate). 

67. Hail to the destroyer of the body of Manmatha 
(God of Love). Obeisance to the lord with Time (kdla) for 

his back. Obeisance to Rudra of excellent semen. Bow to the 
lord of the Devas and to the Vehement one. 

68. Obeisance to Kapardin (one having matted hair), to 
Sankara the terrible one. Hail to Hara, the bearer of a skull, 
one of hideous features. Obeisance to Siva the bestower of 

69. Obeisance to the destroyer of the. three cities (of 
demons). Bow to the destroyer ofthe sacrifice (ofDaksa). 
Hail to the lord ofthe mothers. Obeisance to the Vrddha (the 
ancient god) ; Obeisance to Suddha (the pure one), to the 
Mukta (Liberated one); obeisance to the mighty one. 

70. Obeisance to the sole hero among the three worlds, 
to the moon, to Varuna; to Agra (the foremost one), to Ugra 
(the terrible one); to Vipra (knower of the Vedas) of many 

71. Obeisance to Rajas, to Sattva; obeisance unto you of 
unmanifest origin. Bow to the Eternal one; to the non-eternal 
one; and to the eternal-cum-non-eternal one. 

72. Hail to the manifest one, to the Unmanifest one, as 
well as to the manifest-cum-unmanifest one. Obeisance to 

god Siva is regarded as equivalent to the Para Braliman and in addition to 
his mythological exploits, epithets applicable to the Para Brahman are included 
in this eulogy. 

We find Siva so glorified in Tai. Sarhhita IV. 5 (Rudradhyaya) and the 
Mahd Narayaniya Upa. X 11-21. The Sahasrandmas (garlands of a thousand 
epithets) of these deities is a Puranic development. The Visnusahasra- 
nama in the Mbh. is perhaps the earliest example of this. 

•254 Brahmanda Parana 

the Cintya (one who can be contemplated upon; obeisance to 
the Acintya (one who is beyond contemplation) ; Obeisance to 
the Cintya-cum-Acintya one. 

73. Obeisance to the dispeller of distress of all the 
worlds; Bow to the lord who is fond of Narayana; Obeisance to 
Sarva, the lover ofUma, Hail to the lord marked with the face 
of Nandin ? (nandi-vaktrdnkitdya) * 

74. Hail to (the lord identifying himself with) Paksa 
(fortnight), Mdsa (Month) and Ardhamdsa (half a month); 
obeisance to (the Lord, the identifier with) the Season and 
Sarhvatsara(year); Bow to the lord of many forms, to the lord 
with shaven head, to the lord bearing a staff, to the lord wearing 
a mailed armour. 

75. Obeisance to the lord with the skull in his hand; 
Bow to the god having quarters for his raiment (the naked 
one); to one with a tufted head; Obeisance to the lord with a 
bow and a chariot, and to the celibate god with self control. 

76-78. Obeisance to the embodiment of Rk, Yajus and 
Samaveda; obeisance to Purusa, the supreme lord- Bow unto 
you who are worthy of being eulogised by prayers composed like 

After eulogising like this, O lady of excellent face, Brahma 
bowed down (and praised once again). 

"O lord Rudra, (even) after knowing my devotion as well 
as that of the Devas, you do not manifest yourself. Though you 
had released your (matted) hair and got it splashed with the 
waters ofthe Ganga, (yet) you are too subtle, to be contemplat- 
ed upon, on account of your supreme Yogic power". 

Thus I was eulogised formerly by lord Brahma, the fireatoT — 
of the worlds, by means of various kinds of hymns originating 
from theVedas and Vedarigas (ancillary parts ofthe vedas). 

Thereupon, I spoke to Pitamaha Brahma in important 

79-80. "O lord ofthe worlds, O lord ofthe past, present 
and future, O lord ofthe universe, O Brahma, what should be 
done by me unto you. Tell me, O lord of holy rites". 

*Va.P.55.76 reads : nanclT-cakrdnkitaya 'marked with the cakra of Nandi* 255 

On hearing these words, the lotus-eyed Brahma replied. 

81-82. "O lord ofthe past, present and future, let this 
be heard, O lord, (cause rbf everything), O lotus-eyed lord, 
when the ocean was being churned by the Devas and Asuras, 
a terrible poison resembling'clouds appeared. O lord, It appeared 
like blue clouds. It had a lustre similar to that of Samvarta 

83. On seeing it, all of us were frightened and agitated 
in the mind. O great lord, swallow it up with a desire for the 
welfare of the worlds. 

84. You alone are competent to swallow it. There is no 
one other than you O great lord, to bear the brunt of its 

85-87a. On hearing these words of Brahma the Para- 
mesthin, O lady of excellent face, I accepted the proposal 
saying, "so ." Then I began to drink the poison that was 
like the god of death. Even as I drank the extremely terrible 
poison that accorded great fright unto the Devas, O lady 
of excellent complexion, my throat turned black imme- 

87b-88. On seeing it, which had the lustre ofthe petals 
of lily, which appeared like a serpent clinging to my neck 
and which was like Taksaka the king of serpents, who had risen 
up and begun to lick with his tongues, Brahma of great 
splendour, the grandfather ofthe worlds spoke thus: 

89-90a. "You shine splendidly O great lord of excellent 
holy rites, 'with this (such) neck". 

On hearing his words, O daughter ofthe most excellent 
one among the mountains, the terrible poison was held by me 
in the throat itself. Therefore, I became NUakantha (Blue- 
throated god). 

90b. I drank it even as the groups of Devas, Daityas, 
Yaksas, Gandharvas, Bhiitas, Pisacas, serpents and Raksasas 
were looking on, O lady of excellent face. 

91. That Kalakiita, the poison of terrible action, was 
retained by me in my throat. On seeing it being contained 
thus, the groups of Devas and Daityas became extremely 

256 Brahmanda Purana 

92. Thereafter, O lady of the gait of intoxicated ele- 
phant, the groups of Devas along with the Daityas, serpents 
and Raksasas said thus with palms joined in reverence. 

93. "O how wonderful are your strength, virility and 
exploit, O lord. Your body and Yogic power are simply 

94. O lord of the Devas, your supremacy is extremely 
wonderful, O destroyer of the body of Manmatha. 

You alone are Visnu. You are the four-faced (lord 
Brahma); You alone are the god of death. You alone are the 
Bestower ofboons. 

95. You alone are the sun and the moon. You alone 
are the manifestation of this world of mobile and immobile 

You alone are the (element called) fire. You alone are 
the element wind. You alone are the (element called) earth. 
You alone are the water (you constitute all the elements). 

96. You alone are the creator and sustainer of the entire 
world of mobile and immobile beings. You alone are its 
annihilation (i.e. annihilator)" 

After saying these words, the leading Devas bowed down 
their heads. Taking Soma ( ? Nectar, Moon) with them, they 
went away by means of aerial chariots with a speed equal to 
that of Wind, till they all reached the Meru, the great moun- 

97-98. Thus the highly meritorious and extremely holy 
(story about the name) Nllakantha has been recounted. It 
is well known in the three worlds. 

This story that destroys sins has been directly recounted 
by the self-born lord (Brahma) himself. 

99. I shall mention the extensive benefit acquired by the 
person who retains in memory this splendid narrative proclaim- 
ed by Brahma. 

100. O lady of great beauty and excellent hip, all poi- 
sons whether mobile or immobile (solid orliquid?) are immedia- 
tely destroyed on coming into contact with his body. 

101. It subdues all terrible inauspicious features. It 
dispels and decreases (the effect of) evil dreams. The person 257 

attains the state ofa lover unto women and an honourable 
person in the council ofthe king. 

102. He wins arguments. He becomes victorious in 
battle. When travelling, he does so with safety and welfare. 
His house is full with perpetual prosperity. 

103-105. O lady of excellent face, I shall describe the 
mode of attainment of his body.' His moustache becomes 
reddish brown. His throat becomes blue. His hair is beautifully 
marked by the moon. He has three eyes and he wields a trident 
in his hand. His vehicle is a bullock. He holds Pinaka bow 
in his hand. He is prosperous with the strength and exploit 
equal to that of Nandin. At my behest he traverses the 
seven worlds. His gait (movement) is unimpeded like that of 
the wind in the sky. 

106-107. Acquiring a strength equal to that of mine, he 
stands steady till the annihilation of all living beings. 

I shall mention the goal of those persons who devoutly 
listen to my story, O beautiful lady, I shall mention their 
destination here and hereafter. 

The Brahmana acquires Vedic knowledge. The Ksatriya 
conquers the earth. 

108. The Vaisya acquires profit. The Sfldra shall attain 
happiness. The sick man is rid of his ailments. The fettered 
one is released from imprisonment. 

109. The pregnant woman obtains a son; the virgin gets 
a good husband. Every one obtains the lost wealth here and 

110. By hearing this divine story a man obtains the 
same benefit or merit as that obtained by duly offering as 
gift a hundred thousand cows to the Brahmanas. 

111. He who retains in memory a foot or half a foot, a. 
quatrain or a distitch (of this story) goes to the world ofRudra 
for ever. 

112-113. He who reads this entirely with the mind 
directed towards me, in the presence of deities and Brahmanas. 

1. This is tlie attainment of Sarupya 'Similarity, of appearance' witli, 
god Siva. 

258 Brahmanda Parana 

attains the world ofRudra. He should have faith and devotion 
for ever. O goddess, the man should always read devoutly and 
make others read so. 

114. A prayer greater than this, there never had been 
before nor will ever be. Neither the Yaksas, nor the Pisacas, 
neither the goblins nor Vinayakas (spirits creating impediment) 
shall bring about any obstacle in the house of that person 
where this prayer is kept. 

115. O lady of lotuslike eyes, the greatness of this 
prayer has been mentioned by me to you as I am delighted. 
It is destructive of multitudes of sins. It is accompanied by 
the merit of holiness. It is sung by the four-faced lord himself. 

116. After recounting this story endued with the fruits of 
meritorious deeds to the goddess, the lord whose matted hair 
has been fixed with the moon and who is fond of Guha 
(Karttikeya) went to Kailasa cave on the back of his Bull. 
He was accompanied by Uma. 

117. This story that dispels sins has been heard by 
me from Prajapati. It is recounted to you. 

After learning this entirely along with all the character- 
istics, the excellent Brahmana proceeds to the region of the 


The Origin of the Liriga-Image of Siva 

The Sages said : 

1. "Wewish to hear completely about the greatness of 
Mahadeva, the lordship of that noble soul and the details of 
his excellence in supremacy." 

1. The story ofhow the Liiiga of god Siva appeared is told in different 
Puranas like Liiiga, 17; KPII 38; Va.P.55. The Liiiga of Siva is not the phallus 259 

Suta said : 

2. "This has been declared by Visnu formerly in the 
course of his conquest of the three worlds after binding Bali, 
the lord of the three worlds, of great prowess. 

3-5. The consort of Sad (Indra) was delighted when 
the Daityas were destroyed. Thereafter, all the Devas came to 
see the eternal lord. They came to the place where the lord of 
cosmic form abides near the milk ocean. The Siddhas, the 
Brahmana sages, the Yaksas, the Gandharvas, the groups of 
divine damsels, the serpents, the divine sages, the rivers and 
the mountains approached the great soul and the supreme 
Being, Hari and began to eulogise him. 

6. "You are the supporter and the maker (of the uni- 
verse) O Lord, you create the worlds. It is due to your 
grace, that the three worlds attain ever-lasting welfare. 

7-8. All the Asuras have been defeated. Bali has been 
imprisoned by you". 

On being thus addressed by Devas (gods), Siddhas 
and the great sages, Visnu, the supreme Man, replied to 
the Devas. 

"O excellent Devas, let this be heard. I shall explain the 

9- 10a. I have attained Siddhatva (state of a great Siddha) 
due to the grace of that lord who is the creator of all living 
beings, who is the personification of the destructive principle 
and who is the lord and cause of Time, by whom the worlds 
and I have been created along with Brahma, by means of his 

10b-12a. Formerly, when the three worlds had been 
swallowed (enveloped) and merged in the darkness and all was 
unmanifest, and while I, with all the living beings within my 
belly, lay there alone, I had a thousand heads, eyes and feet 
and had the conch, discus and the club in my hands, I was 
lying on the pure expanse of water. 

but a column of fire, the beginning or the foot and top ofwhich could not be 
probed by gods Visnu and Brahma. The Liiiga-worship is a Furanic trans- 
formation of Vedic fire-worship. 

260 Brahmanda Pur ana 

12b. In the meantime I espied the lord of unlimited 
lustre, from afar. 

13. He resembled a hundred thousand suns. He shone 
by means of his own splendour. He was a four-faced person 
(Purusa) of great Yogic power and golden lustre. 

14. He was a lord wearing a skin ofblack antelope, and 
he was adorned with a Kamandalu (waterpot). This excellent 
person (Brahma) reached me in a trice. 

15-16. Then Brahma who is (reverently) bowed to by 
the worlds, spoke to me : — "Who are you ? Whence have you 
come ? Why do you stay here ? Tell me, O lord. I am the 
creator of all worlds. I am selfborn. I have faces all 

On being addressed thus by Brahma, I spoke to him : — 

17-18. "Indeed I am the creator of the worlds and the 
annihilator as well again and again." 

Conversing thus, we desired to conquer each other. We 
saw a flame blazing to the north of us. O sinless ones, on 
seeing that flame then we were surprised. 

19-20. At the splendour and power of the lustre of Siva, 
we remained with palms joined in reverence. We saw the mass 
ofsplendour increasing in size. It was excessively miraculous. 
Brahma and I hastily rushed towards that massive flame. That 
circular mass of flames stood up piercing heaven and 

21. In the middle of that massive splendour, we saw the 
extremely resplendent Liriga of the size ofa mere span. It was 
unmanifest (?') yet endowed with extensive lustre.' 

22. That (Linga) in the middle was neither of gold nor 
of silver nor was it made of rock. It could not be specified. 
Nor could it be contemplated upon. It was visible and invisible 
again and again. 

23. It was richly endowed with thousands of sparks. It 
was surprisingly mysterious. It was endued with great reful- 
gence and it was increasing in size tremendously. 

1. The identity of Rudra and Agni (the fire-god) is stated in RV. II. 
1.7, the Satapatha Br. Ill 3.1.10; VI 1.3.10; the Taittariya Br. I. 1.5. 8-9., 
The Tandya Br. XII 4.24. 261 

24. Clusters of flames spread everywhere. It was fright- 
ful to alt living beings. It was extremely terrible in its features. 
It appeared to pierce heaven^and Earth. 

25. Then Brahma told .me,— "You go quickly beneath. 
Let us find out the end of this noble-souled Linga. 

26. 1 shall go upwards until its end is seen." 

After making this stipulation, we went upwards as well 
as beneath. - 

27. Thereupon, 1 went far below for a thousand years, 
but 1 could not find its end. 1 became frightened thereby. 

28. Similarly, Brahma went upwards, but he too did not 
reach its extremity. He too returned along with me to that 
vast expanse of water. 

29. We were surprised and frightened of that great soul. 
We were deluded by the Maya of that great Being. Our con- 
sciousness got lost and we stayed there (helplessly). 

30. Thereupon, we meditated on the lord with faces on 
all sides, the imperishable lord who is the source oforigin and 
the cause of dissolution of all the worlds. 

31. We made obeisance, with palms joined in reverence, 
to the trident-bearing Siva (Sarva), the lord of extremely 
terrific voice, of terrible features and curved fangs, to that great 
unmanifest lord. 

32. "Obeisance to you, O lord of worlds and Devas. 
Salutations unto you, O lord ofBhtitas, O highly noble soul. 

Obeisance to you, O lord who have achieved perma- 
nent Yogic powers. Hail to you, O Lord established over 
the universe. 

33. You are Paramesthin (the highest deity), the 
supreme Brahman, the imperishable great region; you are the 
eldest one. You are Vamadeva, Rudra, Skanda and Lord Siva. 

34. You are Yajiia; you are Vasatkara; you are Orhkara; 
you are the subduer of enemies; you are Svahakara, the obeis- 
ance, the consecration ofall holy rites. 

35. You are Svadhakara, Yajiia, holy rites and observ- 
ances, the Vedas, the worlds, the Devas — the lord alone is 
everything all round. 

36. You are the quality of sound of the firmament; you 
are the source of origin and cause of dissolution of all living 

262 Brahmanda Parana 

beings, you are the quality ofsmell in the earth, the quality of 
taste in the waters and the colour in Tejas (fiery element), you 
are the great lord. 

37. O lord of the Devas, you are the quality (called) 
touch in Vayu (wind) ; you form the body of the moon. 

38. O Lord of the Devas, you are knowledge in the in- 
tellect; you are the seed of Prakrti. 

39. You are the annihilator of all the worlds; you 
are Kala identical with the god of Death, the cause of destruc- 
tion. You sustain the three worlds, O Lord, you alone create 

40. With your eastern face you assume the form of 
Indra; with your southern face you withdraw the worlds again. 

41. With your western face you are stationed in Varuna 
undoubtedly. O excellent one among the Devas, with your 
northern face you are Soma. 

42-45. In one way or in many ways, O Lord, you are 
the source of origin and cause of dissolution of the worlds. O 
Lord, from you are born these viz.: the Adityas, the Vasus, 
Rudras, Maruts, the Asvins, the Sadhyas, the Vidyadharas, 
the Nagas, the Caranas, the ascetics, the Valakhilyas and others 
who have performed good holy rites and many others. 

O lord ofDevas, from you are born these viz.: Uma, 
Sita, Sinlvall, Kuhii, Gayatrl, Laksmi, Kirti, Dhrti, Medha, 
Lajja, Kanti, Vapus, Svadha, Tusti, Pusti, Kriya, SarasvatI, the 
goddess of speech, Sandhya and Ratri (Night). 

46. O Lord endowed with the potential strength and 
influence often thousand sets often thousand suns, obeisance 
be to you, O lord, as white as a thousand moons. Obeisance 
be to you who hold Vajra (thunderbolt) and Pinaka bow. 
Obeisance be to you, O lord, with arrows and bow in your 

47. Obeisance to you, O lord, whose limbs are 
embellished with Bhasma (sacred ash). Hail to you, O lord, 
the destroyer of Kama's body. 

Salute unto you, O lord Hiranyagarbha; obeisance 
unto you, O lord of golden raiment. 

48. Bow to you, O lord of golden womb. Obeisance 
to you, O lord of golden navel; Hail to you, O lord of golden 263 

semen. Obeisance be to you, O lord, mysterious with a thou- 
sand eyes. 

49. Obeisance be to you, O lord of golden colour. Salute 
to you, O lord of golden hair; obeisance be to you, O lord of 
golden heroism* (?); obeisance be to you, the lord who 
distributes gold. 

50 Obeisance be to you, O lord and master of gold; 
Bow to you, O lord with the sound of gold. Obeisance to 
you, O lord with the Pinaka in your hand; salute to you, O 
bluethroated Sankara". 

51. On being eulogised thus, the lord of great intellect 
appeared before us. The lord of Devas, the source of origin 
of the Universe, who had the lustre often million suns. 

52. Mahadeva of great lustre became filled with pity. 
He spoke to us as ifhe was about to swallow the sky with a 
thousand crores of mouths. 

53. His neck was like a conch-shell in shape. His belly 
was well shaped He was bedecked in different kinds of orna- 
ments. His limbs were variegated on account of different 

jewels. He wore different kinds of garlands and had applied 
different kinds of unguents. 

54. The lord had Pinaka in his hand; he held the 
trident; he was worthy ofbeing worshipped by the Devas; he 
had serpents as the sacred thread; he was the cause of freedom 
from fear unto the Devas. 

55. At that time, he burst unto a laughter, the sound of 
which was similar to that of Dundubhi (a big drum) and was 
comparable to the rumbling sound of the cloud. The sound 
filled the whole universe. 

56-57. We two were frightened at that great sound. 
Then Mahadeva said, — "O excellent ones among the Devas, I 
am delighted. Both of you see the great Yogic power. May all 
fear be eschewed. Both ofyou are eternal and are formerly 
born of my limbs. 

58. This Brahma, the grandfather of the worlds is my 
right hand. Visnu who is never defeated in any battle, is my 
left hand. 

* Va.P.55. hiranya-clra 'of golden dress or garments'. 

264 Brahmanda Pur ana 

59-60. I am pleased well with both of you. I shall give 
unto you the boon as you please". 

Then, delighted in our minds we bowed down at the feet 
ofthe lord. 

We said to Mahadeva who was standing in front of us 
with grace. 

"O lord ofthe Devas. you are delighted; if a boon has to 
he bestowed by you, let us be devoted to you for ever." 

The Lord of gods said : 

"O highly fortunate ones, let it be so. Create subjects 

After saying so, the lord vanished there itself 

61. Thus the potentiality of that intelligent lord has 

been recounted to you. This is the greatest knowledge. The 

unmanifest one is termed Siva (Auspicious). 

62-63. Only those with the vision ofknowledge see this 

subtle Being who cannot be contemplated upon. We shall make 

obeisance to that lord of the Devas. "O Mahadeva, Obeisance 

be to you, O Mahesvara, Salute be to you." 

Silta said : 

64. "After hearing this, all the Devas went to their 
respective abodes, paying homage and respects unto Sahkara 
the great soul. 

65. He who recites this hymn unto the lord, the great 
soul, obtains all desires and gets rid of all sins. 

66. All this was narrated to them by Visnu, the power- 
ful one, due to the grace of Mahadeva, about the eternal 
Brahman. Thus everything regarding the power of Mahesvara 
has been described to you. 265 


Siva cursed by Ddruvana sages i Their repentance 
and Prayer : Installation of Siva Liriga — The In- 
junction Regarding Ash-bath 

The sages said : — 

1. Recount once again, O Suta of great intellect, the 
greatness of Mahadeva. We are eager and curious to listen 
to it. 

2. How did the lord assume a loathsome form in the 
forest Daruvana resorted to by the groups of divine sages? The 
great sages gained wisdom thereby. 

3. On knowledge that it was Mahadeva, they became 
excited and confused. In order to propitiate him they wor- 
shipped him but Bhava (Lord Siva) did not become pleased 
with them. 

4. All these activities of the lord of the Devas may 
Icindly be recounted to us in number as they took place. You 
are the most excellent one among intelligent persons." 

Suta said : 

5. "Let this righteous activity be heard while I recount 
it, O alert ones. It is, due to his compassion towards the 
devotees, that this had been carried out by the lord of the 

6. (This happened) O Brahmanas, formerly on the 
splendid and auspicious peak of the Himalayas in the Krta- 
yuga. There is a forest of Devadaru trees which is beautiful 
and full of many trees and creepers. 

7-9. Many sages perform austerities here and carry on 
holy ascetic rites.' Some of them had only saivdla (moss) for 

1. This story how and why Siva was cursed by sages in the Daru-Vana 
and how they subsequently adopted the Siva Liriga for worship is narrated 
in the LP, KP, VA. P, mentioned above. The Daru-Vana mentioned here is 
in the Himalayas (vide V 6 below) and not in Maharashtra as given in De 

2. W. 7-9 illustrate the different vows observed by sages while per- 
forming penance. 

266 Brahmanda Parana 

their food. Some of them lay within water. Some of them had 
the ethereal space (for their stay). Some ofthem supported 
themselves on the tips of their big toes. Some had their teeth 
serve the purpose of Ulukhala (threshing Mortar, i.e. they ate 
the grains of corn chewing them with their teeth); others were 
Asmakuttas (who pounded their grains on rocks before eating). 
Some remained seated in heroic postures (Virdsana). Others 
followed the way of life of the deer. All those sages ofgreat 
intellect spent their time in severe penances. 

10-12. Then the lord came to that forest in order to 
confer grace on them. His limbs were grey due to the appli- 
cation of Bhasman (ashes). He was naked. He had hideous 
features. His hairs were dishevelled and ugly. His teeth were 
terrific. His hands eagerly got hold of a firebrand. His eyes 
were reddish brown. His penis and scrotum resembled red 
chalk. His face was beautified by reddish white colour. 

13. 'At some places he laughed boisterously and terribly. 
At some places he showed surprise and began to sing. At some 
places he began to dance expressing amorous sentiment. At 
some places, he began to cry again and again.' 

14. Deluded and enchanted by him the wives of the sages 
immediately prevented him from dancing. After coming to 
the hermitage as a guest, he began to beg again and again. 

15. He created a wife unto himself, similar in form and 
bedecked in ornaments. He roared and bellowed like a bull and 
brayed like a donkey. 

16. He began to befool them making all the embodied 
ones laugh. Thereupon, the sages became angry. They were 
over-whelmed by fury. 

17. Fascinated by his deluding power (Maya) they 
approached him in order to curse him. "Since you sing (bray) 
like a (donkey) you will become a donkey. 

1. These verses describe the Pasupata way of behaviour or penance. 
Vide Pasupata Sutra's (with Kaundinya's Com.) Ch. Ill sutras 1-19. Pasu- 
patas are instructed to behave in such a way whereby the practitioner of the 
Vrata is insulted (avamalah). The strange behaviour of Siva described in this 
and subsequent verses is found prescribed in Paiupata-Siitrai. 267 

18-19. Or you will be Raksasa, Pisaca (Evil spirit) or 
a Danava. " As they pleased, those infuriated sages cursed him 
with different liinds of curses. They cursed that lord of the 
universe but the powers of austerities of all of them were 
repelled and made futile against Sankara. ^. „ 

20. Just as the stars in the sky do not shine on account 
of refulgence of the sunf so also their splendour (power of 
penance) (became ineffective) on Sankara. 

21. It is heard that the full-fledged Yajiia, the cause of 
all prosperity of Brahma, the noble soul, met with destruction 
on account of the curse of sages. 

22. On account of the curse of Bhrgu, Visnu ofvery 
supreme prowess and splendour had to take ten births and was 
made miserable for ever. 

23. Formerly, the penis oflndra along with his scrotum, 
O sages conversant with Virtue, was made to fall down on the 
earth by the infuriated sage Gautama. 

24. The Vasus were forced to stay in the womb on 
account of a curse. It is on account of the curse of sages that 
Nahusa was turned into a serpent. 

25. It was by Brahmana that the ocean ofmilk was 
rendered unfit to be drunk. Dharma (God of Death) was 
cursed by the noble-souled Maruiavya." 

26. These and many others underwent much torment 
excepting Mahesvara, the lord of the Devas with uneven 
(three) eyes. 

27. Thus, enchanted by him, they did not recognize 
Sarikara. Thereupon, all those sages spoke to each other. 

1. VR YII 51.11-16 states that Bhrgu cursed Visnu as he killed 
Bhrgu's wife Puloma. 

2. This punishment was meted out to Indra for his adultery with 
Gautama's wife Ahalya, vide VR 1.48 17-28. 

3. Mbh. Udyoga. 17, 14-18 states how Nahusa was cursed by Agastya 
when he goaded him with his foot to carry his palanquin quickly to Saci's 

4. The sage Mandavya was wrongfully impaled by god Yama. He 
therefore cursed him to be a Sudra. (And he was born of Vidura) — Mbh- 
Adi. Ch. 107. 

268 Brahmanda Purana 

28. "This is not tlie riglit code of conduct laid down 
for us houseliolders. Nor is it tlie rite of tliose engaged in the 
vow of celibacy or the forest-hermitages. 

29. This is not seen as the Dharma of recluses. This 
is great injustice and misdemeanour whereby this person is 
deluded, O Brahmanas. 

30. Make his Liriga drop down. This is not the Dharma 
(a code of conduct) ofsages and ascetics.' Speak sweet words. 
Resort to (at least) one Garment. 

31-33. When the Lihga is abandoned (dropped) byyou, 
you will be accorded due worship. 

On hearing these words ofthe sages, lord Sankara, the 
• destroyer ofthe eyes of Bhaga, said in polished speech, as though 
he was laughing boisterously. 

"This Liriga of ours cannot be made to fall down forcibly 
by all the gods beginning with Brahma. How then be the other 
ascetics. O excellent Brahmanas, I shall make this Liiiga fall 
do wn. " 

34-36. They uttered the sentence "Stay in the hermitage 
or go away". 

On being spoken to thus, lord Mahadeva became delight- 
ed in the activities ofthe sense-organs. Even as all of them 
were observing, the lord vanished there itself. 

When the lord vanished and Bhava (God Siva) was trans- 
formed into a Liiiga, there was no appearance of any living 
being in the range ofthe three worlds. Everything was agitated 
and nothing shone. 

37. The sun did not shine; the fire became devoid of 
lustre. The stars and the planets became contrary (to their 
normal state). 

38. The Kratus (sacrifices?) ofthe sages who had plenty 
ofresources and who were engaged in activities conducive to 
the birth of children and who used to approach their wives 
only at the permitted period after the days of menstruation, did 
not function properly. 

1. The sages were obviously ignorant ofthe Pasupata way of life. 269- 

39. Without the sense ofMy-ness (mamalva) and devoid 
of egotism, they tried to perform the holy rite once again. 
(But) all their potentiality and all their splendour became 

40. At that time their mind did not become concentrated 
in Dharma (holy rites etc.). All of them gathered together and 
went to the region of god Brahma. 

41. After going to the abode of Brahma and on seeing 
the Lotus-born deity, at his abode all of them fell at his 
feet and narrated the account about Siva. 

42. "He is formidable and frightful. His hair is stiff 
and rough. His teeth are terrific. His hands are eager to get 
hold ofan owl* (?) 

43-44. His penis along with the scrotum is red and 
embellished (painted) with red chalk. He was always (found) 
remaining at the sides of our daughters-in-Law and daughters, 
particularly those who had their babies (?) with them. (He 
was found) staying near them with an unnatural desire. Taking 
him to be a mad fellow, we insulted him. 

45. He was scolded and beaten. His Lifiga (? penis) was 
taken out. It is to alleviate his anger that we have sought 
refuge in you. 

46-48. We do not know this matter (thoroughly). 
Explain it to us, O grand-father". 

On hearing these words of the sages Lord Brahma 
meditated and found out that it was Sarva (god Siva). Then 
with great concentration, he replied thus: — 

"This is lord Mahadeva. He should be known as the great 
lord. His great region is not attained easily. Heis the lord of 
the gods, sages and manes. 

49. At the end of thousand Yugas, when there is the 
annihilation of all embodied beings, this lord Mahesvara be- 
comes Kala (God ofdeath) and destroys (everything). 

* Probably ulmuka 'fire-brand' and not uluka as in the text. In V.I I 
above he is stated to have a firebrand in his hand. 

270 Brahmanda Purana 

50. He alone creates all subjects singly and by means 
of his own vigour. He alone is the discus-bearing lord (Visnu) 
whose chest is characteristically marked by Srivatsa. 

51. He is called Yogin in the Krta Yuga and Kratu in 
the Treta Yuga. In the Dvapara, he is remembered as Kalagni 
and as Dharmaketu in the Kali age. 

52. Three forms ofRudra should be known and realized 
by learned men. The Tamas form is Agni, the Rajas form is 
Brahma and Sattva is Visnu, the illuminator. 

53. One form ofhis is remembered as having the quar- 
ters for his garment (i.e. naked). It is named Siva. It is in him 
that the Brahman endowed with Yoga resides. 

54-55. Hence, O leading Brahmanas, after subduing your 
anger and controlling sense-organs propitiate the lord Isana, 
the imperishable lord, the lord of the Devas. After making a 
replica of the Lihga of the great soul in the same form as was 
seen by you, resort to Lord with the trident in his hand. 

56. Thereupon, you will see the lord of the Devas who 
can rarely be seen by ignorant and foolish persons who have 
not mastered their own selves. On seeing him, all ignorance and 
evils shall be destroyed." 

57. Thereupon, they circumambulated Brahma of 
unmeasured vigour. Becoming devoid of all grief, they returned 
and settled in the forest ofDevadaru (Himalayan cedar) trees 
once again. 

58-59. They began to propitiate the lord in the manner 
described by Brahma in the various dry lands, on the mountains 
ofvariegated forms, in the caves and on the sandy banks of 
rivers splendid and variegated. 

Thus when a year elapsed completely and the spring 
season arrived, the lord came to that forest assuming that very 
same form. 

60. The great God entered that penance-grove and 
forest wherein many trees and creepers had put forth flowers, 
where that part of tract had been resonant with the drone of 
swarms of bees and which was filled with the sweet notes ofthe 
cuckoo. 271 

61-66. Then all those sages eulogised him with great 
mental purity and concentration and worshipped him with waters, 
different kinds of garlands, incense and fragrant scents. Those 
highly fortunate ones worshipped him in the company of their 
wives, sons and attendants. With gentle words they spolie thus 
to Girlsa. 

"It behoves you to forgive all our actions (of omission 
and commission) whatever has been perpetrated mentally, 
verbally and physically due to our ignorance of the lord of the 
Devas. O Sanliara, the conduct of life of Brahma and other 
Devas is mysteriously esoteric, elaborate, inscrutable and 
difficult to comprehend. We do not know how to welcome you. 
We do not know at all any ofyour movements. O Mahadeva, 
O lord of the universe, you are as you are, obeisance be to 
you. Only noble-souled ones eulogise you, the lord of 
the Devas, the great lord. 

67. Obeisance be to Bhava, Bhavya (splendid one), 
Bhavana (sanctifier) and Udbhava (source of origin). Hail to 
the lord of spirits, the lord of infinite strength and .virility. 

68. Bow to the lord of tawny-complexioned body the 
destroyer, the imperishable one, the changing one. Obei- 
sance to the lord, to the supporter of the current of Gaiiga 
water. Bow to the lord who is the support; salutations to the 
soul of good qualities. 

69. Obeisance to Tryambaka (the three-eyed lord). 
Hail to the lord who wields the excellent trident. Bow to you 

(identical with) Kandarpa. Obeisance be to you the Supreme 

70. Obeisance to Sarikara, the bull-bannered one. Hail to 
the lord ofGanas (groups of goblins, the attendants of Siva). 
Obeisance to Kalawith the staff in his hands; obeisance to the 
lord with the noose in his hands. 

71-73. Obeisance to the lord who is the main deity 
in the VedicMantras; and to you of hundred tongues. What- 
ever is there in the world, the past, the present, the future, the 
mobile and immobile beings — all the visible worlds have 
originated from your person. O Sambhu, welfare unto you, 
protect us. Therefore be pleased with us. Whatever man 

272 Brahmanda Purana 

does, whether out of ignorance or knowingly, it is the lord 
alone who does it by means of his Yogic Maya." 

74-76. After eulogising thus with delighted minds, the 
sages requested the lord: "Being endowed with the power of 
penance, we may see you as before. May your Liriga be 
stationed in the normal posture as before. 

Obeisance to the Digvdsas (the naked one) having garland- 
like clusters of Kinkinls (bells in the trinkets). 

Salute to the hideous one, to the terrible one, to the 
lord of frightful face. Obeisance to you who are devoid of 
form, who have excellent form and who have multiforms. 

77. Obeisance be to Katarhkata (golden-formed one), 
obeisance toRudra; obeisance to Svahakara. Hail to you, the 
embodiment of all vital airs; Salute to you the lord with 
the Gunas for his bodies. 

78. Obeisance to Durgandha (foul-smelling one), to 
Sttgandha (fragrant one); Salute to the lord with the trident in 
his hands; Obeisance to lord Srikantha with the dark-blue tuft. 
Hail to Nilakantha, the lord who has applied the ashes in the 
cremation ground for unguent. 

79. Obeisance to the lord identical with the trio of 
Gunas. Hail to you the Visva (one identical with the universe), 
the Vedhas (Creator), Bow to the lord who resides always in 
the cremation ground; Obeisance to the lord of the form of the 
Preta (Departed Soul *) 

80. You are Brahma among the Devas' and Nllalo- 
hita among the Rudras. The soul of all living beings, you are 
called Purusa by the Sarhkhyas. 

81. You are the great Meru among the mountains and 
the Moon among the stars. Among the sages you are Vasistha 
and Vasava (Indra) among the Devas. 

82. You are Omkara among the Vedic Mantras, 
Jyesthasaman among the Saman Mantras. You are the lion 
among the beings of the forest. You are the supreme 

1. God Siva is the best one among all gods etc. Cf. Bh. G. for sucli 
a list of excellences and every such excellence is His part : 
Tad yad vibkutimai sattvarh.... 
mama Ujomsasambkaaam / Bh. G. X 41. 273 

83-86. You are the Bull among the domestic animals. 
You are the lord worshipped in all the worlds. - Although 
you exist in all ways and manners, we see you alone in the 
beings that come up in front ofus as narrated by Brahma. 

Lust, Anger, greed, distress and arrogance, we wish to- 
check these, O Paramesvara (be pleased). 

When the Mahasamharana (the great ultimate annihi- 
lation) arrives, fire is created by you, O lord, who are of self- 
governed spirit, by pressing the hand against the forehead. 
At that time all the worlds are surrounded all round by flames, 
on account of that fire. 

87-88. Hence, all these are on a par with the fire. There 
are many hideous fires. All the living beings, mobile and 
immobile, all animals are burned by the fire originating from 
you. O lord of Devas, be the saviour of all of us as we are 
being burned. 

89-91. For the welfare of all the worlds you sprinkle 
(with nectar) all the living beings; O lord of great fortune. 
O Mahesvara, the onlooker of auspiciousness. Command us 
O lord, we shall carry out your behest. We arc unab'e to 
find any possible limit to your millions and millions of forms. 
O lord, obeisance unto you". 

Thereafter, the lord and Master said these words : 
92-9,3. "No learned man shall speak insultingly unto 
those persons who are devoted to my Bhasman (holy Ashes), 
who have burnt all their sins by means of ashes, who carry out 
everything ihey say, who have control over their sense-organs 
and who are Brahmanas engrossed in meditation. No one who 
desires welfare both here and hereafter, shall transgress them 
nor shall they speak words unpleasant to them. 

94. The man of deluded mind who censures them, 
censure. Mahadeva. He who worships them always worships 
Safikara. Act like this. Welfare unto you all. You will obtain 
(achievement of) spiriiual power from me." 

95. After understanding the unparalleled and excellent 
holy rite that is destructive of the great darkness (of ignorance) 
and that had been recounted by siva, those people got rid of 
their fear, greed, delusion and anxiety. They all fell (at his 
feet), simultaneously and bore (them) by means of their heads.. 

274 Brahmanda Purana 

96-97. Then those delighted Brahmanas began to per- 
form the ablution of lord Mahesvafa who assumed his usual 
Prakrtika form by means of very pure scented water mixed with 
Kusa grass and flowers. They began to sing with various kinds 
ofesoteric Hufikaras in sweet notes : — 

98. "Obeisance unto you, O lord with the quarters for 
your garments (i.e. naked); Bow to the lord wearing Kihkinis 
(small tinkling ornaments or bells) ; Salutation to the lord half 
ofwhose body is female. Obeisance to the lord who promul- 
gated Samkhya and Yoga. 

99. Bow to the lord dark in colour, with the clouds for 
his vehicle; Obeisance to the lord wearing the hide of an 
elephant as his garment. Salute to the lord wearing the skin of 
an antelope as the upper garment. Obeisance to the lord 
having a serpent for his sacred thread." 

100. Obeisance be unto Sankara who has well construc- 
ted and wonderfully variegated ear-rings. Bow be to you with 

well-wreathed garlands for ornaments. Hail to you with the 
excellent hide ofa lion for garment, O lord wielding a huge 

101. When the Linga was installed once again with a 
desire for the welfare of all the worlds, those excellent sages 
devoted to the duties of the different castes carried them out. 

102. Then the great God who was pleased, replied to 
those sages : — "O sages of excellent holy rites, I am pleased 
with your penance. Choose the boons." 

103-105. Then those sages viz. Bhrgu, Arigiras, Vasistha, 
Visvamitra, Gautama, Atri, Sukesa, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, 
Marici and Kasyapa, all of them endowed with great penance, 
bowed down to Mahadeva and said these words : — 

O lord, we wish to understand these— Ash-bath, naked- 
ness, Vamatva (left-handed ritual), Pratilomata (contrary 
action) and Sevy&sevyatva (state of being worthy of being served 
and of being unworthy of being served)". 

The Lord said :— 

106. "I shall explain this to you. I shall mention the 

1. VV. 106-128 describe Fasupata Vrata according to tlie autlior of 

this Purana. 275 

entire story (i.e. details) now. I am Agni accompanied by 
Soma. Soma has resorted to Agni. 

107. They say that all the worlds have resorted to the 
fire made and unmade (i.e. artificial and natural). The whole 
world, mobile and immobile, is burned many times by fire. 

108. Everything can be achieved through Bhasman. It 
is excellent and sacred. He (the devotee) sprinkles the living 
beings aft;er assimilating the power and essence of ashes. 

109. It is only after performing the holy rites in fire 
that one will perform the rite of Trydyusa (trebling the span of 
life). One is rid of all sins through Bhasman (ashes) which is 
*my vigour. 

110. Bhasman is so called because it illuminates (every- 
thing) auspicious and renders it fragrant. It is glorified as 
Bhasman because it instantaneously destroys all sins. 

111. The Pitrs should be known as tJsmapds (Imbibing 
heat); the Devas are born of Soma (the Somajuice or the 
moon). The entire universe consisting of the mobile and the 
immobile beings is constituted by Agni and Soma. 

112. I am Agni of great splendour. This my Ambika, is 
Soma; Agni, Soma and I form ourselves the Purusa with Prakrti. 

113. Hence, O highly fortunate ones, Bhasman is spoken 
of as my vim and vigour. The position is this that I retain my 
own vigour by means ofmy own body. 

114. Ever since then, /it is through Bhasman that safety 
is assured in the lying-in-charnbers. It is through Bhasman that 
protection is sought in the world in inauspicious circumstances. 

115. A devotee whose soul is sanctified by means of 
Ash-bath, who has conquered anger and who has subdued 
his sense-organs does not go back (i.e. is not born again) after 
coming near me. 

116. The holy rite Pasupata is (not inferior to) Yoga; 
the holy rite of Kapala is based on Yoga. This Pasupata rite 
is laid down before. It is most excellent. 

117. All the remaining Aframins (persons of various stages 
in life) have been created afterwards by the self-born lord 

(Brahma). This creation which is of the nature of bashfulness'' 
delusion and fear, has been evolved by me. 

276 Brahm&nda Purana 

118. Deities and the sages are born only naked. Others, 
the human beings in the world, all of them are born without 
any garment. 

119. Even the persons who are covered with a silken 
garment are (no better than) naked, should the sense-organs 
be unconquered. They are well hidden (covered) if they are 
duly subdued. It is not the garment that is the real reason 

(about nudity and non nudity). 

120. Forgiveness, fortitude, non-violence, absence of 
attachment to all (worldly things) and equal indifference to 
both honour and dishonour — these constitute the excellent 
covering garment. 

121-124. He who smears his limbs (body) with the 
Bhasman and renders them grey in colour, he who mentally 
meditates on Bhava (Siva), he who takes his bath with Bhas- 
man, (becomes free from sins). Even if a person commits thous- 
ands of misdeeds and takes an ash-bath, the Bhasman burns all 
the sins, just like fire that burns a forest by means of its reful- 
gence. Hence, if a person exerts himself always and takes 
Ash-bath three times a day, he attains Gdnapatya (the state of 
being a follower of Ganapati). After performing all kinds of 
Krattts (sacrifices), after taking in the excellent nectar if the 
people meditate on Mahadeva, if they merge themselves (in 
him) and are sanctified by identifying themselves with him, 
they shall attain immortality (Moksa) through the northern 

125-126. Those who, through the Southern Path, resort 
to the cremation ground, attain all these supernatural powers 
viz. — Animd (minuteness), Mahimd (greatness) Laghimd (light- 
ness), Prdpti (ability to reach things), Garimd (heaviness), the 
fifth quality, Prdkdmyam (freedom of will), js/fva (Masterliness), 
Vasitva (ability to control) and Amaratva (immortality). 

127-129. Indra and other Devas performed Kdmika 
(conducive to the attainment of desires) holy rites and 
became, persons ofwell-known splendour after attaining great 
Aisvarya (prosperity and power). 

All of you be free from arrogance and delusion and 
devoid ofpassion; let your conduct be free from the defects of 
Tamas and Rajas. Understand this excellent holy rite that 277 

attacks all sins. Perform this vrata which is a great favourite 
of Pasupati (Siva). 

If anyone reads this wifh purity, faith and control ofthe 
sense-organs he shall become purified in soul and rid ofall sins. 
He goes to the world of Rudra. 


Meeting of Pururavas and Pitrs 

Performance of annual obsequies on the 

New Moon Day 

The sage said 

1. O SiJta ! King Pururavas, the son of Ila, used to go 
to the heaven on the New Moon day in every month. How 
was it ? How did he propitiate the Pitrs (Manes). 

SUta said : — 

2. O Sarhsapayani, I shall narrate his power. I shall 
narrate the contact ofthe noble-souled son of Ila with the sun 
as well as with the moon. 

3-5. I shall tell you about the increase and the decrease 
in the size ofthe moon that has its essence within, during the 
two fortnights, the bright one and the dark one. I shall state 
the decision in regard to one with the Pitrs (Pitrmatah) as well 
as to one belonging to the Pitrs (Pitryasya). I shall narrate 
the acquisition of nectar from the moon as well as the propi- 
tiation of the Pitrs; I shall mention the sight ofthe Pitrs viz. 
the Kavyas, the Agnisvattas and the Saumyas. I shall mention 
how Pururavas propitiated the Pitrs. I shall mention all these 
in due order as well as the Parvans. 

6. When the sun and the moon come into contact with 
the star, they stay in Amavasya (New Moon) for a night in 
the same zone. 

278 Brahmanda Parana 

7. Then during every new moon day, he (Pururavas) 
goes to see the sun-god and the moon-god, his natural and 
paternal grandfathers. 

8. After paying respects to them, he waits there biding 
his time. He waits for the exudations of nectar from the 
following moon, for the sake of the Pitrs. 

9. With a desire to perform the monthly Sraddha, Puru- 
ravas, the learned son of Ila, worships Soma (the Moon) 
Pitrman (one with the Pitrs), after resorting to the heaven. 

10-11. He considers both Kuhu (the New Moon merged 
with the 1st Tithi of the next fortnight) and SimvalT (New 
Moon mixed with the 14th Tithi). He worships Kuhti when 
there are two Lavas* of it as balance. He worships Sinlvall in 
accordance with the magnitude of the digit (of the moon). 
After worshipping it, he bides his time and surveys. 

12-14. He imbibes the nectar oozing out from the moon 
for the sake of satisfaction for the whole month, by means of 
fifteen exudations of the nectar. During the dark fortnight 
when his arms get burned by (the Sun's) rays** (he pacifies 
them) by means ofhoney exuding from the moon immedi- 
ately. During the fortnights when there are no winds***(?)the 
leading king propitiates the Pitrs in the heaven, in accordance 
with the injunction pertaining to the rite for Pitrs. 

15. He propitiates the Pitrs viz. Saumyas, Barhisads, 
Kavyas and Agnisvattas.' 

* Lava — a minute division of time ( = the sixtli part of twinkling of 
the eye). 

** Here Bd.P.V.13a reads: 

krsna-pakse bhajam prltya dahyamanarh tathamSubhih / 
Tliis is obscure (to say the least). For this line Va. P. 56. 12a reads: 

krsna-pakse tada pTtva dahyamanam tathamsubhih / 
'Then, in the dark halfof the month, having drunk (nectar) as it was 
being milked by the rays in that manner'. 

***Bd.P. 14. a reads nirvatesvatha paksesu 'In windless fortnights' is 
meaningless. Va. P. 56.13a reads instead: nirvapanartham dattena 'given as 
oblation to (for the propitiation of) Pitrs. 

1. In Satapatha Br. II 6. 1.7, those who performed a Soma sacrifice 
are Somavantah Pitarah (probably Saumyas here-of); those who offered cooked 
oblations like Cam were Barhisadah Pitarah; those who offered no sacrifice 279- 

Stam* (means) what is mentioned as Agni. It is con- 
sidered to be Samvatsara. 

16. The Stas (seasons) were born of it (i.e. Samvatsara 
— the year). The Artavas were born of the Rtus. The Artavas 
are what are called Ardhamdsas (half months or fortnights). 

(Hence) the Pitrs are the sons of Rtus. 

17. The Rtus are grand-fathers. The Mdsas (months) 
and Ayanas (transits of the sun) are the sons of A bda (year). 
The Devas are the great-grand-fathers; the (group of) five years 
are the sons ofBrahma. 

18. The Saumyas should be linown as born of the moon 
(Somaja). The Kavyas should be known as the sons of Kavi 
(Sulira). UpahiJtas are remembered as Devas. Somajas are 
remembered as Somapds (Imbibers of Soma) 

19. Ajyapds (Imbibers ofoblated ghee) are remembered 
as Kavyas. The classes of Pitrs are three. They are of three 
classes namely Kavyas, Barhisads and Agnisvattas. 

20-22. Those who are householders as well as Tajvds 
(performers of sacrifices) are certainly Rtus and Barhisads. Those 
who are householders but are not Tajvds (performers of sacri- 
fices) are the Artavas and Agnisvdttas. The Kavyas are Astaka- 
patis (lords of Astakas or the eighth day of the lunar 
fortnights for three months inwhich Pitrs are to be propitiated). 
Now understand the five Abdas thereof. 

Their Samvatsara is indeed Agni and Sflrya (the Sun) is 
Parivatsara. Soma (the Moon) is mentioned Idvatsara and Vayu 

but were consumed by fire in cremation after deatli were Agnisvattali Pitarah. 
Cf. Va. P. 30. 6-7. 

Later, during the Smrti period, the classes of Pitrs increased and had. 
different connotations. Thus here in VV. 18-23 Saumyas are sons of Soma 
and imbibers of Soma. Householders performing sacrifices are Rtus and 
Barhtsads.The non-performers of sacrifices are Artavas and Agnisvattas. It adds 
one more division viz. Kavyas, the sons of Kavi (Sukra?) who imbibe ghee vide 
W. 72-73 below. 

For more details of this classification vide infra II. iii 10 VV. 53, 75, 93 
and 96. 

* The reading rturagnis tu in Va P. 56. 14. a is preferable to rtatnagnis 
tu hereof, as rtu (seasons of the year) are considered as Pitr (vide Taittirlya 

280 Brahmanda Purina 

is Anuvatsara. Rudra is Vatsara unto them. Those five Abdas 
constitute a Yuga. 

23. Those (Pitrs) who imbibe the nectar in the heaven 
every month on the new moon day, are remembered as Kavyas 
TJsmapas and Divaklrtyas. 

24-25. As long as Pururavas was alive, he propitiated 
them with the nectar, since it exudes from the moon every 
month and it delights them, it is nectar unto the Somapayin 
Pitrs, (those who imbibe Soma — the moon). Thus it is called 
Saumya Amrta (nectar pertaining to the moon), Sudhd and 
Madhu (honey). 

26. Thirtythree Devas (who are called) Cchedanas* 
(Those who cut off ?) drink the fifteen digits of the moon 
gradually in the dark fortnight, (after turning them) into 
watery form. 

27-30. After drinking the nectar for halfa month, they 
go away on the CaturdasI (fourteenth) day. 

On being drunk thus by all the Devas" the moon reaches 
a point on the New Moon day when it remains with only a 
fifteenth part. On the New Moon day, it is developed by 
Susumna duly.' Then, for a period o^ two Lavas, the Pitrs drink 
the nectar. With a single ray (i.e. the Susumna) the sun deve- 
lops the moon when it becomes reduced on being drunk. Again 
the Somapdyins drink it. When all the digits are exhausted (the 
sun) develops the moon once again. 

31. Day by day, in due order, a part (a digit) of the 
moon is developed by the Susumna. The black digits become 
reduced and the white ones develop it. 

32. Thus the body of the moon developed by the vigour 
of the sun, appears sparkling, white and perfectly circular on 
the full Moon day. 

33. Thus, such is the achievement of the Moon during 
the two halves, the dark and the bright ones. It is in this 
manner that the Moon is Pitrman (one with the Manes). He 
is remembered as being Idvatsara. 

* Probably a misprint for Chanda-jah 'born ofChanaas, Veda or prosody'. 
Cf. Va. P. 56.25a. 

1. Vide Supra ch. XXIV, W. 67-68. 281 

34. He is shining and resplendent witli iiis fifteen exuda- 
tions ofnectar. 

Henceforth, I shall recount the Parvans (days of changes 
ofthe moon) and the Sandhis (meeting points) of Parvans. 

35. Just as there are knotty joints in the Sugarcane and 
bamboo, so also there are dark and bright Parvans in the lunar 

36. The differences between the full Moon and the New 
Moon are the knots and joints. The lunar days beginning with 
Dvitiyd constituting the fortnight are the Parvans. 

37. It is on the first of the fortnights that the rite of 
Anvddhdna is performed. Hence, the Pratipat is at the beginning 

(the first) of all Parvans. 

38. The period of two Lavas in the evening at the begin- 
ning of Anumati (the 15th day — the Purnima mixed with the 

14th Tithi) is called Dvilava. When the Purnima is mixed 
with the Pratipad— the next Tithi, the period of two Lavas on 
that Full moon night* should be known as Apardhna. 

39. The period of evening after Aparahna that has elapsed 
on the first day of the dark half, is also accepted as part of 
PaurnamasI (Full Moon?) 

40-41. When the sun is stationed at a deviation of half 
meridian (?) line, at a distance ofaYuga (Yoke) and when 
the meridian ofthe moon has risen by the distance of a Yoke 
(Yuga) that period is called Vyatlpata. This is because (the 
sun and the moon) glance at each other after the elapse ofthe 
full Moon (period) and at that time they are on a par with 
each other.' 

42. On seeing that period indicated by the sun, (the 
worshipper) moves towards enumeration (?) That is the period 
for Vasatkriya. The period is laid down immediately. 

43-44. The junction at night in the full fortnight ofthe 
full moon is Silso Pdrnimd (full Moon). Hence, during the night 

* rdkaydh (of theRaka) of Va. P. 56. 35 for rdkdydm here-of is preferable. 

1. The text is a bit obscure but Suryasiddhdnta XI. 1-2 defines VyatTpata 
more clearly: "When the moon and the sun are on opposite sides of either 
solstice and their minutes of declination are the same, it is VyatTpata, The 
sum of their longitudes is half a circle i.e. 180°. Normally there are 13 vyatT- 
pdtas in a year. 

282 Brahmanda Parana 

of full Moon, the moon becomes very reddish or (pleasing (?) 

Since during the after-noon when the Vyatipdta is full, the 
moon and the sun in full-fledged form glance at each other, it 
is called Piirnima. 

45. Since the Pitrs along with the Devas approve -of it, 
the period previous (?) to the Ptirnima (i.e. the 14th Tithi 
with which it is mixed) is remembered as Anumati. 

46. The full Moon day is called Rdkd because at that 
time the moon shines very splendidly in the sky. Wise people 
say that it is Rdkd because of the delightful nature (Raiijandt) 
ofthe Moon. 

47. When the moon and the sun stay in the same star 
together ('ama— close to, near by) on the fifteenth night from 
Rdkd (the full moon day) it is regarded as Amavasya. 

48. After ending or separating (?) that Amavasya day, 
the sun and the moon see each other after coming together. 
When this happens it is called Darsa (the New Moon day). 

49. (Defective Text upon 59). 

On the Amdvdsyd (New Moon) day the period is of two 
Lavas in the junction ofthe 15th and the 1st dayofa lunar 
fortnight. It is ofthe duration (of pronouncing) two letters 
Ku-hu. There are three periodic changes ofthe moon.* 

50. The period when the moon vanishes is Amavasya 
and it functions from the midday. The moon reaches the sun 
in half a day and the night. 

51-52.** Along with the sun it goes to the Samudra 
period which is in between .SThAh and sinivdii in the morning. 
The periods of contact are two. Invariably it occurs a 
Midday (?). 

53. On the Pratipat day of the bright half, when the 
discs ofthe sun and the moon are being separated, it is the time 
for Ahuti (oblating of ghee into fire) and the Vasajkriyd of 

* amavasya which mixed with the pratipad of th^ next fortnight is called 

** The text is defective and ohscure, sahgama in V.51b is probably 
Sangava. 'the second division ofthe day'. Va.P.46b (iftalien for 51a hereof) 
reads suryena sahasa muktarh gatvi Pratastanotsavau. 283 

Darsa (the New Moon). Amavasya should be known as the 
Rtumukha (the face of the season) of this Parvan. 

54. When the moon wastes away during the dark half, 

Amavasya is a Parvan by day time. That is why the jun is '* 

ecUrjsed £Grhyate—is_ caught) during the day time on the 
Amavasya day. 

55-56. It is eclipsed during the day. Therefore, Amavasya 
becomes reduced by day (?). The names of the days 
of the lunar fortnight have been fixed by the scholars in 
accordance with the increase of the digits of the Moon of 
watery nature. Then both the moon and the sun reveal them- 

57. By that path alone it (? the moojn) comes out of 
the solar sphere gradually. The moon touches (remains in 
contact with) the sun for the whole of the day and night except 
for a period of iwo'Lavas. 

58. That period of Darsa is the time for Ahuti and 
FaiaffcWja offering of oblation with the utterence vasat. The 

period comes to an end (within which) the cry Ku-hu is uttered 
by a cuckoo. 

59. Amavasya measured by that time is declared as 
Ku-hu. The magnitude of Sinlvall is that period of the moon 
which remains after the moon has decreased in size. 

60-61. The sun enters the Amavasya. Therefore, it is 
remembered as Sinivdli. The period for these except Ku hu is 
a period of two Lavas for Anumati, Raka and SinivSli. Ku-hu is 
remembered as having (only the time necessary for the cuckoo 
to utter) Ku-hu. 

62. When, in the middle of Ptirnima the VyatTpata 
(deviation) of the moon and the sun has come together, it is 
accepted as Pratipat. It is a period of Parvan extending to the 
Mdtrds. That is also the period in the middle of Ku-hu and 
Sinivdli which is called Sdmudra (spot or mark) (?). 

63-67. (Partly defective text). The period of Parvan in 
the sphere of the sun and the fire and the moon is on a par 
with the digits (Kaldsama* (?) when the digits are equal). 

* Kalairayah 'dependent on Kalas' in Va P. 56.58. 

284 Brahmanda Pur ana 

Thus in the bright half, during the night, at the joints of 
the parvans the glorious moon in a perfect circle is eclipsed. 
Since the moon is replenished, the Ptirnima is on the fifteenth 
digits added on gradually day by day. Hence, fifteen digits 
(are acquired) by the moon and the sixteenth digit is its 

Hence, the (complete) wastage of the waters (?) ofthe 
moon takes place on the fifteenth night. 

Thus, there are the pitrs, Devas, Somapas, Somavard- 
hanas, Artavas and Rtus. The flourishing and prosperous Devas 
worship them. 

Henceforth, I shall describe the Pitrs who are the par- 
takers ofthe monthly Sraddhas. 

68-70. (I shall also describe) their movement and the 
acquisition ofthe Sraddha along with its principles. 

H is, not possible to understand the movement, to and 
fro, ofthe dead persons even by means of well-known austeri- 
ties. How then can it be understood by means of the 
physical eye ? 

These Laukika (worldly) Pitrs are remembered after the 
Devapitrs (divine Manes). 

The Devas are Saumyas, Kavyas, Ayajvans and Ayonijas.' 
All those Pitrs are Devas. The real Devas make them speak. 

71. The human Pitrs are those other than they and they 
are remembered as Laukikas namely father, grandfather and 
the great-grandfather 

72. Those who perform Yajnas by means of Saman 
Mantras are remembered as Somavants. Those who perform 
Haviryajiias are remembered as Barhisads. 

73. The Homins (those who perform hotnas) who per- 
form Yajfias on behalf of 4v«/>'«* (those unworthy of Yajfias) 
are remembered as Agnisvdttas. The S&yujyagas (those who 
attain the salvation of complete identity) are also remembered 
among them by the Brahmanas on account ofthe similarity in 
Dhartnas (holy rites). 

1. As per Va. P. 56-64, these classes of Pitrs are not born from a womb 

(ayonija) 285 

74. Those who are well-versed in the paths of the holy 
duties pertaining to their Asramas (stages in life) and are en- 
dowed with faith in rituals do not become weary and exhausted, 
in the end (i.e. at the times ofdeath). 

75-78. If the devotees are engaged in these holy rites 
till their death in seven ways viz. penance, celibacy, Yajfia, 
progeny Sraddha, learning and charitable gifts, they go to 
heaven and rejoice there along with those Devas, Pitrs, Stik- 
smajas (subtle-borns) and Somaydjins (those who perform 
Soma sacrifices). They perform worships like the Pitrs. If 
water libation is offered by the members of their families 
and their kinsmen, (the Pitrs known as) Somalaukikas 
partake of monthly Sraddhas and become contented. These 
(Pitrs) who partake of monthly Sraddhas are Manusyapitrs 
(Human Manes). 

79-86. There are some Pitrs other than these. They are 
entangled in births due to their Karmans. They only have 
dropped off from the duties of the Asramas; those who are 
devoid of Svadha and Svaha; wicked souls with bodies pierced; 
those who have become ghosts in the abode of Yama; those 
who bewail their evil actions after reaching the place of 
torture; long-lived ones; extremely dried ones; those with 
moustaches; those without garments; those who are over- 
whelmed with hunger and thirst; those who run about here 
and there; those who wish to approach rivers, lakes, tanks 
and wells; those who are desirous of taking away others' food- 
stuffs; those who are being taken away to different places; those 

who are being made to fall in different places; those who un- 
dergo tortures again and again in the following hells viz. Sdimala, 

Vaitarani, Kumbhl-pdka, Karambhavdlukd, Asipatra-vana and Sild- 
Sampesana due to their own previous actions. These miserable 
Pitrs remaining there do not perish. If three Pindas (Balls of 
rice) are given to them on Darbha grasses not by the left (i.e. 
by the right) by their kinsmen on the ground by reciting their 
names and Gotras (lineage) they delight those Pitrs who are 
stationed in the places of ghosts. 

87. Those who do not reach the place of torture, those 
who fall and drop down in five ways attain the state of 

286 Brahmanda Pur ana 

immobile beings. At the end of tliat tliey are born in low 
families on account oftheir own actions. 

88-91. They are born in wombs of different forms in 
the animal kingdom or they are born in a manner unapproved 
in religious texts. If they offer Sraddha in the different Births 
by means of those articles of diet which they themselves subsist 
by, that Sraddha becomes fruitful. Wherever the creature lives, 
it acquires food in accordance with what had been offered (as 
Sraddha previously) at the proper time, duly to deserving 

Just as the calf finds out its mother-cow even when the 
cows are lost (i.e. when many cows are tethered together) so 
also the Mantra takes to the Pitrs the food-stuff offered in the 

It is in this manner that Sraddha duly and faithfully 
offered by means of Mantras is not fruitless. 

92. Kumara (god Skanda) recounted these different 
things after seeing them with his divine eyes. He is conversant 
with the departures and arrivals of the dead ones as well as 
the acquisition of Sraddha by them. 

93. They are remembered as Bahllkas, Usmapas and 
Divakirtyas. The dark fortnight is their day and the bright 
fortnight is the night for their sleep. 

94. Thus these Pitrs are Devas and the Devas are the 
Pitrs. The Rtus (seasons), Artavas and Ardhamasas (half 
months) are remembered as Pitrs mutually. 

95. Thus these Pitrs, Devas and human Pitrs become 
pleased when the holy rites are accompanied by faith. When 
they are pleased the descendants also are pleased. 

96. Thus this search for and investigation into the nature 
of the Pitrs who imbibe Soma (has been completed). It is this 
principle oftne Pitrs that has been decisively recounted in the 

97-100. The period of the Full Moon and the New 
Moon and the place of torture have been succinctly recounted 
to you. This is the eternal creation. 

1. W. 88-91 justify the performance of Sraddhas. 287 

The Universal form of creation has been mentioned 
only partially. It is impossible to enumerate in full. It should 
be trusted faithfully by one wno wishes for prosperity. 

Indeed, this creation of Svayambhuva Manu has been 
begun by me and narrated in detail and in accordance with 
the sequence. 

What more shall I describe to you ? 

Cycle of Yugas : Characteristics of Yugas 

The sage said: — 

1. I wish to hear about the nature and principle (or 
reality) of those sets of four Yugas, which were before in the 
Svayambhuva Manvantara. 

SUta said: — 

2. What I have already described in the context of 
(the description of) the Earth etc, the set of four Yugas is 
among them. I shall recount it. .(All of you listen and) under- 

3-4. There are six aspects to be mentioned in regard 
to the set of four Yugas. viz. Yuga, the difference of Yugas, 

1. Though this Purana fallowed the vedic tradition and regarded a 
Yuga-period as consisting of five years (vide Supra eh. 21.131-132 and Note 
thereon), here the author follows Manu 1.61-74, 79-86. According to 
him the 1st Yuga, Krta extends over 4000 years of gods with a twilight 
period {sandhya) of400 Divine (ofgod's) years before its actual advent and a 
transitional period to the next Yuga (Sandhyamsa) of 400 celestial years. 
The three other Yugas viz Treta, Dvapara and Kali consist respectively of a 
period of 3000, 2000 and 1000 divine years preceded by and followed by 
Sandhya and Sandhydrhsa each extending over a period of 300, 200 and 100 
gods' years. This theory is adopted by Puranas e.g. KP. 1. chs 51 and 53, NP. 
I. ch. 41, Mbh. Vanachs 149, 188, VP. I. 3, Va. P. chs 21, 22, 57, 58. 

288 Brahmanda Pur ana 

Yugadharma (peculiar characteristics of the Yuga), Yuga-Sandhi, 
(the junction ofYugas ), Yugdmsaka (the part of the Yuga) 
and the Tugasandhdna (joints of two Yugas). I shall narrate 
these factually in details. I shall enumerate every thing and I 
shall indicate the exact number (where necessary). 

5. After calculating the human year by means of 
worldly reckoning, I shall mention the set of four Yugas cal- 
culating the same by means of human years. 

The smallest unit of times is equal to the time taken for 
a winking.' The time for the utterance of a short syllable should 
also be understood the same. 

6. Fifteen Nimesas make one Kdsfkd. Thirty Kdsflids 
make a Kald. Thirty Kalds shall be a Muhurta. The day and 
the night together consist of thirty Muhurtas and they are equal 
to each other. 

7-8a. It is the sun who divides the human and worldly 
day and night. There, the day is meant for holy rites and other 
activities and the night is intended for sleep. 

8b-9. A night and a day of the Pitrs make a (human) 
month. Their further division is as follows: The dark fortnight 
is their day and the bright fortnight is their night fot the pur- 
pose of sleep. Thirty human months make one month of Pitrs. 

10. Three hundred and sixty human months "make one 
year ofthe Pitrs. 

1. W. 5-21 give the divisions ofTinie adopted in calculating Yugas. 
Tlie smallest unit of time is tlie period required for winking ofthe eye and is 
called Nimesa: 

15 Nimesas = Kas{ha; 30 Kasthas = K.ala 

30 Kalas = Muhurta ; 30 Muhurtas = Day and night 

30 days=A Month; = One day (and night) of Pitrs 

30 Human months = l Month of Pitrs 

360 Human months= 1 Year of Pitrs 

Human Uttarayana (6 months)=Day ofthe Devas 

Human Daksinayana (6 months) = Night of Devas 

1 Human year= a complete Day (day and night) of Devas 

30 Human years = a month of Devas 

360 Human years = One year of Devas 

3030 Human years = l Saptarsi year 

9090 Human years= 1 Dhruva year 

360,000 Human years= 1000 Years of gods. 289 

ll-12a. A hundred years according to human calcu- 
lation are considered to be equal to three years and ten months 
ofthe Pitrs. 

12b-13. What is remembered as one human year accord- 
ing to worldly calculation is one day and night of the Devas. 
It has been so decided in the scriptural texts. The divine day 
and night make one year. Their further division is as follows: 

14. The northern transit (of the Sun) is the day and 
the southern transit is the night (of Devas). The further cal- 
culation in regard to the divine night and day is as follows: 

15-16. Thirty human years are remembered as a divine 
month. A hundred human years should be understood to be 
equal to three divme months and ten divine days. This is 
remembered as the divine reclioning. Three hundred and sixty 
years according to human reclioning are glorified as one divine 

17. A year ofthe seven sages (Great Bear) is consi- 
dered to be equal to three thousand and thirty human years. 

18. The year ofDhruvais remembered as equal to nine 
thousand and ninety years according to human calculation. 

19. Thirty six thousand years according to the human 
reckoning should be known as equal to a hundred years. This 
is remembered as divine reckoning. 

20-21. Three hundred and sixty thousand human years 
constitute a thousand divine years— so say the people who are 
conversant with numbers and calculation. 

22. It is thus that the sages sang about the divine cal- 
culation. Now (I shall narrate) the reckoning ofthe number of 
Yugas according to the divine calculation. 

23. Wise persons and sages have said that there are four 
Yugas in Bharata subcontinent.' They are Krta, Treta, 
Dvapara and Kali. 

24. The first one is Krtayuga by name. Thereafter, 
Treta is mentioned. Then Dvapara and Kali. One shall 
reckon these as the Yugas. 

1. It is strange that Yugas should he restricted to India (Bharata) 

290 Brahmanda Purana 

25-28. They say that Krta Yuga consists of four thousand 

years. The Sandhyd (junction or transition period) consists of so 

many (i.e. four) hundred years. The part of the junction 

(with the next Yuga or Sandhyarhsa) is equal to the Sandhyd 


In the other three Yugas also along with their Sandhyds 
and SandhydmSas the thousands and the hundreds function under 
the same principle. 

The extent of Treta and Dvapara is three thousand 
and two thousand years in due order. Three hundred and 
two hundred years constitute the Sandhyds and the Sandhydma- 
sas are also equal to them. Excellent Brahmanas say that Kali 
Yuga consists of a thousand years. Its Sandhyd is one hundred 
years and Sandhydmsa is equal to Sandhyd. 

29. Yugasahkhyd (the total number of years in all the 
four Yugas together) is mentioned as twelve thousand (divine) 
years for the four yugas viz. Krta, Treta, Dvapara and Kali. 

30. In this connection the years are found to be as 
follows in accordance with the human calculation:' I shall 
mention the number ofyears in the Krta Yuga. Understand it. 

31. The Krta Yuga consists ofone million four hundred 
and forty thousand human years. 

32. The duration of the Treta Yuga is one million and 
eighty thousand human years. 

33. The duration of the Dvapara Yuga is seven hundred 
and twenty thousand human years. 

34. Similarly, the duration of the Kali Yuga is three 
hundred and sixty thousand human years. 

1. According to this Purana tlie period ofYugas is as follows: 
Yuga Tears 

Krta 1440,000 

Treta 1080,000 

Dvapara 720,000 

Kali 360,000 

Total afiODOtpOaO Years 

with Sandhyd and Sandhydmsas 4320,000 years. 291 

35-36. (Partially defective text). 

Excluding the periods of Sandhayds and Sandhydrns'as the 
duration of the fourYugas is three million six hundred thousand 
human years. 

Including the Sandhyds and the Sandhydrhsas the duration 
of the four Yugas is four million three hundred and twenty 
thousand years according to human reckoning. 

37. Thus the sets of four Yugas numbering seventyone 
are called Manvantara. 

38-40. Understand the number of years in the Man- 
vantara. There are three hundred and six million seven hundred 
and twenty thousand years according to human reckoning in 
a Manvantara. It is not more. This reckoning of Manvantara 
is remembered by Brahmanas conversant with calculation. 
Thus the duration of a Manvantara has been recounted along 
with the Yugas. 

41. The natural* (?) Krta Yuga is endowed with four 
thousand years (?). I shall mention the balance of Treta as well 
as Dvapara and Kali. 

42. No matter can be mentioned in two ways simulta- 
neously (?) Though it has come traditionally in due order, 
these two Yugas have not been recounted to you before. 

43-46. It was not recounted because I was too much 
engrossed in the description of the line of sages. 

In the beginning of the Treta Yuga,' Manu and the seven 
sages expounded the various Dharmas. 

The seven sages expounded the following holy rites viz. 
Srauta Dharma(the holy rites mentioned in Srutis)recommend- 
ed by Brahma, such as concerning taking a wife and perform- 
ing Agnihotra. They expounded matter mentioned in Rksamhita, 

* Probably Prathamam 'The first' as in Va.P. 58.38. 
1. W. 43-92 describe tlie Tuga-dharma. of the Treta Yuga: 
Yedic Mantras and Siddhis of the previous Kalpa which were 'lost' at 
the end of that Kalpa manifested themselves to sages. The Veaas formed only 
one undivided Samhita. God Brahma (re-) established the duties of various 
castes and stages in life (Varnasrama-dharma). The institution of kingship 
was firmly rooted. It was a covetable picture of a happy, society. Cf Mt. P. 
-Ch. 142. 

292 Brahmanda Parana 

Yajussairihita and Samasamhita. These are the holy rites 
characterised as Srauta Dharma. 

Svayambhuva Manu expounded the traditional holy rites 
characterised by customs and conventions. These rites are 
connected with the conduct of life of the people of different 
castes and stages of life. He expounded them along with truth- 
fulness, celibacy, learning and austerities. 

47-48. In the first Treta Yuga, those. Mantras alongwith 
Tdraka (i.e. Orhkdra) and other examples manifested themselves 
without any conscious effort or previous knowledge, unto the 
seven sages and Manu. That is because of the penance per- 
formed by them and their saintly endeavour. 

49-50. Those Siddhis (spiritual powers and achievements) 
which appeared before the Devas in the first Kalpa, of their 
own accord (appeared before these also i.e. seven sages and 
Manu). When the original Siddhis ceased to exist, others began 
to function. Thousands ofthose Mantras which existed in the 
Kalpas gone by manifested themselves in their intellect once 

51. The Rk, Yajus, Saman and Atharvan Mantras were 
uttered by the seven sages and Manu expounded the Smarta 
Dharma (Dharma as laid down in Smrtis). 

52. In the beginning of Treta, the undivided compact 
Vedas alone were the bridges (i.e. the sole authority) unto 
Dharma. But owing to the contraction in the period of longe- 
vity they are abandoned in she Dvaparas. 

53. It is by means of their penance that the sages study 
the Vedas during Dvapara, etc. The Vedas are devoid of beginn 
ing and end. They are divine. They have been evolved by the 
selfborn lord before. 

54. Though they are the same in meaning, righteousness, 
holy rites and ancillary subjects, they undergo changes in every 

55.. The Ksatriyas have Arambhas (enterprises) as their 
Yajna (sacrifice); the Vaisyas have Havis (offerings of ghee 
etc.) for Yajna; the Sudras have service for Yajna and excel- 
lent Brahmanas have Japa (chanting of Mantras) for Yajna. 

56. Then, in the Treta Yuga, people of all castes were 293 

joyous (because) they were well-protected by Dharma. They 
regularly performed holy rites, and were happy and prosperous. 

57. Ksatriyas obeyed trie Brahmanas. The Vaisyas obeyed 
the Ksatriyas. The Siidras obeyed the Vaisyas. The'people co- 
operated with one another. 

58. Their activities were auspicious; so also were their 
castes and stages of life. They were pure in the thoughts of 
the mind, in the utterance of words and in their physical 

59-60. In the Treta Yuga, the initiation of all activities 
was never fruitless. It became fulfilled. In the Treta Yuga, 
span of life, intelligence, strength, beauty, health and 
piety were common to all. At that time, Brahma established 
different castes and stages in life. 

61. Again, the subjects out of delusion kept up those 
Dharmas(but) with mutual antagonism. They then approached 

62. Svayambhuva Manu, the Prajapati (lord of the 
subjects) saw the reality of situation. After meditation, he 
begot two sons ofSatarijpa. 

63. They were Priyavrata and Uttanapada. They were 
the first kings. Thereafter, kings were born. They wielded the 
staff of Law and Order. 

64. Those kings were called _ff«/fl«s because they delighted 
and pacified the subjects. Those with hidden sins could not be 
controlled by those kings. 

65. Yama, king of Dharma and son of the Sun-god is 
remembered as their chastiser. The classifications of castes are 
said to have been begun in the Treta. 

66. It was then that Mantras were gathered together 
by the sages who were the sons of Brahma. It was only then 
that the Yajnas were initiated by the gods. 

67-68. In the Svayambhuva Manvantara, the Yajiia was 
formerly initiated by the Devas by means of all requisites, 
gathered by Yama and Sukra along with Visvabhuj and Deven- 
dra of great prowess. Truthfulness, chanting of Mantras, 
penance and charity constitute Dharma in the Treta. 

294 Brahmanda Parana 

' 69. At the end of a thousand Righteous activities, the 
Dharma of nonviolence begins to function. It is then that 
heroes are born with great strength and span oflife. 

70. They had renounced punishments. They were ex- 
tremely fortunate and highly righteous. They were expounders 
of Brahman. Their eyes were extensive like the petals of 
a lotus. They had broad, wide chests and their limbs were 
well-knit together. 

71. The sovereigns of the world in the Treta Yuga were 
capable of agonizing even lions; they were extremely vigorous. 
Their mode of walking was like that of intoxicated elephants. 
They were great wielders of bow (great experts in archery). 

72-73. They were fully equipped with all good charac- 
teristics. They were Nyiigrodhaparimandalas. The word. A^ag- 
rodha denotes the two arms. Hence, Nyagrodha means Vydma 
(Extended arms). He whose height extends as much as a 
Vyama, he whose girth and height are equal, should be known 
as Nyagrodhaparimandala (a well-built man). 

74. The following seven things viz. a discus, a chariot, 
a jewel, a spouse, a treasure, a horse and an elephant — these 
are considered to be the seven jewels of emperors.' 

75. They say that the following seven are the inanimate 
jewels of the sovereign over the world, viz. a discus, a chariot, 

ajewel, a sword. The excellent shield is the fifth, the flag and 
the treasure. 

76. (The seven jewels of an Emperor) having life are 
mentioned as follows : The Queen, the family priest, the com- 
mander-in-chief, the chariot-maker, the minister, the horse and 
the elephant. 

77. These jewels are divine ones. They have been 
(naturally) acquired by the noble-souled ones. These fourteen 
(jewels) should be assigned to all Emperors. 

1. W. 74-77 describe two lists of seven 'jewels' of an emperor (Cakra- 
vartin). Here 14 jewels are mentioned. A similar list of royal jewels is found 
in Pali literature. The representation of the 2nd cent B.C. of a Cakravartin 
at Jagayyapetta shows these 'jewels' and one more feature — at the touch of 
Cakravarti's hand above (towards the sky) it shows gold coins. 295 

78. In all the Manvantaras of the past and future, 
emperors are born on the Earth from a part ofVisnu. 

79. .Emperors are. born in the Treta Yugaofallthe 
Manvantaras of the past, present and future. 

80. The following four shall be very wonderful and 
excellent in regard to those kings :— viz. strength (or army), 
Dharma (virtue, piety), happiness and wealth. 

81. Wealth, dharma, love, fame and victory are acquired 
by the kings on a par with one another and without coming 
into conflict. 

82. They over-power even the sages by means of 
Anima (minuteness) and other Aisvaryas, the powerof lordship'' 
learning and penance. 

83. (They overpower) Devas, Danavas and human 
beings by means of strength and austerity. 

They are also born with superhuman characteristic 
features present in their own bodies. 

84-86. The hairs are soft and glossy; the foreheads are 
high; the tongue is one that wipes off clean. The lips and eyes 
have the lustre of copper; (their chests) are marked with. 
Srivatsa scar; the hairs are lifted up. 

The arms extend as far as the knees; the hands are copper- 
coloured. They are slim in the hips; their girth is as much as 
the extended arms. They have the shoulders of the lion and 
they urinate like lions. 

Their gait is like that oflordly elephants; they have large 
chin-bones; they have the lines of wheel and fish on the soles 
of the feet and those of conch and lotus in the palms. 

87-89. The kings are eightyfive thousand in number 
and they shine without ageing. 

The movements ofthe sovereigns in four viz. the sky, the 
sea, the subterraneous regions and in mountainous region, are 

Sacrifice, charity, penance and truthfulness are men- 
tioned as the Dharmas specially significant in the Treta. 

At that time Dharma (Righteousness) begins to function 
with the classification of castes and stages of life. Dandaniti 
(Polity, administration of law and order) functions for the 
establishment of the bounds of decency. 

296 Brahmanda Parana 

90-92. All the subjects are delighted and well built. They 
are free from ailments. Their minds are full (i.e they are 

It is remembered that there was only one Veda with four 
feet (parts) in the Treta Yuga. At that time men lived upto 
three thousand years, endowed with sons and grandsons. They 
used to die in due order. This is the characteristic feature of 
Treta Yuga. Understand the Treta Sandhya (the transition 
from Treta Yuga or junction). The characteristic features are 
reduced by one-fourth in the Sandhya from the main Yuga and 
still further reduced by one-fourth in the Sadhydmsa from the 


Uie Inauguration of the Sacrificial Cult 
Fall of King Vasu for Denunciation of Sacrifices 

Sdmsapdyani said : — 

1. How could Yajfia begin to function formerly in the 
Svayambhuva Manvantara, at the beginning of the Treta Yuga. 
Narrate it factually to me. 

2-4. When the Sandhya (the period between two Yugas) 
elapsed along with the Krta Yuga, when (the time unit) called 
Kala [kala] began to function at the advent of Treta Yuga, 
when the creation of rain had taken place and (the plants and) 
the medicinal herbs had grown, when the practice of culti- 
vation and agriculture had been fully established, when the 
people devoted to the stage of life ofa householder established 
the classification of castes and stages of life with keen insight, 
then how was Yajiia initiated after gathering together all the 
requisites ?" 

•This Chapter corresponds to Ch.5B.76 ff. of VS. P. 297 

5. On hearing this Suta said : — 

Let this be heard, O Sarhsapayani, how in the beginning 
of Treta Yuga, Yajiia started functioning. 

6-9. I shall recount in the proper order (how Yajiia 
began) formerly in the Svayambhuva Manvantara. 

When the Sandhyd the transitional-period (or junction) 
elapsed along with Krta Yuga, when the period called Kala 
began to function at the advent of Treta Yuga, when the crea- 
tion ofrain had talien place and (the plants and) the medicinal 
herbs had grown, when the practice of cultivation and agricul- 
ture had been fully established, when the people became 
devoted to the life of householders and after establishing the 
classification of the castes and stages of life, they arranged the 
mantras into a well-lcnit compendium, they included those 
Mantras in holy rites (for the sake of welfare) here and here- 
after. At that time lord Indra (the enjoyerofthe universe) 
initiated the Yajiia. 

10. (They started the Yajiia) alongwith all the gods 
and with all the requisites gathered together. The great sages 
came to his horse-sacrifice which was being lavishly 

11-16. All those who had come asked him even as 
he was performing the Yajiia with the animals worthy of being 

When the Rtviks (sacrificial priests) were busy with 
their ritualistic fire-worship as the activities concerning the per- 
formance ofYajfia; when the priests (authorised in) singing the 
Saman Mantras had begun their sweet notes; when the leading 
Adhvaryus (sacrificial priests) had quickly started their pro- 
ceedings ; when all the flocks of the animals (procured for and) 
worthy ofbeing sacrificed had been cut and struck, when the 
Havis offerings were being poured into the fire by Brahmanas 
performing Agnihotra; when all the Devas the partakers of the 
Yajfia, had been invoked in the due order — those Devas who 
are of the nature of /«dri_ya (the presiding deities of sense-organs) 
were the partakers of Yajiia — they worshipped those Devas who 
existed at the beginning of the Kalpa — the great sages, the 
Adhvaryus, rose up at the time of squeezing and crushing (of 

298 Brahmanda Purana 

the Somajuice). On seeing the miserable flocks ofanimals, the 
great sages collectively asked Indra-^' "What is the procedure 
ofyour Yajiia P' 

17. This is highly unrighteous and sinful. It (this sacri- 
fice) has been spread (performed) with a desire for rites involv- 
ing violence to life). In your Yajiia, O excellent god, the 
killing of animals is involved. 

18. An evil thing has been started for the destruction of 
Dharma on account of this injury to the animals. This is not 

.Dharma; it is Adharma (sin). Violence is not called as Dharma 

19. If your honour wishes to perform the Yajiia in 
accordance with the scriptures, perform the Yajiia by means 
of Dharma that does not infringe established institutions. Per- 
form the Yajiia according to the. injunctions laid down (in 

20-21. O excellent god ! (sacrifice should be performed) 
with sacrificial seeds which are kept for a maximum period of 
three years and which do not put forth sprouts. In them (such 
seeds described above) no violence (to life) exists (is involved). 
O highly intelligent one, this is the Dharma laid down former- 
ly by Brahma". 

Thus Indra, the enjoyer ofthe Universe, (was asked) by 
the sages who perceived reality. 

22. Then a great argument took place between Indra 
and the great sages — " By what means should the Yajiia be 
performed — by mobile (living) beings or immobile articles ?" 

23. . After stating the principle the great sages became 
dejected on account of the argument. After coming to terms 
with Indra, they asked Vasu who was moving abouf in the 

24. "O king of great intellect, how (what) is the proce- 
dure for Yajiia found out by you. O lord, son of Uttanapada, 
explain and dispel our doubts". 

25. On hearing their words, Vasu, without considering 
the pros and cons recollected the Vedas and Scriptural texts. 

1. W. 16-21 record the Brahmanical protest against animal-sacri- 
fices. Tliey state tliat tlie seeds wliicli are 3 years old and incapable of 
germination should be used instead of animals in sacrifice. 299 

He then explained the principle of Yajiia. 

26. "Sacrifice should be performed with whatever is 
duly brought" said the king. 'Sacrifice should be performed by 
means of animals worthy of being sacrificed or by means of 
seeds and fruits. 

27-29. Violence is but natural to a sacrifice — such is my 
(opinion) as well as what is mentioned in philosophical texts 
and scriptures. Just as the Devatas, so also the Mantras, are 
symbols ofviolence. This is said by great sages endowed with 
austerities over a longperiod, through their philosophical texts 
and Taraka and other (Mantras). This has been said on the 
basis of their authority. Hence, it behoves you all to achieve it 
provided those Mantras and statements are considered authori- 
tative by you, O Brahmanas, so, let the Yajiia be continued 
and allowed to function. Otherwise, your words will be other- 
wise (false)". 

30. Afterbeing answered to in this manner, those saints 
with souls united with Brahman of unified souls, realized the 
inevitability and hence restrained their speech. 

31. Immediately after saying this, the king entered 
Rasatala (nether worlds). Afterbeing a traverser of the upper 
regions Vasu (now) came to be a traverser ofthe nether- 

32. By means of that statement he had been a resident 
of the (nether) surface ofthe world. King Vasu who tried 
to dispel doubts in regard to Dharma, wentdown. 

33. Hence, even though one may be conversant with 
many things, one should not express anything by way of clari- 
fication ofdoubts when alone and single-handed. Dharma has 
many an opening. Its way is subtle and it goes a long way. 

34. Hence, nothing definite can be stated by anyone in 
the matter ofDharma including the Devas and the sages but 
excepting Svayambhuva Manu. 

35. Hence, nonviolence has been declared by great sages 

1. The fall of king Vasu for supporting animal sacrifices showed how 
that institution of animal sacrifice became condemned at the time of this 

300 Brahmanda Puarna 

as the gateway to Dharma.' Thousands and millions of sages 
have gone to heaven by means of their own austerities. 

36-38. Therefore, the great sages do not praise either 
charity or Yajna. By giving roots and fruits or greens and 
vegetables gleaned by them or waterpot in accordance with 
their capacity, many ascetics have become well-established in 
the heavenly world. 

Non-harassment, absence of greed, penance, mercy to the 
living beings, control of sense-organs, celibacy, truthfulness, 
tenderness, forgiveness, fortitude — these are the roots of the 
eternal Dharma, but they are very difficult to achieve. 

39-41. It is heard (traditionally) that many sinless 
Brahmanas, Ksatriyasand others have achieved spiritual power 
by means of penance. They are Priyavrata, Uttanapada, 
Dhruva, Medhatithi, Vasu, Sudhaman, Virajas, Sarikha, 
Pandyaja, Pracinabarhis, Parjanya, Havirdhana and other 
kings. These and many others have gone to heaven by means 
of their jausterities. They are saintly kings of great inherent 
strength whose reputation has been firmly established. 

42. Hence, by all reasons, penance is superior to Yajfia. 
It is due to his penance that this whole universe had been 
formerly created by Brahma. 

43. Hence, Yajiia does not follow it (penance) anywhere. 
This (world) is regarded as based on penance. 

Articles (of sacrifice) and Mantras are the bases of 
Yajiia. Penance is of the nature of non-intake of food. 

44. One attains the Devas by means of Yajiia and 
Vairaja by means of penance. Brahminical holy rites (are 
achieved) by means of renunciation and the victory over 
Prakrti through Vairagya (absence ofpassionate attachment). 

45-48. One attains Aaivafya (salvation) through know- 
ledge. These are declared as five goals. 

Thus great argument took place between the Devas and 
the sages in connection with the functioning of the Yajiia for- 
merly during Svayambhuva Manvantara. 

Thereafter, on seeing him (Vasu ?) struck down by means 
ofthe power of Dharma, all of them ignored the words ofVasu 

1. W. 35-48 establish the superiority ofjiiana marga over Karma- 
marga, including animal sacrifices. 301 

and went away as they came. When the groups of sages 
departed, the Devas concluded the Yajna. It was thus that 
Yajfia was initiated in the Svayambhuva Manvantara. There- 
after, this Yajfia has been modified along with the Yugas. 


Narration of the Four Yugas : 
Castes and Stages of Life 

SUta said : — 

1. Henceforth, 1 shall recount the position of the Dva- 
para Age once again'. When Treta Yuga passes by, Dvapara 
Sets in. 

2. The Siddhi that the subjects had in the Treta Yuga 
becomes defunct along with the subjects, when Treta Yuga 
elapses at the beginning of Dvapara. 

3. In Dvapara the mixture and combination of the castes 
begins to take place among the subjects. All activities are 
affected adversely (and get inverted). 

4. The main activity in Dvapara is declared as a com- 
bination ofiffl/as and Tamas with all these viz. the emphasis 
on Yajiias*, administration ofjustice, pride, arrogance, forgive- 
ness and strength. 

5. The Dharma that had been in existence in the first 
Krta Yuga continues to function in Treta Yuga. After becoming 
agitated and intensely affected in Dvapara, it becomes extinct 
in the Kali Yuga. 

6. In that Yuga, there is utter destruction of (the 
classification of) the castes. Similarly, the different stages of 

1. This chapter depicts the state of the society, religion, religious texts 
etc. in the Dvapara Age. The deterioration and confusion of social, religious 
and other conditions provide a back-ground to the Chaos in the Kali Age. 

* Va. P. 58.4 reads yacfta vadhah pano 'Begging, killing, gambling'^ 
instead of yajfiavadharanam in this text. 

f^lX (A A Grt"f°*eJ Wry 

302 V Brahmanda Parana 

life get jumbled and mixed up. The Sruti and Smrti come to 
be at variance with each other in that Yuga. 

7. Owing to the difference between Sruti and Smrti no 
definite conclusion can be arrived at. Because of the 
absence of definiteness, there is no (clear-cut) principle of 

8-10. Owing to the absence of (a specific) Dharma, 
there is difference of opinion even among friends. Owing to 
mutual difference and confusion in the points of view there 
is no definite conclusion such as "This is Dharma. This is not 

The confusion in the points of view results from ambigui- 
ty and uncertainty ofthe causes, inconclusiveness in regard to 
the effects (or decisions) and difference of opinion among the 

Hence, utter confusion and contradiction is brought about 
in the scriptural texts by persons with different points of view. 

11. It is laid down that there is only a single unified 
Veda with four feet (i.e. sections, books) in the Treta Yuga. 
In view ofthe fact that there is reduction in the span of life, the 
Veda is distinctly classified in the Dvapara age. 

12-13. The Samhita texts of Rk, Yajus and Saman are 
recited by the great sages differently with changes in the 
settings (arrangements) of Mantra and Brahmana portions and 
alterations in the notes, accents and letters. Changes are 
brought about due to the changes in the (presiding) sages and 
Mantras and confusion in the view-points. They are similar in 
certain places and altered utterly in certain places due to 
difference in the points of view. 

14. The Brahmanas, Kalpa-Sutras and Mantra Pravaca- 
nas (different scriptural texts) and other texts as well have a 
similar plight. Others follow these but some oppose it and 
stand apart. 

15. They begin to function in Dvapara Age and recede 
during the Kali Yuga. 

There was only one Adhvaryava (Yajur Veda) but later it 
split into two. 

16-18. By means of common and contradictory matters, 
the whole scriptural text has been confounded. 303 

With the schools of Adhvaryava (Yajur Veda) confused 
and confounded in various ways, with alternative readings in 
Atharva, Rk and Samah Mantras, there was a lot of unrest 
(confusion) in Dvapara. They had many divisions and sub- 
divisions and alternatives. They began to function in Dvapara 
and became extinct in Kali. 

19. Effects of these contrary happenings take place in 
Dvapara — effects such as absence of rain, then death and 
sickness and other calamities. 

20. On account ofmiseries verbal, mental and physical, 
they have despondency and absence of interest in worldly 
matters. Due to despondency and dejectedness, they begin to 
ponder over modes ofrelieffrom misery. 

21. Through the ponderings they attain disinterested- 
ness in worldly affairs and absence of attachment. Through 
this detachedncss they begin to see defects. Through the sight 
of defects there is the possibility of Ajiidna (ignorance) in 

22. To those Ajndnins (ignorant persons) in the first 
Svayambhuva Manvantara in the Dvapara Yuga, enemies of 
the scriptural texts crop up. 

23. There are uncertainties and indecisive alternatives 
in the science of Ayurveda, in the Angas (ancillary subjects), 
in the Jyotisa (Astronomy and Astrology) in the Arthasastra 

(Economics) and in Hetu-Sastra (Science of dialectics). 

24-26. There are similar alternatives in the Bhasyas 
(commentaries) and Vidyas (learning) of the Prakriya Sutras 
and Kalpa Sutras (scriptural texts). There are different Smrti- 
sastras (Law Codes etc.) and there are separate Prasthdnas 
(Schools and Systems). These occur in the Dvapara Yuga 
because of the difference of opinion among men. 

It is with very great difficulty that agricultural and other 
professions flourish (due to the efforts) mental, verbal and 
physical. In the Dvapara, it is preceded by great physical strain 
ofall living beings. There is greediness (in the people). The 
professional activity is primarily commercial. There is no defi- 
niteness in the principles. 

27-28. There is the composition ofscriptural tracts based 
on Vedas (but) there is mixing and mingling of Dharmas. The 

304 Brahmanda Purana 

discipline of tiie classification of castes and stages of life come 
to nought. Lust and anger flourish in Dvapara. Passion, greed 
and murder begin to prevail in Dvapara. It is in Dvapara that 
Vyasa' classifies the Veda into four sections. 

29-30. When Dvapara comes to a close, its Sandhyd 
(twilight or transitional period between Dvapara and Kali 
Yugas) too functions in the same manner. The characteristic 
feature of Dvapara, devoid of good qualities becomes establish- 
ed. In the same manner the Sandhydmsa also functions. 

(Now) Understand (the details) of Kali Yuga' on the 
basis of what remains of Dvapara. 

31-33. "The acceptance (of characteristic features etc.) 
of the Kali age is based on the residue ofthe SandhydmSa of 
Dvapara. Violence, jealousy, untruth, Maya (deception) and 
murder of ascetics— these are the characteristic features of 
Kali age. (Of course) the subjects achieve (certain things) and 
that is the entire Dharma. Dharma declines. It is doubtful 
whether agricultural activities flourish despite the activities, 
mental, eulogistic and physical. There are fatal sicknesses in 
the Kali age and there is the perpetual headache of hunger 
and fear. 

34. There is terrible fear of drought. There are calami- 
ties in all the countries. In the Kali age, the Smrti has no 
authority (i.e. is nfot regarded as an authority) over the 

35. In the Kali age, the subjects die at various ages 
Some one dies even as a child in the womb. Another dies in the 
prime ofyouth. Some people die as old men while some people 
die during their childhood. 

1. Vyasa, 'arranger' (ofVedic Mantras into different Samliitas) is a. 
designation. Every Dvapara has a different Vyasa. Puranas mention 28 

2. Almost all Puranas depict a gloomy picture of the Kali Age. Vide 
Mbh. Vana ch. 188, 190, Br. P. chs 229-230, Mt. P. 144. 32-47, Bh.P. XII. 
1-2, VP. VI. 1. It appears that that was probably the state ofthe society when 
these Puranas came to be written, though unfortunately much of that des- 
cription applies even today. 305 

36. There is danger and fear unto the subjects owing 
to wrongly performed sacrifices, negligent studies (of the Vedas), 
evil actions, misleading religious texts and the faults in the 
holy rites performed by the Brahmanas. 

37. Violence, deception, malicious jealousy, anger, envy 
and intolerance occur in men in the Kali age. There is passion 
and greediness everywhere in every creature. 

38. After reaching the Kali Yuga a great excitement is 
aroused At that time, the maximum age is when a thousand 
years are completed* (?) 

39. The twice-born people neither study the Vedas nor 
worship by Yajnas. Men are annihilated, the Ksatriyas and the 
Vaisyas in due order. 

40. At that time, the kings are mainly Stidras who set 
in vogue all sorts ofheresies. The subjects become devoid of 
good qualities. 

41. Alliances and associations of the Stidras and Antya- 
yonis (Lowest-born) with Brahmanas take place in the Kali 

Yuga, in regard to bed, seats and food-stuffs. 

42. Span of life, intellect, strength, beauty and prestige 
of the family dwindle down and become extinct. The Stidras 
take to the conduct of life of the Brahmanas and the Brahmanas 
behave and act like Stidras. 

43. Thieves adopt the customs and conventions of kings, 
and kings behave and live like thieves. When the close of the 

/Yuga is^mminent, it is only these servants who survive. 

44. At the close of the Yuga, O excellent sage, the 
women become false and unfaithful. They misbehave. They 
become addicted to liquor and meat and become deceitful. 

45. At the close of the Yuga, O excellent sage, the 
faithful wives do not survive. Beasts of prey nourish and the 
cattle decrease. 

46. Know that at the close ofthat Yuga, good people 
turn back and keep aloof Dharma of great consequence rooted 
in the pious act of charity, is very rare th n. 

47. Dharma in which there is no strict adherence to the 
system of four stages of life (but slackness therein) will prevail. 

* This line is not found in Va. P. 56.37 wliicli is otherwise identical with, 
this verse. 

306 Brahmangla Pur ana 

In some places the land will yield but very little but in some 
other places it may be excessively fruitful (fertile). 

48. The kings will not be protectors but the enjoyers of 
their share in the offerings (taxes etc.). At the close of the Yuga, 
they will be eagerly devoted to the act of protecting themselves. 

49. Kings will cease to be protectors. Brahmanas will 
be dependent on Sudras. All excellent twice-born ones will 
make obeisance to the Stidras. 

50. The common people begin to sell boiled and cooked 
rice; the Brahmanas begin to sell the Vedas. Young women 
begin to sell their bodies when the close of the Yuga is 

51. In this Kali age, even excellent Brahmanas be- 
come the sellers of the benefits of their penance and perform- 
ance of sacrifices. Many people will turn into ascetics. 

52. They say that the close of the Yuga is then, when 
the lord (Indra) begins to shower mysteriously in diverse ways. 
In the basest of the Yugas, everyone will become a trader. 

53. People will begin to sell merchandise through false 
weights and measures. The whole society will be surrounded 
by hunter-like people and heretics ofevil habits and conduct 
of life. 

54. When the close of the Yuga is imminent, men will 
be in a minority and there will be majority of women. People 
will be begging of one another many times. 

55. When the Yuga wanes away there will not be any- 
one who helps in return for another's help. There will not be 
any one who does not injure and spoil others, whose words 
are not harsh; who is straight-forward and who is not malicious. 

56. When the close of the Yuga sets in, its characteris- 
tic feature is apprehension of danger etc. Then the earth will 
be void without wealth. 

57. Rulers will not be protectors though they are (ex- 
pected) to be protectors. They will take away jewels (and 
valuables) of others and molest their men's wives. 

58. People will be lustful in their minds. They will be 
evil-minded, base and fool-hardy, addicted to criminal and 
reckless acts. They will be roguish with all good activities 307 

destroyed. They will keep their hairs loose and untied. They 
will not be sympathetic. 

59-63. At the close of the Yuga, men less than sixteen 
will be begetting and women less than sixteen will be giving 
birth to children. 

When the close of the Yuga is imminent Siidras with 
perfecdy white sparkling teeth wearing ochre-coloured robes, 
with clean shaven heads will subdue their sense-organs and 
practice piety. 

There will be thieves stealing plants and corn, clothes 
and garments. Some thieves will rob other thieves. There will 
be a robber taking away valuables from another robber. 

When knowledge and holy rites have disappeared, when 
the whole world has become inactive (in religious matter), 
worms, rats and serpents will be attacking and harassing men. 

Welfare, health and capability will permanently be 
difficult to obtain. 

Countries afflicted by hunger and fear will be eagerly 
waiting for Kausikas (persons who can find out hidden trea- 
sures) . Affected by misery, the maximum span of life will be 
only hundred years. 

64. In the Kali Yuga, all the Vedas are seen and not 
seen (i.e. not read and understood clearly). Yajiias afflicted 
only by sins and evils, become spoiled. 

65. After the advent of the Kali age, many types of 
heretics crop up. They may be Buddhists wearing ochre-coloured 
robes, Jainas, Kapalikas and others who sell the Vedas. Still 
others are those who sell holy centres of pilgrimage. 

66. There are others who are the enemies of the system 
and discipline of the castes and stages of life. All these heretics 
are born when the Kali Age steps in. 

67. Then Siidras become experts in interpreting affairs 
concerning religious activities and they study the Vedas. Kings 

1. Probably a reference to Buddhist bhiksus. There appears to be a 
dominance of Buddhism when this Furana was written. This is confirmed in 
VV. 65-66 infra. 

308 Brahtnanda Parana 

born of Sudras' wombs begin to worship and perform iiorse- 

68. Tiien tlie subjects accomplisli something either by 
killing women, children and cows or by killing one another or 
by robbing one another. 

69. The conduct and activity in the Kali age is declared 
as a Tdmasa activity because of too much of affection for sinful 
deeds. People are short-lived with constant narrations oftheir 
own misery. Their bodies are short and lives too are short 
owing to sickness. 

70. At that time the practice of killing children in the 
womb comes into vogue due to enmity. Hence, span of life, 
strength and beauty become reduced after the advent of Kali 

71. At that time, men attain Siddhi within a short time. 
Blessed and excellent twice-born ones will practise piety and 
devotion at the close of the Yuga. 

72-73. These excellent Brahmanas practise the holy rites 
laid down in the Srutis and Smrtis. They practise without any 
malice or envy. 

In the Treta, the Dharma practised for the whole of the 
year bears fruit. It is declared that the same Dharma 
practised for a month in Dvapara bears fruit. The intelligent 
devotee practising the same for a day, attains the desired fruit 
in the Kali Yuga.' 

This is the condition in the Kali age. Understand (the 
state of affairs) in the Sandhyarhsa (the transitional period 
between two Yugas). 

74-76. Siddhis prevalent during the Sandhyds ofYugas 
become reduced to three-fourths in the following Yugas Siddhis 
prevalent, in the Yugas become reduced to three-fourths in the 
following Sandhyds. The characteristics of the Sandhyds become 
stabilised in the Sandhydmsas aitsxhs'in% reduced to three-fourths. 

Thus when the period of Sandhydrhsa at the end of (a set 
of four) Yugas arrives, (the lord appears) as their chastiser. 

1. This is a relieving feature of the Kali age. 309 

He rises up for the purpose of slaying the wicked Bhrgus. 
He is called Pramati' and he belongs to the Lunar race. 

77-80. In the previous' Svayambhuva Manvantara, he 
had been born of a part ofMadhava (Visnu). 

For a full period of twenty years, he wandered over the 
Earth taking with him an army alongwith horses, chariots and 
elephants. Surrounded by hundreds and thousands ofBrahmanas 
wielding weapons, he killed all the Mlecchas all round along- 
with all those kings, the heretics bornofSfldra women. The 
lord exterminates those heretics. Everywhere he kills all those 
who are not scrupulously religious. 

81-84. The lord who was strong and who annihilated 
all the Mlecchas slew these also — People who were born of 
parents ofdifferent castes, those who depended on them, the 
Udicyas (Northerners), Madhya Desyas (Persons of middle 
lands), Parvattyas (Mountain-dwellers) Pracyas (Easterners), 
Prattcyas (Westerners), those who walk about on the ridges of 
the Vindhya mountains, Daksinatyas (Southerners), Dravidas 
along with Sirhhalas (Ceylonese), Gandharas, Paradas, 
Pahlavas, Yavanas, Sakas, Tusaras, Barbaras, Cinas (Chinese), 
Sulikas, Daradas, Khasas, Lampa-karas, Katakas and different 
tribes of Kiratas. The powerful lord wielding the discus slew 
all these barbarous people. 

85-86. Invisible to all the living beings, he wandered 
over the whole earth. The lord was born of a part of lord 
Madhava. In the former birth he was very valorous and 
he was well known by the name of Pramati. In the first Kali 
Yuga, he was born in the Gotra ofthe moon. 

87. He began (the victorious march) when he was aged 
thirty-two. For twenty years he continued to slay men and all 
other living beings everywhere. 

88-89. Annihilating every thing by his ruthless activity, he 
made only seeds to remain on the earth. He managed to subdue 
the Vrsalas who were generally sinful, by making them angry 

I. This incarnation of Visnu re-established order at the end of Kali 
Age. Elsewhere (in Mt. P.) he is said to have been born in the Lunar race in 
the Kali Age in Caksusa Manvantara. See VV. 85-86 below. 

310 Brahmanda Parana 

with one another on sudden provocations. Thereafter, in the 
region between the Gahga and the Yamuna, he established his 
camp of rest along with his followers. 

90. Thereafter, when the Kalpa elapsed, he went back 
to his eternal abode along with his army after exterminating 
Mleccha kings by thousands. 

91-92. When the period of Sandhydmsa arrived towards 
the end of the Yuga, only a few subjects remained here and 
there. They were unfortunate fellows with planets adverse to 
them. Many of them were greedy and they collectively struck 
and injured one another. 

93. There was anarchy. When the close of the Yuga was 
imminent, the subjects were afflicted by mutual fear. 

94. They were agitated and bewildered. They left their 
houses, wives and relatives. They never cared for their lives. 
(They were not hopeful about their ability to survive). Even 
without reason, they became very miserable. 

95. When the Dharma based on Sruti and Smrti became 
extinct, the people killed one another, devoid of bounds of 
decency, affection, shame and friends and allies. 

96. When virtue ceased to exist, the people were afflic- 
ted and they were reduced to a size of twentyfive (as against 
52 Angulas in height). Agitated and distressed they found their 
sense-organs out of gear. They had to forsake their children and 
wives (and run away). 

97. People oppressed by drought had to abandon their 
agricultural activities. They were miserable. Leaving their own 
native lands they began to stay in the bordering districts. 

98. They were compelled to resort to rivers, marshy 
places, near the seas and mountainous regions. Extremely 
miserable, they sustained themselves by means of meat, roots 
and fruits. 

99. They used to wear leaves, bark-garments or hides 
of antelopes. They observed no holy rites. They had abandon- 
ed their families. They had fallen off from the systematic dis- 
cipline ofthe castes and stages oflife. They had been adopting 
the terrible practice of Sankara (mixing of castes by means of 311 

indiscriminate inter marriage etc.). They had reached such a 
plight. Only a very few such people survived. 

100. They were oppressed with old age, sickness arid 
hunger. Owing to misery, they reached a stage of abject dejec- 
tedness. From this dejected state, they reached the state of 
pondering over the same. Pondering took them to a state of 

101. Through the state of equanimity, they had the 
realisation of the Atman. Through this knowledge, they acquir- 
ed piety and devotion. Thus those who survived the last 
stage of the Kali age, acquired tranquility and control of 

102. When the close of the Yuga was undergoing trans- 
formation, they became quiescent as though they were asleep or 
inebriated day and night after making the mind enchanted (and 

103-106. Owing to the power of the inevitable future, 
the Krta Yuga set in. When the holy Krta Yuga began to 
function, the subjects pertaining to the Krta Yuga were born of 
those who survived from the Kali Yuga. Those Siddhas who 
remained then, began to move about invisibly. They established 
themselves there along with the seven sages. The Brahmanas, 
the Ksatriyas, the Vaisyas and the Siidras were those, who 
were remembered as seeds. (They were intended to be the 
nucleus for the succeeding generation). At that time they 
became identical with those who were born in (the closing 
stages of) Kali. They were devoid of any difference. The seven 
sages recounted Dharma to them as well as to others. 

107. That (Dharma) is equipped with the conduct of 
life of the different castes and stages. It is of two types : Srauta 
(as laid down in the Vedas) and the Smdrta (as laid down in 

the Smrtis). The object in the Krta age remained thus as 
persons with holy rites. 

108. When the Dharmas of Srauta and Smdrta varieties 
had been pointed out to the people of Krta Yuga, some of them 
remained till the close of the Yuga for the sake of establishing 

109-110. The sages remain in authority over the whole 
of the Manvantara. The grasses of the forests are burned by 

312 BrahmSnda Parana 

the forest fires but their roots are unaffected. Just as fresh 
shoots of grass grow from these roots so also the people of Krta 
Yuga grow from the people of the Kali age. 

111. Thus there is an uninterrupted series ofYugas, with 
the connection of a Yuga with another unbroken, till Manvan- 
tara comes to a close. 

112. Happiness, span of life, strength, beauty, virtue, 
wealth and love — these are reduced to three-fourths in each of 
the succeeding Yugas. 

113. The achievement of piety of the Yugas becomes re- 
duced in the Sandhydmsas. Thus is the Pratisandhi (transition 
between the two Yugas) that had been mentioned by me 
(before), O Brahmanas. 

114-119. By means of this alone should all the sets of 
four Yugas be reckoned. 

This repetition of sets of four Yugas multiplied by a 
thousand constitutes w'.iat is called a day of good Brahma. The 
night too is declared as extending to this much period. Here 
there is straight-forwardness and state of being insentient in all 
living beings till the end of the Yuga. 

This alone is remembered as the characteristic feature of 
all Yugas. The sets of four Yugas multiplied by seventyone and 
gradually transformed is called Manvantara. ' Whatever occurs 
in one set of four Yugas happens in the others also in the same 
manner and in the same order. 

In the same manner, differences also are produced in every 
creation. They are restricted to thirty-five and they are remem- 
bered as neither less nor more. So also the Kalpas have the 
same characteristic features as the Yugas. This alone is the 
characteristic feature of all the Manvantaras. 

120. Just as the repetitions of the Yugas had come into 

vogue since a long time owing to the intrinsic nature of the 

Yuga, so also the living world (world of living beings) being 

transformed through decrease and increase does not remain 

(the same permanently). 

1. 71 sets of four Yugas constitute a Manvantara. The verses that 
follow constitute an elucidation of Dhdta yathapurvam akalpayat. (The creator 

arranged or created everything as before.) 313 

121-124. Thus the characteristics ofall the Yugas, past 
and future in all the Manvantaras have been mentioned 
succinctly. Know that, by means of the (discription of) a Manvan- 
tara, all the other Manvantaras have been explained and also 
one Kalpa is described by means of (the description of) 
another. Similarly in the future ones, inference should be 
carried out by one who knows. In all the Manvantaras past 
and future, all the beings are of equal identifications in re- 
gard to names and forms. 

125. The Devas of eight classes who are the lords in this 
Manvantara, the sages and the Manus — all these are equal in 
regard to the purpose (served by them). 

126-127. Thus the lord always evolves the classification 
of castes and stages of life in the former Yugas and arranges the 
intrinsic features of the Yugas. 

The classifications of castes and stages of life, the Yugas 
and the Siddhis of the Yugas have been recounted as necessary 
consequence. Now, understand the creation of the Srsfi 
(Creation ofthe living beings). 

I shall mention the situation in the Yugas in detail and in 
-due order. 


Yugas and Classes of People : Lineage of Sages' 

Sula said : 

1. Learn from me the different subjects viz. Asuras, 
Serpents, Gandharvas, Pisacas, Yalcsas and Raksasas, that are 
born in (different) Yugas. 

* This chapter corresponds to Va.P.Ch.59. 

1. This chapter records the belief that there has been a continuous 
deterioration in height or physical built and other capacities ofall the subjects 
of creation, be they gods, men or serpents. Archaeological excavations have not 
substantiated this belief. 

314 Brahmanda Parana 

2-4. Understand in which Yuga their nativity takes place 
and how long do they live. 

The Pisacas, the Asuras, the Gandharvas, the Yaksas, 
the Raksasas and the Serpents who are born in the Krta Yuga 
have their height and girth equal. 

The height of the joyous divine beings is ninety-six 
Angulas according to the measure of their own figures. It has 
become so due to the nourishment (?) It is taken as their 
natural measure. 

5-7. Human beings existing in the Sandhydmsaka are 
shorter by seven times seven Arigulas than the height of the- 
Devas and Asuras (?) 

The height of Devas and Asuras in hundred and fifty 
eight Angulas is remembered by those born in the Kali, 

It is remembered by persons born in Kali (that their 
height) from head to foot is eightyfour Angulas of their own 

8. This height ofhuman beings becomes reduced in the 
Tugdmsaka (transitional period between two Yugas) in all the 
Yuga periods past and future. 

9- 10a. Man is regarded to be eight spans high with his 
own fingers as unit. 

He who is nine spans high from head to foot and has 
arms extending as far as the knees is worshipped even by the 
Devas (gods). 

lOb-1 la. By means of the same activity* (?) the increase 
and decrease in the different Yugas of the height of cows, 
horses, elephants, buffaloes and immobile beings, should be 

lib- 12a. The hump of the cattle is seventy-six Angulas 
high. The height of elephants is declared as hundred and eignt 
Angulas in full. 

12b. The height of trees is remembered as a thousand 
Arigulas without forty Arigulas and fifty Yavas.** 

* For Karmanaitena here-of, Va.P/59-10 reads Kramenaitena 'in this 
serial order.' 

'*' * One Yava = l/4 Angula. 

Tiierefore tlie lieight of trees= 1 - 4 + 1 2 ^ = 947 "^ Angulas. 315 

13-14a. The constitution of the bodies of the Devas is 
similar to that of the body of human beings. It is realised, if we 
ponder over reality. 

The body that has nothing else to excel it in intellect is 
called the body of the Devas. So also' that which has something 
to excel it is called human body. Thus have been described the 
living beings divine and human. 

14b-15. The body of Devas is said to be endowed with 
the excellence of intelligence. Similarly, the body of human 
beings is also possessed of excellences (of intelligence and 

16-19. The beings — animals, birds and immobile ones — 
are useful ones. For example — the cows, the goats, the sheep, 
the horses, the elephants, the birds and the trees — these are 
useful in holy rites. Hence, they are worthy of Yajiias in every 
respect. They are born in the abodes ofgods. Hence, they are 
of the same form. 

The auspicious forms of the Devas are such as could enjoy 
as they wished. They became happy with those charming 
beings mobile and immobile and befitting their own forms and 
magnitude. Henceforth, 1 shall narrate the remaining ones 
called as sats and Sddhus (good ones). 

20. The word Sal indicates the Brahman.' Those who 
possess it are called Sants due to their similarity with the 

21 Those who neither become angry nor are too over- 
joyed in regard to those ten objects of (ten) sense-organs (i.e. 
five pertaining to the sense-organs and five to the organs of 
physical activity) and eight varieties of causes — are called 
jitdtmans (those who have conquered their own selves). 

22. Inasmuch as Brahmanas, Ksattriyas and Vaisyas. 
are engaged in general religious rites as well as in special 
rites, they are the twice-born castes. 

23. One who adheres to the religious duties prescribed 
for one's caste and stage of life and one who is happy in practis- 

1. W. 20-26 give the characteristics of saints, sadhus and knowers of 

316 Brahmanda Parana 

ing the path to heaven (?) is called a knower of Dharma 
(Dharmajna) due to his knowledge of the Dharma as enjoined in 
Sruti (Vadas) and Smrtis. 

24. A religious student who works for the welfare ofhis 
preceptor is called Sddhu (good one) because he strives for the 
achievement of learning. A house-holder is called Sddhu 
because he gathers together the requisites for his house-hold. 

25. A Vaikhdnasa (forest-hermit) is declared as Sddhu 
because he achieves power of penance in the forest. The striv- 
ing recluse is remembered as Sddhu because he accumulates and 
achieves Yogic power. 

26. Thus the religious student, the householder, the 
forest-dwelling hermit and the recluse are all called as Sddhus 
because they achieve the Dharmas of their respective stages of 

27. Neither the Devas nor the Pitrs, neither the sages 
nor the human beings understand the point "This is Dharma — 
This is not", because of different points of view (?) 

28. The words Dharma and Adharma mentioned here 
refer to the rites.' Auspicious rite is remembered as Dharma. 
Inauspicious rite is declared as Adharma. 

29. The root \/Dhr is used in the sense of Dharana (Hold- 
ing, Sustaining) and (Dharma means that which sustains us). 
In the sense oiAdhdrana (non-sustenance) and Amahatva (Non- 
greatness) the word Adharma is mentioned. 

30. That Dharma which takes us to what we desire (and 
what is good for us) is taught by the preceptors. It is also 
taught by the preceptors that Adharma has adverse and undesir- 
able fruits. 

31. They call these persons Acaryas' (preceptors) viz.— 
old men devoid of greadiness. Self-possessed persons devoid of 
arrogance and straight-forward persons who have been edu- 
cated and well disciplined. 

1. W . 28 — 30 and 33-36 explain the concept of Dharma and what 
is Srauta and Smarta Dharma ? A detailed elucidation of various virtues consti- 
tuting Dharma are given in VV. 43-57. 

2. W. 31-32 mention the qualifications of an Acarya (preceptor). 317 

32. He himself practices (Dharma). He establishes the 
code of good behaviour and he gathers together (and masters) 
the various scriptural texts — he is therefore, called Acdrya. 

33-34. Two types of Dharma have been laid down by 
Brahmanas conversant with Dharma viz. Srauta and Smdrta. 

Srauta Dharma pertains to marriage rites as well as (adop- 
tion of) Agnihotra worship. 

The Smdrta Dharma pertains to the conduct of life of 
people of different castes and stages of life, Tamas (controls of 
the sense-organsJ and Niyamas (observances). After learning 
from the previous persons (or after instructing the previous 
ones) the seven sages expounded the Srauta Dharma. 

35. The Rk, Yajus and the Saman constitute the Sruti. 
They are the limbs of the Veda. It was after remembering the 
code of conduct of life in the previous Manvantara that Manu 
expounded his Smrti. 

36. Hence, Smdrta Dharma is declared as the Dharma 
that differentiates the castes and stages of life. These different 
types ofDharma are called Sisfacdra. 

37-39. The word Sisfa is derived from the word Sesa 
(Remainder). They call what remains by the word Sisfa. 

Those righteous persons who survived in the Manvantara 
and continued to stay were Manu and the seven sages. 
They remained there for sustaining the worlds. Those who 
remain for the sake of Dharma are called Sistas. In every 
yuga, this Dharma has been practised very well by the Sisfas 
(survivors) viz. Manu and others who have already been refer- 
red to by me before. 

40. The study ofthe three Vedas, agricultural opera- 
tion, administration of justice, performance of sacrifice, special 
duties of the people of different castes and stages oflife are 
practised by Siffas again and again. 

4.1-43a. Since they have been practised by the previous 
persons they are Sisldcdra and righteous activity as well.' 

The following eight meritorious activities also are charac- 
teristically Sijfdcdra viz. charitable offerings, truthfulness, auste- 

1. VV. 37-43 give a peculiar definition of Sisfas and explanation of 
Sisfdcara. Tlie identification of Sisjacdra with Dliarma is in V. 57. Manu 
XII. 109 and Vasistha. VI. 143 define fisjacdra differently. 

3 1 8 Brahmdnda Purana 

rity, knowledge, learning, sacrifice, renunciation (ofthe world) 
and departure from one's household and sympathy. Since the 
Sistas (the remaining ones, or the well-disciplined ones), Manu 
and the seven sages practise these in all the Manvantaras, they 
are, therefore, declared as Sisfacdra. 

43b-44. It should be known that a Dharma is called 
Srauta if it is traced to the Sruti. It is called Smarta if it is traced 
to the Smrti. That which refers to sacrifice and Vedas, is called 
Srauta Dharma and that which concerns the activities and 
duties ofthe people of different castes of life is called Smarta. 

I shall mention the characteristic features of Dharma with 
regard to each part. 

45. This is the characteristic sign of truthfulness viz. 
After seeing an event and on being asked, he (a person) does 
not conceal the fact and states it exactly as it has happened. 

46. Celibacy, chanting of Mantras, vow of silence and 
observance of fast— these constitute the form of Japa* (Penance). 
It is extremely terrible and very difficult to achieve. 

47. The collection of sacrificial materials, Havis (ghee) 
offerings, Rk, Saman and Yajur Mantras, Rtviks (sacrificial 
priests) and Daksinus (monetary gifts and fees) is called 
Y a j ii a . 

48. The perfect vision of impartiality between oneself 
and all living beings whether for welfare or distress — is remem- 
bered as Dayd (Mercy, Sympathy). 

49. Ifa person, on being scolded or struck does not 
scold or strike in retaliation either verbally, mentally or phy- 
sically—this attitude is remembered as Titiksd (forbearance) 
and Ksama (patience). 

50. Refraining from taking other man's belongings well 
protected by their owners but abandoned in their excitement, 
is glorified as Alobha (absence of greed). 

51. Non-indulgence in sexual intercourse, absence of 
thought thereof, avoidance of prattling about it, receding from 
all activities (connected with it isBrahmacarya (celibacy). It is 
called a penance without any vulnerable point. 319 

52. If man's sense-organs do not function falsely either 
for his own sake or for others' sake that is the sign of Sama 

Quiescence and Restraint off passions). 

53. If a person is obstructed (and hence disappointed) 
in regard to the object of sense-organs (i.e. five sense-organs 
and five organs of action) or eight-fold causes, but he does not 
become infuriated, he is considered to be JitStman (one who 
has conquered his own self). 

54. Ifa person feels that he must give away unto a 
deserving person whatever is desired most by him, or the money 
that has come down to him duly and justly, that is the charac- 
teristic sign of Dana (charitable offering). 

55-56a. Dana is of three types, Kanisflia (base) Jyestha 
(superior) and Madhyama (middling). Among them, that which 
is conducive to salvation is the superior one. That which is 
only for the sake of achieving ones' own selfish ends is the base 
one. Sharing (of one's possessions) with all living beings out of 
sympathy is the middling. 

56b-57a. The Dharma regarding the discipline'of the four 
•castes and stages of life is laid down by the Srutis and Smrtis. 
What is not antagonistic to Sisfdcdra (the practice ofwell- 
disciplined cultured people) is also Dharma, approved by 
good learned men. 

57b-58. Absence of hatred toward what is not liked by 
one, approval ofwhat is (desirable and) desired, and turning 
away from pleasure, excessive agony and distress is Viraktatd 
(absence of passion). 

Relinquishing of all committed actions along with the 
omitted ones is called Sannydsa (Renunciation). 

59-61a. (Defective Text). Giving up of both auspicious 
and inauspicious activities is called Nydsa or (Relinquishment. 
Unmanifest particular things are Vikaras (Transformations) 
in the matter of insentient objects (?) Perfect understanding 
of the distinctness of the sentient and the insentient, is called 
Jndna (Knowledge). These are remembered as the characteristic 
features of different parts of Dharma by sages conversant 
•with the principles of Dharma, in the previous Svayambhuva 

320 Brahmanda Parana 

61b-62. I shall describe unto you the procedure of Man- 
vantara as well as Cdturhotra and Cdlarvidya (Holy rites). 

Different Sruti is assigned to different Manvantara. 

63-65a. Rk, Yajus and Saman (are assigned to different 
Manvantaras) in the same manner as deities are assigned. 
In spite of the procedure of annihilation of all living 
beings, Satarudriya, the procedure of Hotra as well as Stotra 
(Hymn, Prayer) function as before. 

The Stotra is of four types : Dravyastotra (Eulogy of 
materials), Guna-Stotra (Eulogy of quality) Phala-stotra (Eulogy 
of fruit) and the fourth one Abhijanaka-Stotra (Eulogy of 

65b. In all the Manvantaras, Brahma sets in motion the 
four types of Stotras in regard to the Devas even as they come 
into being. Thus the origin of the collections of Mantras is of 
four types. 

66-68. As the sages perform the severe and extremely 
difficult penance, the Mantras of different Vedas— Atharva, 
Rk, Yajus and Saman appear before them severally in the same 
manner as in the previous Manvantaras. They appear in five 
ways viz. — owing to non-contendedness, owing to fear, owing to 
misery (pain), owing to happiness and owing to grief. 

69. These Mantras appear before the sages casually 
because of the (supreme) vision of the sages named Tdraka 
(that which redeem?). I shall state the Rsitva (state of sage- 
hood) of the sages along with the characteristics. 

70. Among the past and future ones, it is said (that) 
there are five types of sages. Hence, I shall recount the origin 
of the sages.' 

71-73. When the Gunas were in (a state of) equilibrium, 
when there was the annihilation of everything, when there was 
no classification of the Vedas, when everything was full of 
darkness and it could not be indicated or specified particularly 
(thepradhdna) unintelligently functions for the sake of Cetana 
(Sentient one). It functions through the intellect of the sentient 
one and through consciousness (?) Both of them function like 

1. The following verses (W 71-73) describe the process of evolution 
of the universe to explain how sages (the Seven Sages — Saptarsis) came into 
being in a new Kalpa. 321 

the fish and the water. The Sattva* (? Tattva) presided over by 
the sentient one functions in the nature (Gunas). 

74. On account of the cause, its effect functions in the 
same way. The object functions due to the subject. The 
Artha (meaning) functions due to its (state of possessing an 

75. Within the time (?) when it should take place the 
Bhedas (differences) of the nature of Karana** (sense-organ) 
become realised. Then Mahal and other principles manifest 
themselves gradually. 

76. The Aharhkdra (Ego) was evolved out of Mahal and 
from it the Bhiitas (Elements) and the Indriyas (sense-organs) 
were born. The different Bhutas were mutually born out of the 

77-82. The effect and the cause*** (sense-organs) sud- 
denly get transformed itself. Just as the sparks and particles 
come out of the fire-brand simultaneously, so also the Ksetrajnas 
(Individual Souls) come out of their Material cause at the 
same time. 

Just as the glow-worm is suddenly seen in blinding dark- 
ness .so also the transformed (Ksetrajiia) from the unmanifest 
shines like the glow-worm. It is great and embodied. The (all) 
knower became stationed there itself at the entrance to the 
Dvdrasdld (Hall of entry) where the great and embodied one 
was present. Beyond the vast expanse of darkness, the Mahat 
is perceived on account of its disparity. The Sruti says— 
"He stationed himself there. The learned one (the knowing 
one) was stationed at the end of Tattias (darkness) ". 

When it {ihc Avyakta) transformed itself, Buddhi (Intellect) 
appeared in four ways y'lz. J nana (Knowledge) Vairdgya (Ab- 
sence of attachment), Aisvarya (Prosperity, masterliness) and 

* Va. P. 59.66b reads tattvdni 'the principles'. 
** Tlie obscurity of the verse is due to the reading Karanatmaka. If 
emended as Karanatmaka as in the identical verse in Va P. 59.68a, it means 
'differences of the nature of cause' became explicit etc. 

*** Karana emended as Karana as in Va P. 59. 69c. The word Karana 
'Sense-organs' obscures the meaning implied in the next line. 

322 Brahmanda Parana 

Dharma (Virtue). These should be known as conducive to the 
final emancipation ofman. 

83-86. He is called Mahdtman (the great Soul) by good 
people, because it is the transformation of the body* (?) 

Since he lies within the body, he is called Purasa. 
Due to his knowledge of the Ksetra (field, body) he is called 
Ksetrajna. Since he lies within intelligently he is of the nature 
of consciousness. The non-sentient Vyaktd-Vydkta (manifest-cum- 
nonmanifest) is encompassed for the sake of achievement (?). 

Thus the Ksetrajna (individual Soul) is Vivrtta (trans- 
formed one) and it is equipped with the knowledge of the /iTse^ra 
(field, i.e. the body). 

Simultaneously with Vivrtti (transformation) the Rsi him- 
self excessively activises (Param arsayate) Avyakta (the unmani 
fest one). Therefore, it has the Pdramarsitva (the state of being 
a great sage). 

87. It is from the root Vr? that means "to go" that the 
name has been derived at the outset. It is considered that it has 
rsitd (the rjJ-hood) as it is self-born. 

88-90. They are born of God himself, they are the mental 
sons ofBrahma. 

Since on being born, the great Mahal principle was sur- 
rounded by them, since those self-possessed persons went round 
the Mahat principle by means of their good qualities, hence 
they are called Maharsis. They are the supreme viewers (seers) 
of the Buddhi (Intellect). They are the sons of Isvaras (gods) 
both mind-born as well as bosom-born. They go beyond (or 
get under control) Ahamkdra (Ego) and penance. Hence 
they are Rsis. 

91. Hence, the seven sages are called sages because they 
see the principle oiBhutddi (Ahankdra). The Rsikas, the sons of 
sages, are those born of the womb after sexual intercourse. 

92. The Tanmdtras (subtle elements) and Satya (the 
reality) are also realised by those sages of great prowess. Hence, 
those seven sages are the seers of the ultimate truth. 

* A comparison of Bd.P. W. 75-85 hereof with Vi P. 39. 69-77 shows 
that the lines in the Bd. P. are confused and disconnectedly mixed up. Hence 
the obscurity. 

1. W. 87-90 give the derivation ofthe term 'r?i' and 'maharsi* 323 

93. They are the sons of Rsikas. They should be known 
as sons of sages since they realise (Rsanti) the Rta (The great 
truth of the cosmos) and the particularities (ViksasJ factually. 

94-95.' Hence, those seven sages also are called sages 
because they see the vast extent of the Sruti. The following are 
the five classes of sages having the knowled ge of th e particular 
Atmans viz. {\) Avyaktdtman (the UnmenTfest Atman) (2) Mahdn 
Atman (the Soul called Mahat) (3) Ahamkdrdtman (the Atman of 
the cosmic Ego) (4) Bhutdtman ("the Atman of the living beings 
or elements) and (5) Indriydtman (The Atman of the Sense- 
Organs), listen to them by their names. 

96-97. Bhrgu, Marici, Atri, Angiras, Pulaha, Kratu, 
Manu, Daksa, Vasistha and Pulastya. These ten were mentally 
born of god Brahma. They are themselves masterly and power- 
fill ones. Since they are cons dered as supreme as well as sages 
they are Maharsis. 

98-100. The following sages are the sons oi Tsvaras. 
Understand them. Kavya(Sukra), Brhaspati, Kasyapa, Cyavana, 
Utathya, Vamadeva, Apasya, Usija, Kardama, Visravas, Sakti, 
Valakhilyas and Arvata. These sages are said to have attained 
the state ofsages by means of penance. Understand J?5JAas, the 
sons ofsages born of womb. 

101-103. Vatsara, Nagrhti, Bharadvaja, Dirghatamas, 
Brhaduktha, Saradvata, Vajasravas, Suci, Vasyasva, 

Parasara, Dadhica, Samsapa, Raja (King) Vaisrvana — these 
are called Rsikas. They attained sage-hood on account of their 
truthfulness. They are remembered as Isvaras, Rsis and 

104-106.' All these are the composers (seers) ofMantras. 
Understand them entirely; Bhrgu, Kavya (Sukra), Pracetas, 

1. VV. 94-103 give the various divisions of Sages as Maharsis. Rsikas. 

2. W. 104-122 give tlie list of] the Sages who are composers or seers 
of Mantras. They are divided according to their families viz. that of Bhrgu 

(19) Angiras (34) Kasyapa (6) Vasistha (7) Kusika (13). Three Brahm- 
isthas (viz. Agastya, Drdhayu and Vidmavaha), two Ksatriya Kings (viz. 
Manu and Pururavas), three Vaisyas (viz. Bhalandana, Vatsa and Sarhkila). 
It may be noted that these seers of Mantras are Brahmanas, Ksattriyas and 
Vaisyas and their number is 93 and not 90 as given in V.122. 

324 Brahmanda Purana 

Rcika, Atmavan, Aurva, Jamadagni, Vida, Sarasvata, Arstisena, 
Yudhajit, Vltahavya, Suvarcas, Vainya, Prthu, Divodasa, 
Badhyasva, Grtsa and Saunaka. These nineteen sages are 
Bhrgus (i.e. tlie descendants ofBlirgu). Tliey are expounders of 

107-111. The following are the thirty-three excellent 
members of the family of Angiras viz. Angiras, Vaidyaga, 
Bharadvaja, Baskali, Rtavaka, Garga, Sini, Sankrti, Purukutsa, 
Mandhata, Ambarlsa, Yuvanasva, Paurakutsa, Trasaddasyu, 
Dasyuman, Aharya, Ajamldha, Tuksaya, Kapi, Vrsadarbha, 
Virflpasva, Kanva, Mudgala, Utathya, Sanadvaja, Vajasravas, 
Ayasya, Cakravartin, Vamadeva, Asija. Brhaduktha, 

Dlrghatamas and Kaksivan. 

112-114. All these are composers of Mantras. Under- 
stand the Kasyapas. (Sages of Kasyapa group) : Kasyapa, 
Vatsara, Naidhruva, Raibhya, Asita and Devala — these six are 
the expounders ofBrahman. 

Atri, Arvasana, Syavasva, Gavisthira. Avihotra, Dhlman 
and Piirvatithi — these are called Atris. They are great sages 
and composers of Mantras. 

115-116. Vasistha, Sakti, Parasara, the fourth one 
Indrapramati, the fifth one Bharadvasu, the sixth one Maitra- 
varuni and the seventh one Kundina — these seven members of 
the family of Vasistha should be known as expounders of 

117-122. Visvamitra, (the son of Gadhi), Devarata, 
Udgala, Madhucchandas the learned, the other sage Aghamar- 
sana, Asjaka, Lohita, Kata, Kola, Devasravas, Renu, Pflrana 
and Dhanafijaya — these thirteen righteous persons should be 
known as the excellent members of the Kusika family. 

Agastya, Drdhayu and Vidhmavaha — these three sages are 
Brahmisthas (fully engrossed in the meditation on Brahman 
and having excellent penance and of excellent reputation. 

Manu the son ofVivasvan (Sun) and King Pururavas 
the son of Ila, these two excellent Ksatriyas should be known 
as expounders of Mantras. 

Bhalandana, Vatsa and Samklla — these three are composers 
of Mantras and are remembered as the most excellent ones 
among Vaisyas. 325 

Thus the Mantras composed by the sages are said to be 
ninety. The sages are Brahmanas, Ksatriyas and Vaisyas. 
Understand the Rsiputras (sonsfof sages). 


Characteristics of Sages and of Mantras 

SUta said : — 

1. The sons of Rsikas should be known as the sons of 
the sages. They, are the expounders of the Brahmanas. (Scrip- 
tural texts). Understand them by names. 

2-4. The Srutarsis (sages distinguished by knowledge of 
the Vedas) — the most important among them — are mentioned 
briefly.' They are Bahvrca, Bhargava, Paila, Saiikrtya, Jajali, 
Sandhyasti, Mathara, Yajfiavalkya, Parasara, Upamanyu, 
Indrapramati, Mandflki, Sakali, Baskali, Sokapani, Naila, 
Paila, Alaka, Pannaga, Paksaganta (and others). The Srutarsis 
are eighty-six in number. 

5-6. These Brahmanas are the most important among 
Bahvrcas who are distinguished for their knowledge of Vedas. ^ 

1. This is a confused statement of tlie traditional learners of Bahvrc 
an epithet ofthe RV as it consists ofthe biggest number of Rks. Bh. P. XII. 
6-54-60 gives a somewhat different genealogy ofthe Teachers of RV. In this 
Purana the genealogy of Vedic Teachers from Paila is given infra Ch. 34. 24-33. 
Mahidasa's Comments on CVS accepts the academic genealogy of Sages of 
the Rgveda though many names in our text are not included here. Our text 
states that there are 86 Srutarsis out of whom selected Rgveda Scholars are 
mentioned in W . 2 - 6 here. 

2. The lines in the printed text appeared to be mixed up. Bh.P.XII.6 
quoted in the Com. of Mahidasa on Saunaka's CVS. states that Vais'ampa- 
yana was taught Yajur-Veda by Vyasa. That the Yajur-Veda had 86 branches 

(bhedas) is accepted in our text as 86 Srutarsis. And a few selected sages have 
been named in the Yajur-Veda group. 

326 Brahmanda Parana 

Vaisarfapayana,' Lauhitya, Kanthakala, Avasavadha(?) Syama- 
pati, Palandu, Alambi and Kamalapati. Their disciples and the 
disciples of their disciples constitute the eighty-six Srutarsis. 

7-8. O Brahmanas, these Brahmanical sages are called 
Adhvaryus of the Caraka Branch of Black Yajurveda' : — 
Jaimini, Bharadvaja, Kavya, Pausyaiiji, Hiranyanabha, Kausi- 
lya. Laugaksi, Kusumi, Langall, Salihotra, Saktiraja and 

9-11. The preceptor of those who sing Saman Mantras 
is King Pururavas, the son of Ila.' Forty-six other sages, together 
with their disciples are also Srutarsis. 

Kausiti, Kankamudga, Kundaka, Parasara, Lobhalobha 
the pious-souled, Brahmabala, Kranthala, Madagala and Mark- 
andeya who is conversant with Dharma — these ninety should 
be as Hotravad Brahmacdrins (? i.e. Religious students performing 

12-14a. After the expounders of Mantras and Brah- 
manas, the Adhvaryus of the Caraka branch of Black Yajurveda 
(are to be understood).' Calubhi, Sumati, Deva-vara, Anukrsna, 
Ayus, Anubhijmi, Prita, Krsasva, Sumuli and Baskali— these 
are prominent Adhvaryus of Carakadhvaryakas. They are 
Brahmacarins (celibate ones) worthy of being paid obeisance. 

14b-17a. Suka the learned son ofVyasa, Lauki, Bhiiris- 
ravas, Somavi, Atunantakya (?), Dhaumya and Kasyapa, The 
forest-dwellers viz. Ilaka, Upamanyu, Vida, Bhargava, Madhu- 
ka, Piiiga, Svetaketu, Prajadarpa, Kahoda, Yajiiavalkya, 
Saunaka, Ananga and Niratala — these are Madhyama Adhvaryus. 

17b-20. The following are the ladies capable of expound- 
ing the Brahman : Aditi the mother of the Devas, Jalapa, 
Manavl, the two splendid celestial damsels viz. Urvasi and 

1. The list of the 12 Carakas in the CVS is totally different from that 
given in this Purana. Thus CVS states the 12 classifications of Carakas as 
follows : Caraka, Ahvaraka, Kadia, Pracya-Katha, Kapisthala-Kafha, 
Carayaniya, Varayaniya, Vartantaveya, Svetasvatara, Aupamanyava, Patan- 
danlya and Maitrayaniya. 

2. This is not known to CVS. 

3. W. 12-170 give a list of prominent Adhvaryus of Caraka Branch 
of Black Yajurveda. 327 

Visvayosa, Mudgala, Anujiva, Tara of great fame, PratimedhI, 
Marga, Sujata, Mahatapa (of great penance), Lopamudra 
who is conversant with Dharma and Kausltika. The celestial 
damsels are of approved beauty. 

Thus the important children of the sages have been men- 
tioned by me. 

21-22. They are the founders of the branches of Vedic 
Schools. Therefore, they are regarded as sages. They are known 
by these names also — Isvaras (Masters), expounders of the 
Mantras, Rsis and Rsikas. The sons of the sages are the ex- 
pounders of Kalpas (Ritualistic texts) and of Brahmanas, along 
with the sons of Isvaras, Rsis and Rsikas. 

23-32. Similarly, understand the statements as to their 
visions ofthe Mantras.' 

The Mantra, which is that which is equipped with com- 
mand (? authoritative) is advaita (non-dualistic), that has deep 
resonant sound is Dipta. The Mantra named Linga (Symbol) 
is perfectly direct perception. What is called Pariddna (Devo- 
tion) is that which has become the soul of all living beings. 

They know that the statement which indicates the mean- 
ing mentioned in the Nirukta (semantics, one of the ancillary 
subjects ofthe Vedas) as Svdyambhuva. Whatever is associated 
with some Mantra is along with the case endings ofsubstan- 
tives (?) 

That which is directly spoken is considered to be the 
statement of Rsis. It mostly consists of different words from the 
Nigamas (Vedas) and Nipatas (Particles, indeclinables, excep- 
tional forms of words). 

That which is a great statement is remembered as the 
statement ofRsikas. 

That in which the words are not very clear, that in which 
there are many doubts is the statement of Rsiputras. All of 
them are lamentations (or all lamentations also are such). 

That which mainly consists of //ete (Reason) and Drstan- 
ta (example) is (called) Citrasabda (one with diverse words). 

1. W. 23-32 explain many technical terms sucli as Mantra, Nirulita, 
Nipata, Hetu, Drsl^nta and otliers. Tlie statement of Rsis is in Vedic, tliose 
ofRsilias are great, clear or emphatic while those of Rsiputras are dubious. 

328 Brahmanda Parana 

That which has no sense, that which is not praised by 
anyone and that which is feeble— this statement is Manusa 

(Persons) well-known as Misras attained the status of the 
sages on account of their prowess. For the sake of prosperity 
they are born of different castes (?) by means of drawing and 
attraction (?) They have the knowledge of the past, present 
and future. They cure the misery ofbirth. 

Those statement of Misras is capable ofactivising the 
strength of the preceptor. 

The who are composers of scriptural texts, those who go 
every-where, due to their greatness, and those who possess 
the intensity of very great penance are considered as sages. 
They are Brhaspati, Sukra, Vyasa and Sarasvata. 

33-35. Vyasas are those who compose scriptural texts. 
They are remembered as Vedavyasas. Since, although they are 
born later (i.e. younger in age), they are superior to the earlier 
ones in their intellect; since they arc richly endowed with 
prosperity, they are, therefore, remembered as Rsis (sages). 

In the matter of the conception of a sage neither the 
period nor the age is the authoritative criterion. 

A (younger) person is some times seen superior-most in 
intellect, since even a boy who is elderly (i.e. mature) in 
intellect is a learned sage.' 

36. They call this Rk Mantra : viz. the same foot in 
the middle is used with the full complement ofwords and their 
end is properly distributed. 

37. They call this Yajus Mantra : viz. the Mantra is 
not measured by means of syllables in the foot but by means of 
Karana (Rhythmical pause) and its end possesses syllables in 

38-39. The following seven adjuncts ofa Saman Mantra 
are called Sapta Vindhyas' viz. (1) Hrlmkara (2) Prastava 

1. This Subhasita glorifying wisdom and intelligence as superior to 
the age is found in Pali and Prakrits also. The word 'bala' here is a misprint 
for 'bdla '. 

2. This applies to Yajur-mantras in prose and not to metrical ones. 

3. Vindhya is a technical term indicating a part ofa Sama Stanza. The 
parts are enumerated in VV 38-39. Prastava is beginning of the hymn, Prati- 329 

{beginning) (3) Pranava Orhkara) (4) Gita (Song) is the 
fourth one (5) the fifth one is Prati-Hotra. (6) They call 
the sixth one Upadrava (7) Nidhana (? end). Without Hrirhkara 
and Pranava it is called Paiicavindhya. 

40-41. (Defective text) On saying "Brahmane Dharma" 
(Dharma is for the sake of the Brahman), that which is implied 
and indicated then is considered Asasti (Blessing). Paridevana 
is lamentation. Narration of a question out of anger or hatred — 
this is laid down as the characteristic sign of the Mantra 
among all Vidyas. 

42-43. Mantras characterised as Rk, Yajus and Saman 
are said to be nine types:— Maz-fi (form), Nindd- (censure), 
Prasamsd, (praise), Akrofa (scolding), Tosa (contentedness), 
Prasna (question), Anujhd (permission) and Akhydna (narrative 
and modes ofblessing). 

I shall mention the different types of Mantras falling 
into twentyfour classes. 

44-46. The following are the twentyfour types of 
Mantras : 

(1) Prasarnsd (Praise) (2) Stuti (Eulogy) (3) Akroia 
(Rebuking) (4) Niridd (Censure) (5) Paridevand (Lamentation) 
(6) Abhisdpa (Curse) (7) Visdpa (Revocation of a curse) (8) 
Prasna (Question) (9) Prativacas (Reply) (10) Asis (Blessing) 
(11) Yajna (Sacrifice) (12) Aksepa (Reviling) (13) Arthdkhydna 
{Narration ofthe meaning) (14) Sarhkathd (Conversation) (15) 
Viyoga (Separation) (16) Abhiyoga (Attack) (17) Kathd (Story) 
(18) Samsthd (Situation) (19) Vara (Boon) (20) Pratisedha 
(Denial) (21) Upadesa (Advice) (22) Namaskdra (Obeisance) 
(23) Sprhd (Desire) and (24) Vildpa (Lamentation). 

Thus the twentyfour types of Mantras are mentioned. 

47-48. Ten modes or formations of the Brahmanas, 
which had been laid down formerly by the sages conversant 

Hotr is the response or supporting tune by the assistant Hotr, Upadrava is the 
fourth of the five parts of a Saman Stanza. (Sayana on Sadavimsa Br.). 
According to that Brahmana, a Saman Stanza has five parts. Hrirhkara and 
Omkara appear subsequent additions. 

330 Brahmanda Parana 

with the principles of Yajfia, are as follows — Hetu (Reason) 
Mirvacana (Specific explanation) Nindd (Censure) Prasasti, 

(Praise) Samsaya (Doubt), Mdhi (Deposit) Purdkrti (Previous 
action), Purdkalpa (Previous Kalpa), Vyavadhdrana-Kalpand 

(Conception of ascertainment), Upamd (Comparison). 

49. This is the characteristic feature of a "Brahmana" 
in regard to persons of all (vedic) branches. 

Hetu is derived from the root Hati (''/han-). It kills what 
is spoken (argued) by others. 

50. Or it can be derived from the root Hinoti meaning 
"to go" when the meaning has been arrived at. Nirvacana means 
determination of the meaning of a statement. 

51. Preceptors call it nindd where there are words of 
censure in finding fault. 

Prasasti is derived from the root (\/sams-) Samsati with 
the preposition Pra. Prasasti or Prasamsd means praise on account 
of good qualities. 

52. "This is this. This is not this". Where there is in- 
decision like this, there is Samsaya (Doubt). "This should be 
done like this". This is called Vidhi (Rule, Mode). 

53. "This is the utterance of so and so (Lit. of others 
and others) ". This is mentioned by learned men as Purdkrti (? 
Precedent). This object that is completely out of view (in 
distant past) is called Purdkalpa (A story of the past). 

54-56. The word Purd' indicates what has gone by. If 
due to its being over in the days of yore the story of the past 
is decisively fixed by means of Mantras, Brdhmanas, Kalpas 
(Ritualistic texts) and Nigamas (Vedas) of pure expanse it is 
called Vyavadhdrana Kalpand (conception of ascertainment). 
"Just as this, so also that", "This is like that" this is called 
Upamd (comparison). This is the tenth characteristic feature 
ofthe Brahmana. 

Thus, at the outset, the characteristic feature of the 
Brahmana has been laid down by learned men. 

57-58. The commentary of that Mantra as pointed 
out by the Brahmanas who know it, has been mentioned word 
by word. The application of Mantras is duly laid down in the 
holy rites. The word Mantra is derived from the root Mantrayati 331 

and Brdhmana (scriptural text) is derived from the word. 
Brahmana (Brmhana ?) 

Those who know Siitra (aphorism) say that it must be 

briefwith very few words, unambiguous, full of meaning 

and comprehensive. It must not contain any unwanted inter- 
polation. It must be free from blame. 


Vyasa and the Line of his Disciples 
Controversy between Yajriavalkya and Sdkalya 

Vdyu said : — 

1. On hearing his words, the sages aslced SiJta thereafter 
"How were the Vedas classified once again, O highly intelli- 
gent one, recount that to us." 

SUta said : — 

2. In the Dvapara Yuga that had gone before in the 
Svayambhuva Manvantara, god Brahma said to Manu : — "O 
highly intelligent one, protect the Veda. 

3. The Yuga has changed, O dear one. The twice-borns 
have become deficient in energy and vigour. All of them have 
been duly enveloped by the defects of the Yuga. 

4. Due to the Yuga, its extent is seen to have been 
reduced. What has been spolien in the Krtayuga has been, 
reduced to a ten-thousandth part. 

5. The vigour, the splendour and the strength — every- 
thing has become very much diminished. Everything perishes. 
The Vedic rites have to be performed. Let there not be the 
destruction of the Veda. 

6. If Veda meets with destruction, the Yajiia (institute) 
will be destroyed. When the Yajfia is destroyed the Veda will 
(automatically) be destroyed. Then everything perishes. 

332 Brahmanda Parana 

7. The original Veda iiad four feet and it extended to 
a liundred-tliousand (mantras). Again tlie Krsna (tlie black 
Yajurveda) was ten times that (in extent). Indeed the Yajfia 
Avas the yielder of all desires." 

8. On being told thus, Manu who was engaged in what 
was conducive to the welfare of all the worlds, said "So be it." 
Then the lord divided the Single Veda of four feet into four 

9-10. It was at the instance of Brahma as well as with 
a desire for the, welfare of all the worlds (that he divided the 
Veda). Therefore, I shall narrate to you all the classification 
of the Vedas in accordance with the current Manvantara. It is 
by adopting the mode of inferring what is beyond perception 
by means of what is (actually) perceptible, that we decide 
things of the past. O excellent ones, understand that. 

11-13. In this Yuga, Vyasa, the son of Parasara, the 
scorcher of enemies, who was well known as Dvaipayana was 
the eternal part ofVisnu. 

12. Urged by Brahma, he began to recount the Veda 

in this Yuga. For the purpose of (preserving the continuity 

of) the Vedas, he took four disciples viz. Jaimini, Sumantu, 

Vaisampayana and Paila the fourth one. There was a fifth 

(disciple) also along with these viz. Lomaharsana. 

14-16. With due formality, he accepted Paila as the 
listener (i.e. disciple) unto the Rgveda, O Brahmana, 
Vaisampayana as the expounder ofthe Yajurveda; he accept- 
edJaimini as the disciple for the Samveda and the meaning 
(ofits mantras). Similarly, he accepted Sumantu, the excellent 
sage, as the disciple for the Atharvaveda, The saintly lord 
accepted me as the disciple for Itihasas, Puranas and Kalpa- 

17. The Yajurveda was one and whole. He divided 
it into four. There was Caturhotra (four types of sacrificial 
duties) therein, and he ordained Yajiia thereby. 

18. He ordained Adhvaryava (the work of the pfiest 
Adhvaryu) by means of Yajur-Mantras and the Hautra (the 

1 . For duties to be performed by four Chief Priests viz, Hotr, Adhvaryu, 
Udgatr and Brahma in a sacrifice, vide the next verse. 

1.2.34. 19-24b 33» 

work of the priest Hotr) by means ofRk Mantras; he perform- 
ed Audg&ira (the work ofthe priest Udgatr) by means ofSaman 
Mantras and the duty of Brahma (the presiding priest) by 
means ofAtharvan Mantras. 

19-20. Thereafter, by picking out the Rk. Mantras, he 
composed the Rgveda. By selecting Hotrka Mantras, the lord 
ofthe Universe composed the Yajurveda. He composed Sama- 
veda by means ofthe Saman Mantras and thereby he got the 
work of Udgatr performed. He performed all the rites ofthe 
king by means ofthe Atharvaveda. 

21. By means of narratives and subsidiary narratives, 
folksongs, utterances from Kalpa texts etc. Vyasa who was an 
expert in the meanings ofthe Puranas composed the Purana 

22. Whatever remained he included it in the Yajurveda 
and associated Yajna with it. This is the definite conclusion in 
the scriptural texts that it (came to be called) Yajurveda on 
account of Yajana (Sacrifice). 

23-24a. Since the feet (of mantra verses) are excessively 
long, the Yajur Mantras are very intricate. This Veda with 
excessive vigour is utilised by a hundred Rtviks who have per- 
fectly mastered the Vedas. It is with this that the horse-Sacri- 
fice is fully developed. 

24b. Taking up the Rk-Mantras, Paila classified them 
into two groups. After composing two Sarhhitas the eminent 

1. VV.24b-33 describe the divisions of the Rgveda along with the 
principal teachers thereof 




(4 branches) 









Manclukeya (complete Rgveda) 

Satyasravas (Cont.) 

.334 Brahmanda Parana 

preceptor handed them over to his two disciples — one to 
Indrapramati and the other one to Baskala. 

26. The excellent Brahmana, Baskala composed four 
Samhitas and taught his disciples who were eagerly engaged 
in serving him and who were desirous ofhis welfare. 

27. The four Samhitas are as follows : The first branch 
is Bodhya; the second branch is Agnimatr; the third one is 
Parasarl and the last one is Yajiia valkya. 

28. Indrapramati, the excellent sage taught one (un- 
divided) Samhita. He taught the highly fortunate and famous 

29-30. That sage of great fame taught his eldest son 
Satyasravas. The renowned sage Satyasravas taught his son 
Satyahita. Satyahita taught his son Satyasrl who was noble- 
souled and who was eagerly devoted to truthfulness and piety. 

31. Satyasrl had three disciples who had great brilliance, 
were learned, and were eagerly devoted to the clear grasp of 
the scriptural texts. 

32-33. Sakalya was the first among them. Another one 
•was Rathltara and the third one was Bharadvaja the son of 
Baskala — these were those who made the Sakhas (of that 
Veda) function (and flourish). 

Sakalya (also known as) Devamitra was haughty and 
arrogant on account of his knowledge. O Brahmana, he was 
.-slain during the Yajfia of Janaka. 

Sdmiapdyana enquired : — 

34-35. How was that sage who was haughty and arrogant 
on account ofhis knowledge slain during the horse-sacrifice of 
Janaka? How did the argument begin? Why did it start at 



Salalya Rathltara Bharadvaja 

oi" (Son of Baskala) 

Devamitra 335 

all? With whom was the argument done ? Mention all these as 
they had happened as it is linown to you.' 

Siita said : — 

36. There was a great assemblage (of learned men) 
during the horse-sacrifice of Janaka. Many thousands ofsages 
came there. 

37-38.- All of them were desirous ofwatching that Yajiia 
•of the saintly king Janaka. On seeing the Brahmanas who 
arrived, he had his curiosity aroused — "Who is the most 
excellent Brahmana among these ? How can I come to that 
•decision ?" After thinking thus, the king hit upon an intelligent 

39-41a. He brought the following articles (as gift) viz. 
A thousand cows, plenty of gold, villages, jewels and maid- 
servants. The king then announced to the sages, "O sages of 
excellent fortune, I bow down my head unto all of you. The 
wealth that has been brought here is for the most excellent one 
among you. O excellent Brahmanas, know that my wealth is 
for you."* 

41b-45. On hearing the words of Janaka and on seeing 
the most valuable wealth, those sages well-versed in the Vedas 
became greedy. They were desirous of seizing the same. 

They challenged one another in their height of arrogance 
due to Vedic knowledge, with their mind dwelling on the 
riches displayed. They began to quarrel and claim thus — "This 
wealth (ought to) be mine. This is mine and not yours". 
Another said : "Say, why do you swagger". 

Owing to the fault of wealth, they began to argue in 
"various ways. 

1. The story how Sakalya lost his life as a result of his discomfiture in 
his disputation with Yajiiavall^ya is based on the dispute recorded in the 
Bfhadaranyaka Upa III. 8. 12-26. The difference between the stories is that in 
the Brhad-Upa it was after Gargi that Sakalya accepted Yajiiavalkya's challenge. 

This is a good picture of disputations held in royal courts, the appoint- 
ment of referees and the methodology of disputations in ancient India. 

* For me vittam vittam dvijottamah / of the text Va. P. 60. 38b (identical 
verse) reads: (tasmai tad upanitam) hi vidya-vittam dvijottamah / 'This is brought 
as the prize for scholarship* etc. 


Brahmanda Parana 

But there was another scholar there who was a great seer 
and also the son of god Brahma, called Yajnavalkya. He was 
endowed with great splendour; he was a great ascetic and was 
the most excellent among those who had realized Brahman. 
Yajfiavalkya who was born of a part of Brahma, proclaimed 
loudly : 

46. He said to his disciple who was the most excellent 
among the knowers of Brahman, "Take this wealth, O dear 
one and take it home. There is no doubt about it that this is 

47. 1 am the sole arguer in all arguments. No one else is 
equal to me. If any learned man is not pleased (with this) let 
him challenge'me without delay." 

48. Then the vast expanse of the ocean-like crowd of 
Brahmanas became agitated like an ocean in the deluge. There- 
upon, Yajfiavalkya who was absolutely calm and normal said 
smilingly : 

49. "O learned men, do not get angry. All of you are 
speakers of truth. Let us speak (i.e. argue) in accordance with 
our capacity, trying to understand each other". 

50-51. Thereafter, their arguments were accepted with 
many words and thousands of splendid meanings originating 
from subtle vision (of Branches of Philosophy). There were 
examiners engaged by the king. They were endowed with good 
qualities, embellished * with places of spiritual learning both of 
the worldly matters as well as in the Veda (i.e. they had com- 
petence in secular as well as religious topics for discussion). 

52. The arguments between the noble-souled scholars 
began for the purpose of winning the wealth. All the sages were 
on one side and Yajfiavalkya was on the other. 

53. Thereafter, all those sages were individually asked by 
the intelligent Yajfiavalkya. They did not reply. (They were 
unable to reply). 

54. After conquering all the sages, that (sage) of great 
intellect, a mass of Vedic wisdom, suddenly spoke to Sakalya, 
the originator of arguments. 

55. "O Sakalya, speak out what is relevant. Why do 
you remain (silent) meditating. The stake has been deposited 337 

by the Yajamana (i.e. the King on whose behalf they are to 
perform sacrifice etc.) and has been taken away and held 
by me" . 

56. On being attacked thus, his face and eyes became 
red like copper due to anger. In the presence of the sages he 
spoke to Yajiiavalkya accompanied by his man (i.e. the 

57. "Slighting us as well as other excellent Brahmanas 
like blades of grass, you wish to seize for yourself the gift of 
Wealth of great value, as a prize for learning". 

58. On being spoken thus by Sakalya, Yajiiavalkya 
said to him, — "Know that the strong point of Brahmisthas. 
(persons engrossed in the meditation on Brahman) is the vision 
(insight) of the principles of learning and objects of reality. 

59. Love or desire has its association with wealth. Hence 
we love wealth. Brahmanas are Kamaprafiias (those who can. 
ask whatever they wish). Hence, we speak out the question as 
we please. 

60-61. This is the reward ofthe saintly king. Hence, the 
gift of wealth has been taken away by me". 

On hearing these words (of Yajiiavalkya), Sakalya be- 
came extremely infuriated. In order to ask the question as he 
pleased, he spoke these words to Yajiiavalkya — "Now reply to- 
me factually whatever question (1 am pleased to ask) pointed 
out by me." 

62. Then a great argument took place between those 
two knowers of Brahman. More than a thousand questions 
were put then by Sakalya. 

63. Even as the other sages listened— Yajiiavalkya re- 
plied everything. Sakalya had no further argument or question. 
Yajiiavalkya spoke to him. 

64. "Answer at least one question put by me, O Sakalya 
as I please. 

In this disputation with the stake of (the wealth offered 

* For sa-puru}am ofthe text, Va P. 60.51b reads tarn parusam (spoke- 
harsh words to him) — a better reading. 

338 Brahmanda Parana 

by Janaka as bait) or instantaneous death liere (ifyou fail to 

65. Which is well associated with the subtlest of know- 
ledge — Sankhya or Yoga? which is more important, the path of 
spirituality or the path of meditation?"' 

66. Then the questionwas put forward by the intelligent 
Yajfiavalkya. Unable to know it (and reply), Sakalya had to 
court death. 

67-68. Thus, it is remembered that Sakalya became 
distressed in the course ofhis explanation of the question. 

Thus a great dispute took place among (the sages) seek- 
ing wealth. There were arguments between the sages and 

Yajiiavalkya took away the gift of wealth after establish- 
ing his own fame. Surrounded by his disciples (that learned 
sage) of great self-control went home. 


The Legend of Yajiiavalkya 's receiving the Veda from 

the Sun-God :' Legend of Vyasa : Description of 

Svayambhuva Manvantara 

SUta said : — 

1. Sakalya (otherwise known as) Devamitra, an intelli- 
gent noble-soul, a leading Brahmana who Was the foremost 

* Va P. 60.58b reading is more explicit: 

Sdpah pano'sya vadasya abruvan mrtyum avrajet. 

1. Tlie last question of Yajiiavalkya to Sakalya in the Br had. Upa 
was about Aupanisada Purusa and not about the superiority of the path of 
Saiikhya (spiritual wisdom) or Yoga (path of meditation) as in this Purana. 

2. The Legend that Yajiiavalkya received a new Veda (the white 
Yajurveda) from the Sun-god is as old as the Mbh. Santi 318.6-12. But this 
cha pter in the Mbh. does not mention his guru's order to recan t the Yajurveda 
learnt by Yajiiavalkya trom him due to KiT-insolence and uncharitab 
remarks about his class-mates' capacity to perform that penance. 

XC/YA fe'^ /W °r'"^ //rw*. fa 

Ar P 339 

among those who were conversant with the Vedas, composed 
five Samhitas.' 

2. He had five disciples viz. Mudgala, Golihala, 
Khallyan, Sutapas and the fifth his dear (child) Saisireya. 

3. The excellent Brahmana (?) expounded three 
Samhitas viz. Saka, Vaina and Rathltara. He composed a fourth 
(work) the Nirukta. 

4. He had four disciples viz. Paila, Iksalaka, Satabalaka 
the intelligent and Gaja, O excellent Brahmanas. 

5. Bharadvaja, son of Baskala, expounded three Samhitas. 
He had three noble-souled disciples endowed with good 

6. They were, Tvapanapa the intelligent, Pannagari the 
wise one and the third one Arjava. All ofthem were praise- 
worthy, ofholy observances due to the power of penance. 

7. They were devoid of passion. They had great splend- 
our. They were perfect masters ofthe Samhitas. 

Thus have been described the Bahvrcas by whom the 
Samhitas were made to function. 

8-9. The disciple of Vaisampayana composed Yajurveda. 
Eightysix splendid Sariihitas^ were expounded by him. He gave 

1. In continuation ofnote 1. p. 333 the spiritual or academic genealogy 
•cf Paila from Sakalya onwards is as follows: 


Mudgala Gokhala Khaliyan Sutapas Saisireya 

Composition of three Sariihitas 

and the Nirukta (Son of Sakalya) 

Paila Iksalaka Satabalaka Gaja 

Bharadvaja (expounded 3 Samhitas) 

Tvapanapa Pannagari Arjava. 

2. Cf. yajurvedasya sadasiti bhedd bkavanti CVS P. 31. 

340 Brahmanda Parana 

them to his disciples and they grasped them in accordance with 
the injunctions. One of them, Yajnavalkya of supreme power 
of penance, was excluded' (? by the preceptor). 

10. There were eightysix disciples, the propounders of 
diverse Sarhhitas and there were three different kinds in every 
one ofthem. 

11. The three kinds in the splendid last variety of Veda 
are the (1) Northern (2) of the middle region and (3) the 
eastern one. 

12-13. Syamayani became the leader of the Udicyas 
(Northerners). Asuri is remembered as the first founder of (the 
Vedic branch) of the middle region. Alambi is the foremost 
among the Pracyas (Easterners). There are (thus) the three 
regional heads.'' 

Thus the Carakas, the Brahman expounders of the 
Sarhhitas have been described. 

The sages said : — 

14. Why are they (called) Carakddhvaryus ? Tell the 
reason factually. What is the (rite) observed (by them)? For 
what reason did they attain the status of Caraka. 

Suta said : — 

15. The sages had some work to do, O excellent 
Brahmana. After reaching the top of the Meru, they conferred 
with one another as follows : 

16. "Ifany excellent Brahmana does not turn up here 
within seven days, he shall (have to) perform (expiation for) 
Brahmana-slaughter ( Brahma- Haty a). This is proclaimed as our 
stipulated condition." 

17. Thereafter, all of them excepting Vaisampayana 
went to the place where the assemblage had been fixed. (They 
attended along with all the members of their groups). 

1. It is not clear whether Yajiiavalkya was not taught Yajurveda or 
was made to vomit it and hence became Veda-less one. In other words, 
Vaisampayana must have taught Yajur-Veda to Yajiiavalkya. 

2. As stated in the footnote on Ch. XXIII, the Ust of Carakas is differ- 
ent in the CVS. 341 

18. At the instance of the Brahmanas, he performed 
(the atonement for) Brahma-Hatya. After calling together all 

the disciples he said : — ' 

19. "Perform (the expiation of) Brahma-Hatya on my 
behalf, O excellent Brahmanas. All of you gather together and 
utter the words conducive to welfare, as desired. 

Yajnavalkya said ; — 

20. "1 shall perform it single-handed. Let these sages 
stand by. Purified by my own penance, 1 shall lift it up 
with my power". 

21. On being told thus, he (Vaisampayana) became 
angry and expelled Yajnavalkya. He said "Return to me every 
thing that has been learned by you". 

22. On being told thus, (the sage) the most excellent 
one among the knowers of Brahman, vomited out the Yajur 
Mantras that had perceptible forms and had been smeared 
with blood. 

23. Thereafter, the Brahmana meditated upon the sun- 
godand propitiated him. The Veda that had come up went 
over to the sun and stayed there. 

24. The sun-god who was pleased with him gave unto 
Brahmarati (i.e. Yajfiavalkya who had the fund ofVedic know- 
ledge) those Yajur Mantras that had gone up to the Solar 

25-27. Martanda (the Sun) gave those Yajur-Mantras to 
the intelligent Yajfiavalkya who had assumed the form of 
horse.' (Some) Brahmanas study those Yajur Mantras by some 
means or the other. The Mantras had been given to (Yajiiaval- 
kya) who had assumed the form of a horse. Hence, those 
Brahmanas became Vdjins. Those by whom (the expiation for) 
Brahma-Hatya had been observed are remembered as Carakas 
because they had performed (Carandt) the atonement. The dis- 
ciples ofVaisampayana are detailed as Carakas) / 

1. As contrasted with the Mbh and other Puranas, here it is Yajiia- 
valliya who assumes the form of a horse and not the Sun-god, while receiving 
the new Veda. 

2. The Brahmanas who performed penance for warding off the sin of 
Brahma-hatya of their guru are called Carakas — a popular etymology. 

342 Brahmanda Pur ana 

Thus these Carakas have been recounted. Now under- 
stand the Vajins. 

28-30. There are fifteen Vajins. They are the disciples 
ofYajiiavalkya viz. - Kanva, Baudheya Madhyandina, his son, 
Vaidheya,Addha,Bauddhaka, Tapanlya, Vatsa, Jabala, Kevala, 
AvatI, Pundra, Vainoya and Parasara.' These are mentioned as 
Vajins. They are fifteenexcellent men. The branches of Yajur 
Mantras should be known as one hundred and one. 

31. Jaimini taught his son Sumantu.* Sumantu taught 
his son Sutvan. 

1. Cf. the list of disciples ofYajiiavalkya in CVS. p. 32 as tliat list 
somewhat differs from tlie list in tlie Bd. P. 

2. VV. 31-55 .give the genealogy of Samaveda Teachers. It is different 
from that in CVS. 'Our text gives it as follows: 




Sukarraan (studied 1000 Sarhhitas) 

[ (One thousand disciples, one per Sanihita 

j (But these were killed by Indra as noted in CVS. p. 43) 

Pausyaiiji King Hirariyanabha alias 

(Studied 500 Sarhhitas) Kaus'alya (Studied 500 Samhitas 

and Eastern Samagas) 
Prince Krta 

(Udlcya (Northern) Samagas) 


Laugaksi Kusunii Kusidi Laiigali) 

(Kuthumi in Va.P.) 

Schooi ofLaugaksi 

Nadayaniya Tandiputra Anovaina Susahas Sunaman 

School of Kusumi 

Auras a Parasara Nabhirvitta 

Kauthunia, son of Parasara had six followers — Lahgalas alias Salihotras viz. 
Halini, Jyaniahani, Jaimini, Lomagayani, Kandu and Kohala, these expound- 
ed 6 Sarhhitas.' 343 

32-33. Sutvan taught his son Sukarman. Sukarman 
quickly studied a thousand Sarhhitas and expounded them to 
a thousand disciples who had the splendour of the sun. As they 
were studying during the days (when they should not be 
studied) Indra slew them. 

34. Thereafter, for the sake of his disciples he perform- 
ed Protest fast unto death (Prayopavesana). On seeing him 
furious, Indra granted him a boon. 

35. "You will have two disciples ofgreat vigour and 
unequalled splendour. Let those two extremely intelligent 
(disciples) study the thousand Samhitas. 

36-38. O excellent Brahmana, these highly fortunate 
gods (Devas) have become furious". 

After saying this to Sukarman of great fame, the glorious 
Vasava (Indra) saw that the anger ofthe Brahmana had calmed 
down and (so) the lord vanished suddenly. His disciples were 

King Hiranya-nabha 

Prince Krta 
Composed 24 Saniliitas (tauglit one to each student) 

Senior disciples 

1. Radi 

2. Radaviya (Mahavirya in Va.P.) 

3. Paiicania 

4. Valiana 

5. Talalca 

6. Mandnka (Pandalia in Va P.) 

7. Kalika 

8. Rajika 

9. Gautama 
to. Ajabasta 

11. Soma-rajayana 

12. Pusp 

13. Parikrsta 

14. UIGkhalaka. 

It may be noted that the number of disciples is 22, to make it 24, we must 
add their teachers Hiranya-nabha and Krta. 

Lastly this Parana differs considerably from the CVS in names of teachers 
ofthe Samaveda (vide CVS, pp. 43-46). 

Junior Disciples 


Sali (Vaisala in Va.P.) 








Paka (Kapiya in Va.P.) 







344 Brahmanda Purana 

(1) The intelligent and highly excellent Brahmana Pausyafiji 
and the second one (2) Hiranyanabha alias Kausalya who was 
a king. Pausyanji taught half a thousand (i.e. 500) Sarhhitas. 

39. The splendid disciples ofPausyafiji were known by 
the name Udlcya Samans. Kausilya studied five Samhitas 
called Sattvas* (?) 

40. The disciples of Hiranyanabha are remembered as 
Pracya Samagas. The four disciples of Pausyanji were Laug- 
aksi, Kusumi, Kusldi and Langali. Now understand the 
different branches of these. 

41. The different branches of (the school of) Laugaksi 
are -Nadayanlya, Tandiputra (son ofTandi), from him a fine 
scholar named Anovaina, Susahas son of Sakoti, and Sunaman. 
Understand these as the members of the different branches of 
the school of Laugaksi. 

42-44. Kusumi had three disciples viz. Aurasa, Parasara 
and the brilliant Nabhivitta. Thus, the Kausumas are remem- 
bered of three types. 

Saurisu and Srngiputra (son of Srngi) —these two observed 
holy rites for a long time. 

Ranayanlya and Saumitri were experts in Sama Veda. 
Srngiputra of great penance expounded three Samhitas. 

45. Vaina, Pracinayoga and Surala were excellent 
Brahmanas. Kauthuma Parasarya (son of Parasara) expounded 
six Samhitas. 

46. Asurayana and Vaisakhya were devotedly attached 
to the elderly Vedic scholars. 

The intelligent Pataiijali was the son of Praclna Yoga. 

47. The branches of (the school of) Kauthuma, son of 
Parasara are remembered as six. Langala (otherwise known as) 
Salihotra expounded six Samhitas. 

48. Halini, Jyamahani, Jaimini, Lomagayani, Kandu 
and Kohala — these six are remembered as the followers of 

49. These were the disciples of Langali and Samhitas 

* SaUvani paiica in the text is wrong, as Kausalya studied five hundred 
Sarhhitas. Va. P. 61. 35 correctly reads Satani paiica.* 345 

were founded and promulgated by them. One alone, a prince 
Krta (was made) the disciple of Hiranya-Nabha. 

50. He composed twentyfour Samhitas. The foremost 
among bipeds expounded them to his disciples. Understand 
their names. 

51-55. Radi, Radavlya, Paiicama, Vahana, Talalia, 
Manduka, Kalika, Rajika, Gautama, Ajabasta, Somarajayana, 
Pusti, Parikrsta and Ultikhalaka (were the elder ones). The 
younger ones were Sail, Anguliya, Kausika, Salimafijarl, Paka, 
Sadhlya, Kanini and the virtuous soul Parasarya — Thus the 
Samagas have been recounted. 

Among all the Samagas, Pausyaftji and Krta are declar- 
ed as the most excellent ones. They were expounders of 

O Brahmanas ! Sumantu divided Atharvan into two and 
gave them to his disciples.' 

56-58. He gave Kabandha the black (Atharvan Man- 
tra). That scholar Kabandha classified it into two even as he 
listened to it and passed them on, one to Pathya and the second 
to Devadarsa. That lordly sage classified it into four. 
Devadarsa's four disciples were Moda, Brahmabala, Pippalada 
and Saulkayani was the fourth one. He was conversant with 

1. VV. 55-62 give the list of branclies and teachers of the Atharva 
Veda. It is different from the information in CVS, pp. 46-49. The genealogy 
in this Purana is as follows: 


(received Black Atharvan) 

Pathya Devadarsa 
I 1 

Moda Brahmabala Pippalada Saulkayani 

Jajali Kumudadi Sauna ka 

Babhru Saindhavayana 

or Munjakejya 

346 Brahmanda Purana 

Dharma and he was established (and engrossed) in penance. 
All these four disciples ofDevadarsa were firm observers of holy 

59. Know that the further excellent classification of 
Pathyas is three-fold. (The disciples were) Jajali, Kumudadi 
and the third one is remembered as Saunaka. 

60. Saunaka divided the Samhita into two and handed 
over one to Babhru. The intelligent sage transferred (taught) 
the second Samhita to (a disciple) named Saindhavayana. 

61-62. Saindhava (otherwise known as) Muiijakesya 
split into two the Samhita already divided into two. 

The excellent divisions' of Atharvan Samhita are as 
follows :- Naksatrakalpa, Vaitana, the third one Sarhhita- 
Vidhi, the fourth one the Kalpa of Aiigiras and the fifth one 

63-65. O excellent sages, Khadga* (?) expounded the 
Purana along with me.* 

The following are said to be my disciples who cling 
closely to the Puranas viz. Atreya, the intelligent Sumati, 
Kasyapa, Akrtavrana, Bharadvaja, Agnivarcas, Vasistha, 
Mitrayu, Savarni, Somadatti, Susarman and Samsapayana. 
Three Samhitas were composed by three of them. 

66. Kasyapa, Savarni and Samsapayana are the com- 
posers of Samhitas. My Samhita shall be the fourth one. These 
four are the original (purana) Samhitas. 

67. All of them have four Padas (feet/sections). All of 
them have the same import. In the alternate reading, they are 
futile in the same way as the branches of the Vedas. 

1. The divisions of the Atharva Veda are five : (1) Naksatra-Kalpa, 
(2) Vaitana, (3) Saihhita-Vidhi (4) Aiigiras-Kalpa (5) Santi-Kalpa. Pro- 
bably (2) is the Vidhana-Kalpa and (3)is the Sarhhita-Kalpa as in the CVS, 
p. 46. 

* This reading is meaningless. Va P. 61. 55 reads safiah (krtva)' divid- 
ing in six parts'. O excellent sages ! Having divided in six parts the Puraija 
has been assigned by me (to my pupils). 

2. W. 63-69 sum up the position regarding the Purana tradition en- 
trusted to Romaharsana, the Suta. Although he had six disciples, the Puranas 
were composed by Romahar?ana (the original Samhita), Kasyapa, Savarni 
and Samsapayana. These Puranas consisted of four Pddas (parts) each and of 
4000 verses in each Purana (except that of Samsapayana). 347 

68-69. All of them comprise four thousand verses 
except Sariisapayanika. Laumaharsanika is the original one. 
Kasyapika is the next one. Savarnika is the third oneembellish- 
ed with straight-forward statements and themes, The Sariisa- 
payanika Samhita is embellished by impressive and inspiring 

70.' There are altogether eight thousand and six hundred 
Rk Mantras. There are fifteen, ten and ten more Rks (35 i.e. 
altogether 8635). 

71-73. 'Along with the Valakhilya and Suparna hymns 
they are stated to be seven* (?) 

The Saman Mantras altogether are eight thousand and 
fourteen. The Samagas sing this along with the Aranyakas and 
"Ho -Ha" **. 

The Adhvaryava consists of twelve thousand verses' and 
Yajur Mantras. Vyasa composed as many Yajur and Brahmana 
Mantras along with Grdmya (rural), Aranyaka (Forest) and re- 
citation of sacred texts (scriptural divisions). 

74. Henceforth, there is the qualifying adjective Piirva 
(former) for the Kathas (Stories) (?). The Rk, Brahmana 
and Yajus are remembered as containing Grdmya, Aranyaka 
Mantras (?). 

75. So also the additional hymns known as Khilas and 
Upakhilas of the disciples of Hari-dru. Similarly, the additional 

1. VV. 70-72 : According to this text tlie Rgveda consists of 8635 
Rl(s, but actually tlie number is 10552 of the Sakala Samhita according to 
Satvalekar's Svadhyaya Mandal edition — a figure supported by (V.S. p. 17. 
The Sama Veda is said to be of 8014 mantras, though actually the present 
Sama Samhita consists of 1810 mantras out of which only 75 are of Sama, 
the rest belong to the RV. The CVS. com., however, supports our Purana 
as follows: 

Asfau Sdmasahafrdni samani ca caturdasa. 

2. The number of mantras of Adhvaryava is given as 12000 Yajur 
mantras, (12330 in Svadhyaya mandal edition). 

* The text is obscure. Va P. 61.62b reads, 

vdlakhilyah sahapTaifdh sa-savarndh prakirtitdh j 

'Valakhilyas along with Savarnas and with assistant Priests' — But there, 
this line is a continuation of previous two lines which are identical with V. 70" 

** Sahomam 'along with homa' in Va P. 61.63. 

34 8 Brahmanda Purana 

Mantras of Taittirlyas are remembered as Paraksudras (every 
short verses like Ksudra stikta). 

76. In the Veda of Vajasaneyakas, the total number of 
Rk Mantras is reckoned as one thousand nine hundred. The 
Brahmana portion is four times that.' 

77. The total number of Yajur Mantras and Rks is eight 
thousand eight hundred and eighty, along with Sukriya (Samas 
belonging to Pravargya and) Khila (Additional) Mantras 

according to) Yajfiavalkya. 

78-81. Similarly, listen to (the number of verses) of 
Carana Vidyas (a school of Atharva Veda) alongwith its extent 

The total number of Rks (according to various Sakhas) 
is said to be six thousand twenty-six.^ Yajur Mantras, it is 
said, are somewhat more than this. 

There are eleven thousand ten Rks. 

There are ten thousand and eighty Rks. 

There are one thousand and thirty Rk Mantras according 
to the authorities. 

This much is the extent of Rk Mantras. 

Another thing about Atharvan Mantras. It is the conclu- 
sion that according to Bahvrcas the Atharvan Mantras are 
five thousand. 

82. It should be known by the sages that there are a 
thousand more excepting twenty (i.e. nine hundred and 

1. This verse is a quotation from Katyayana as per com. of CVS, 
p. 39. Tile number ofverses in Vajasaneyi Samhita is 1900 as per our text and 
Katyayana. But V. 77 states tliat the total no ofYajur mantras, RKS along 
with Sukiiya (i.e. Vajasaneyi Saihhita Ch. 36-40 or the Pravargya section of 
Saman verse and Khila mantras is 8880 according to Yajiiavalkya. 

2. W 78-81 give the extent of the Atharva Veda. According to our 
text the number of Rk (mantras) in the Atharva is 6026 but the Svadhyaya 
Mandal edition gives 5977 mantras. I believe the plural Carana-Vidyanam in 
V. 78a should be interpreted to include the nine schools of the Atharva 
Veda such as Paippala, Saunaka, Danta and others mentioned in CVS. But 
the CVS, later states that the five Kalpas viz. Naksatra, Vidhana, Vidhi- 
Vidhana, Sarhhita and Santi each consists of 500 (Pahca-Satani) mantras, 
but the total of these is given twelve thousand (CVS, pp 46-47). It appears 
that our Purana writer gives traditional round figures without verifying (and 
counting the mantras in) the original Sarhhitas. 349- 

eighty). What is said liere is in accordance witli Angirasas.' 
Tliey liave Aranyalias also. 

83. Tiius, tiie number is reclconed. Tiie different brandi- 
es are mentioned. Tiie originators of tlie branciies and tlie 
causes of difference (are also mentioned). 

84. There are differences of branches (of Vedic schools} 
in all the Manvantaras in this manner. The Sruti (as uttered 
by) Prajapati is eternal. These are remembered as their alter- 
native recensions. 

85-86. On account of the fact that the Devas are not 
eternal, the Mantras originate, again and again.' The differ- 
ences among the Srutis during Dvapara Yugas have been 

Thus, after classifying the Vedas and handing them over 
to his disciples, the godly excellent sage went to the forest for 
performing penance. 

87-89a. These different schools ofVedic branches have 
been evolved by his disciples and the disciples of his disciples. 

There are fourteen Vidyas (Lores) viz. the six Vedangas- 
(Ancillary subjects), the four Vedas, the Mimamsa and Nyaya 
Vistara (Logic), Dharmasastra and Purana (Mythology). 

Four more lores viz. Ayurveda (Medicine), Dhanurveda 
(Science of archery) Gdndharva (Musicology), these three to- 
gether with Arthasdstra (Economics, Political economy) constitute 
(along with the former ones) the eighteen lores.' 

1. The old name of the Atharva veda was Atharvaiigirasa. The- 
Atharvan mantras were auspicious while the Arigiras mantras pertain to black, 
magic. According to this Purana the number of such mantras (including those- 
in the Brahmana portion) is 980. 

2. It is a pet theory of our author that Devas are not eternal but 
mantras are so, and they manifest themselves again and again in the new world- 
order on new creation of the universe. 

3. Traditionally there are fourteen vidyas (lores or sciences) but by 
adding four subsidiary Vedas, they are regarded as eighteen. CVS, p. 47 give* 
the following relations between vedas and upavedas. 

Veda Upaveda 

The Rgveda The Ayurveda (Science of medicine) 

The Yajurveda The Dhanurveda (Military Science) 

The Samaveda The Gaudharva veda (Music) 

The Atharvaveda The Artha Sastra (Economics, Politics, 

Administration, Architecture. 

350 Brahmanda Pur ana 

89b-90a. It should be known that Brahmarsis are the 
earliest ones, thereafter the Devarsis and then the Rajarsis.' 
Thus the sources oforigin of the sages are three. 

90b-91. Expounders of Brahman (or Veda) are born in 
the five families viz. — Kasyapas, Vasisthas, Bhrgus, Angirasas 
and Atris. 

Since they approach (rsanti) Brahma, they are remember- 
ed as Brahmarsis. 

92-95. The Devarsis are the sons of Dharma, Pulastya, 
Kratu, Pulaha, Pratyflsa, Deva (Prabhasa as per Va.P.) and 
Kasyapa. Know them by name. 

The Devarsis (divine sages) Nara and Narayana are the 
sons ofDharma; the Valakhilyas are the sonsofKratu; Kar- 
dama is the son of Pulaha; Kubera is the son of Pulastya; Dala 
is the son of Pratyusa; Narada . and Parvata are the sons 
•cf Kasyapa. 

They are remembered as Devarsis because they approach 
the Devas. 

96. The kings born of the family ofManu, the family 
of Pururavas, the scions of the families of Iksvaku and Nab- 
haga — these should be known as Rajarsis (saintly kings). 

97. Since they approach the subjects befriending and 
delighting them, they are called Rajarsis. 

Brahmarsis devoid of impurities are remembered as those 
•who are well established in the region of Brahma. 

98. The splendid Devarsis should be known as those 
•who are well established in the world ofthe Devas. 

All Rajarsis are considered to be those (who are) well 
established in the world of Indra. 

99-103. I shall tell the characteristics of those who, on 

account of their nobility ofbirth, penance and ability to utter 

(compose and recite) mantras, are proclaimed as Bramharsis 

(Brahmanical sages), divine sages (Devarsis) and Rajarsis 

(Royal sages). 

They have the knowledge ofthe past, present and future; 
they invariably utter the truth; they are self-contented, self- 

1. W. 89 - 1 03 define the terms Brahmarsi, Devarsi, Rajarsi, enume- 
rate their names and describe their powers, competence etc. 351 

enlightened and famous on account of their penance; they are 
able to realise everything even while in the womb; they com- 
pose and recite Mantras, are able to go everywhere on account 
of their masterly super-power; they are Devasj Brahmanas and 
Kings — those who have acquired all these are considered to be 

Seven of them with seven characteristic good features are 
remembered as the seven Sages.' 

104-106. They are long-lived; they compose Mantras; 
they have divine vision acquired from Isvara (God) ; they have 
started their own lineage; they are perpetually engaged in the 
enlightenment and can perceive things directly; they have 
six holy rites; they are modest householders; they deal with 
every one impartially, faultlessly and in a manner that they 
cause good religious acts. They sustain themselves by means of 
tasty exudations prepared by themselves and not all base; 
they are intelligent householders; they live deep inside the 

107. In Krta and the other Yugas, at the very outset 
the establishment of the four castes and stages of life is carried 
out by all ofthem. 

108. In the early years of the advent of Treta-Yuga 
again, these seven sages introduce and establish the division of 
social classes (Varnas) and stages of life everywhere. 

109-110. Heroes and warriors are born again and again in 
their lineage. The father begets a son and the son later on 
becomes a father(?). Thus the line continues without a breaii till 
the end of the Yuga. The number of these householders is 
said to be eighty eight thousand. 

111. These (householders) resort to the Pitryana to the 
South ofAryaman (Sun). They take wives unto themselves and 
perform Agnihotra sacrifices and they are remembered as causes 
of progeny. 

112. The householders are innumerable. They resort to 
cremation grounds. Eightyeight thousand ofthem are placed 
in the Northern path. 

1. W. 104-108 describe the special qualifications and characteris- 
tics of Saptarsis (Seven Sages) as it is theirjob to create law, order and dharma 
at the beginning ofa Ynga and establish a well organised society. 

352 Brahmanda Parana 

113. They are the sages with sublimated sexual impulses 
and it is reported that they have reached heaven. Composers 
of Mantras and Brahmanas are born at the end of the 

114-115. Thus, they are repeatedly reborn in the Dvapara 
Ages. They are the composers ofKalpa texts (Ritualistic Texts) 
and .different scriptures and treatises on Arsa-Vidya* (Lores 
pertaining to the Sages). 

Vedic rites are put into practice by them again and again 
in the Dvapara Yugas in the Vaivasvata Manvantara. 

116. The vedas were classified twenty-eight times by the 
great sages.' During the first Dvapara, the Vedaswere classified 
by the self-born lord himself. 

117. During the second Dvapara, Prajapati was the 
Vedavyasa (classifier of the Vedas). In the UMQ Dvapara, 
Usanas was the classifier and Brhaspati (was such arranger) in 
the fourth. 

118. Savitr was the classifier in the fifth Dvapara; lord 
Mrtyu is remembered (as the Vyasa) in the sixth Dvapara. 
Indra (did the same) in the seventh and Vasistha in the 

119. Sarasvata in the ninth, Tridhaman in the tenth; 
Trivarsa in the eleventh and Sanadvaja (was the Vyasa) there- 
after (i.e. in the 12th). 

1. As mentioned before, Vyasa is tlie designation of tlie sage who 
classifies tlie mass ofVedic mantras in four Samliitas in Dvapara Yuga. Tlie 
list ofsuch Vyasas is given in VP. Ill 3, Bh. P. 1.4. 14-25, KP I. 52. The follow- 
ing were the 28 Vyasas in each of the various Dvapara Yugas according to 
our Purana. 1. The Self-born god(Svayambhu) 2. Prajapati, 3. Usanas, 
4. Brhaspati, 5. Savitr, 6. Mrtyu, 7. Indra, 8. Vasistha, 9. Sarasvata, 10. 
Tridhaman 11. Trivarsa, 12. Sanadvaja, 13. Antariksa, 14. Dharma, 15 
Traiyaruni, 16. Dhanaiijaya, 17. Krtaiijaya, 18. Rjisa, 19. Bharadvaja, 
20. Gautama, 21. Uttama, 22. Haryavana, 23. Vena. 20. Vajasravana 
25. Somamukhyayana, 26. Trnabindu, 27. Tataja, 28. Sakti, 29. Parasara 
30. Jatukarna 31. Dvaipayana, 32. Future Vyasa V Drauni^Asvatthaman). 

It is strange that 31 Vyasas should be mentioned instead of the prescribed 
no. 28. Moreover, there are discrepancies in the lists ofVyasas in other Puranas. 
For example KP. 1.52 gives the following different names ofVyasas 11. Rsabha, 
12. Sutejas, 14. Sucaksns, 22. Narayana, 24. Valmiki. 

* bhasya-vidyas 'Commentatorial Lores' in Va P. 61.3. 353 

120. Antarlksa (was Vyasa) in the thirteenth; Dharma 
in the fourteenth; Traiyaruni in the fifteenth and Dhanaiijaya 
in the sixteenth. 

121. Krtaiijaya in the seventeenth; Rjisa in the 
eighteenth; after RjIsa, Bharadvaja was the Vyasa and 
Gautama (was so) after Bharadvaja. 

122. After Gautama it was Uttama; Haryavana is rem- 
embered (as Vyasa) thereafter; Vena was after Haryavana and 
Vajasravas is remembered (as Vyasa) thereafter. 

123-124. Somamukhyayana was after Vajasravas and 
Trnabindu thereafter. After Trnabindu it was Tataja; Sakti is 
remembered (as Vyasa) after Tataja; Parasara (was so) after 
Sakti. Jatiikarna came thereafter and Dvaipayana is remember- 
ed (as the Vyasa) thereafter. 

125-126. Thus twentyeight Vedavyasas are the ancient 
ones. In the future Dvapara, when Dvaipayana Vedavyasa 
passes away, Droni of great power of penance, shall become 
Vedavyasa. In the future also there will be the classifications 
ofbranches (ofVedic Schools). 

127-128. Brahma had acquired Brahman (Vedic know- 
ledge) that is imperishable by means of penance. Holy rite is 
also acquired by means of penance and fame by the holy rite. 
Again, truthfulness is acquired by splendour and the 
imperishable Bliss is acquired by truthfulness. The pure, 
immortal Brahman, the imperishable Bliss, is enveloped 
and pervaded by Satya (Truth). Brahman alone is called 
Amrta (nectar immortal). 

129. It is eternal, determined as this one-syllabled Om 
alone. It is designated as the Brahman on account of its great- 
ness or (inconceivable) vastness and its quality of firmness. 

130. Obeisance to that Brahman that is established in 
Pranava (i.e. Omkara) ; that is remembered again and again 
as Bhijr, Bhuvah, Svah in the Vedas — the Atharvan, Rk, Yajus 
and Saman. 

131. Obeisance to that excellent Brahman that is desig- 
nated as the cause of annihilation and origination of the 
Universe and that is the esoteric secret beyond Mahat. 

354 Brahman da Parana 

132. It is unfathomable, unlimited and imperishable or 
inexhaustible. It is the source of origin of delusion of the 
Universe. It gets the aims of human life realised through 
illumination and activity. 

133. It is the firm support of those who have the 
knowledge of Sankhya system; it is the goal of those who 
have perfect control over their minds and sense-organs; it is 
mentioned as Avyakta (unmanifest one) ; the Brahman is the 
eternal material cause Prakrti. 

134. It is indicated and extolled as (by means ofthe 
following terms) : Pradhdna (chief), Atmayoni (source of the 
origin of the self), the mysterious secret Being or Consciousness; 
Avibhdga (undivided), Sukra (pure), Aksara (imperishable) and 
Bahttdhdtmaka (that which appears as multiformed). 

135. Perpetual and repeated obeisance unto that 
Supreme Brahman. In the Krta Yuga (as) there is no religious 
rite, how can there be persons who have not done their reli- 
gious duties? 

136-142. Whatever is doneonce in the world, that which 
is committed and omitted, what should be heard and what is 
heard, whether good or bad, what should be known and 
pondered over, what should be touched and eaten, what should 
be seen or beard or smelt somehow (isBrahman itself). 

What is shown by it is understood by the Devarsis. Who 
is competent to seek and find out what has not been pointed 
out ? It is God alone who has declared all things, everything and 
every one. Whenever anything is done by anyone, he identi- 
fies himselfwith it. 

What is done here before, is not spoken about by another. 
When something is done by some-one, somewhere and somehow, 
it is done by it alone (i.e. Brahman). The act (merely) appears 
to be that ofthe doer. 

Virakti (Absence of passion), Atirakti (too much of 
passion), knowledge and ignorance, pleasure and displeasure, 
dharma and adharma (virtue and evil), happiness and sorrow, 
death and immortality, the state of being above, below or 
at the sides — all these belong (to that Brahman) that is the 
•cause of the unseen (destiny). 

1.2.35. 143-153a 355 

143-144. They belong to the self-born lord, the eldest 
Brahma Paramesthin (the highest Deity). During the Treta 
Yugas, again and again it becomes understandable to every 
one. What is to be understood as one (the State of being a Single 
Veda) is divided and classified during Dvapara Yugas again 
and again. Brahma communicated these Vedas at the begin- 
ning, during the Vaivasvata Manvantara. 

145. Sages are repeatedly born in the Yugas again and 
again. They compose various Sariihitas as they are born of each 

146. Eighty-eight thousand Srutarsis are remembered. 
So many Sarhhitas are repeated again and again. 

147. In every Yuga, those Salihas are classified again 
and again by those who resorted to cremation grounds and 
the Southern path. 

148. In all the Dvapara Yugas, the Sariihitas (are classi- 
fied) by the Srutarsis. These Sakhas are in vogu»vagain and 
again in their Gotras (families). ~ 

149-150. The Salihas are the same and the composers 
too are the same. This is true till the end of the Yugas. In 
the same manner should be understood everything in all the 
Manvantaras of the past and the future.' 

151. There are classifications of Salchas in all the 
Manvantaras. They have passed by in the past Manvantaras; 
they exist in the current Manvantara. Whatever is going to 
take place will take place in the future Manvantaras. The 
succeeding one should be understood by means of the preced- 
ing one, and both should be understood by means of the 
current one. 

152-153a. The decisive (knowledge) regarding the Man- 
vantara is in the same manner. Thus the Devas, the Pitrs, the 
sages and the Manus go up along with the Mantras and return 
along with them. 

1. This purana repeatedly emphasises the belief that everything takes 
place in the manner by the same persons as in the previous Manvantara 
vide RV \. 190.3 Dhata yathd-purvam akalpayat. There is little that is 
absolutely unprecedented and new. 

356 Brahmanda Pur ana 

I53b-156. All the gods go to and from Janaloka again 
and again for ten Kalpas. When the time for return arrives, 
they come into contact with the inevitability of death. There- 
after, they perceive birth full of defects and preceded by ail- 
ments. So they return. Their return at that time is due to 
their seeing the defects. Thus they move to and fro ten times 
in the course of many Deva Yugas. From the Janaloka they go- 
to Tapoloka, from where they do not return.. 

157. Thus thousands of Deva-Yugas have passed by. 
They face death in the Brahmaloka along with the sages. 

158. It is not possible to describe them in detail and 
in due order because time has no beginning and numbers (are 

159-163. Manvantaras have elapsed along with the 
Kalpas, Sages, Pitrs and the Devas. They are created at the 
due period. The Yugas come and go. In this manner hundreds 
and thousands of Kalpas and Manvantaras have gone by 
along with the subjects. At the end ofa Manvantara there is 
annihilation and at the end ofannihilation there is creation. It 
is impossible to describe in due order the creation and annihi- 
lation of the Devas, Sages, Pitrs and Manvantaras even in 
the course of hundreds of years.' 

Understand the number of years of Manvantara in 
human reckoning. 

164-166. The extent of Manvantaras has been calculated 
by persons who are experts in calculation. Every Manvantara 
extends to three hundred and six million seven hundred and 
twenty thousand years without the extra years (of Sandhyas 
and Sandhyarhsas). This calculation of Manvantara is in 
accordance with human reckoning. I shall mention the 
Manvantara in accordance with the divine reckoning ofyears. 

167-168. In accordance with the divine reckoning the 
Manvantara comprises of eight hundred and fifty two thousand 
years. Fourteen times this period is called Abhutasamplava (the. 
annihilation of all living beings). A thousand sets of four 
Yugas are proclaimed as a day of Brahma. 

1. This is another way of stating the eternal nature of time. 

1.2'. 35. 169-180 357 

169-170. After that all the living beings become burned 
by the rays of the sun. Keeping Brahma at the head and 
accompanied by the Devas, Sages and the Danavas^ they enter 
lord Narayana, the most excellent among the gods. It is he 
who creates all living beings again and again, at the beginning 
period of all Kalpas. 

171. Thus this is considered to be SthitiKdla (period of 
Sustenance) along with the Devarsis. Understand the Prati- 
Sandhi (Intervening periods) ofall Manvantaras. 

172. What is called Yuga has been recounted by me 
before, O sinless ones. The period comprising of Krta, Treta 
etc. is declared as Catur-yuga (a set of four Yugas). 

173. The lord has said that the period of Manu's reign 
consists ofseventyone sets of four Yugas along with the extra 
years (ofthe Sandhyas and Sandhyariisas). 

174. Thus, the characteristic feature ofall the Manvan- 
taras past and future has been described by means of the 
present (current) one. 

175. Thus, the creation of Svayambhuva Manu has 
been recounted to you. I shall mention its Pratisandhi as well 
as that ofthe other.' 

176. A Manvantara duly repeats itself as before along 
with the sages and the Devas on account of the inevitability 
of events. 

177-179a. The lords ofthe three worlds, the seven sages, 
the Devas, the Pitrs and the Manus who had been in existence 
earlier in this Manvantara, realise the imminence of their 
death at the time when the period ofManvantara along with 
the extra years becomes complete. They know that their reign 
has come to an end. On realising this, they become sad and 
all of them are eager to go to Maharloka. 

179b-180. When that Manvantara comes to a close, 
when the period of existence is complete, those Devas may 
stay on for the period of a Krta Yuga. Then the future lords 
ofthe Manvantara are born. 

1. VV. 176 if. describe the pratisandhi — tiie transition from one Yuga 
to anotlier and from one Manvantara to anotlier. 

358 Brahmanda Pur ana 

181-186a. So also the Devas, the Pitrs, the sages and 

When the Manvantara comes to a close, when, similarly, 
the Kali Yuga also comes to an end, the Krta Yuga sets in 
even when the Kalisistas (Persons who survive the final stage 
of Kali) are present. 

Just as the continuity of the Krta Yuga is remembered as 
preceded by Kali Yuga by learned men, so also the beginning 
of Manvantaras is preceded by the ends of Manvantara. 

When the previous Manvantara has come to a close and 
another one has begun, at the beginning of the Krta Yuga, 
the seven sages and Manu who have survived, remain there 
biding their time. Their sages who have become exhausted 
wait for the (incoming) Manvantara in order to celebrate the 
advent ofthe new Manvantara and for the sake ofprogeny. 

When the creation of rainfall begins they begin to function 
as befo re . \^-^^^- 5> ^y /^ - / M •* ) 

186b-189. When "mutually opposed pairs start function- 
ing, when the medicinal herbs have begun to grow, when the 
subjects devoid ofabodes have begun to stay here and there, 
when the agricultural activities have begun, when piety and 
virtue have subsided, when the whole world is devoid of 
gaiety, when the mobile and the immobile beings are ruined 
(i.e. those that had been ruined before had not been revived), 
when (the whole society) beginning with the villages and 
ending with the towns has become devoid ofthe discipline of 
classification of castes and stages of life, those righteous 
men, the seven sages and Manu who have survived from the 
previous Manvantara, remain ready for their progeny. 

190-191. Even as they perform penance extremely 
difficult to be performed for the sake of progeny, the 
Devas, the Asuras, the Pitrs, the sages, the serpents, the 
ghosts and goblins, the Gandharvas, the Yaksas and the 
Raksasas are born as before on the death of the earlier 

192. Then those who have survived among them viz. 
the seven sages and Manu begin to expound the behaviour and 
conduct of life of good men at the beginning of the 
Manvantara. 359 

193-194. Men begin to perform holy rites along with 
the Devas. By means of the vow of celibacy they repay the 
debts unto the sages. By means ofprogeny they repay the 
debts unto the Pitrs, and by means of sacrifice they repay the 
debts unto the Devas. They abide by the Dharma consisting of 
the discipline of conduct for (different) castes for a hundred 
thousand years. 

195. After establishing the three Vedas, the process of 
agricultural operation, administration of justice, pious rites, 
duties and the practice of all castes ofstages of life and after 
building hermitages (for penance), they thought of departing 
to the heaven. 

196. When the earlier Devas were thus eager to proceed 
to heaven all of those gods who established themselves 
perfectly in religion stayed perfectly virtuous. 

197. When the Manvantara has passed by, they leave 
off all their abodes and go along with Mantras to the Mahar- 
loka that is free from ailments. 

198. They had returned from their authoritative 
positions. They had acquired mental Siddhis. With perfect 
control over their sense-organs, they remain waiting for the 
total annihilation of all the bhiitas (i.e. the end of the 

199-200. Then, when the earlier Devas have passed 
away, when the abodes of the Devas have become vacant in 
all the three worlds, other Devas who are heaven-dwellers 
become present here. Thereafter, those who are endowed with 
the power of penance fill their (vacant) abodes. 

201-202. They possess truthfulness, virtue, vow of celi- 
bacy and learning. The passing away of the seven sages, of 
Manu, of the Devas, and of the Pitrs, of the past and future 
(has been mentioned) from the beginning. There is no break 
in the line of their progeny till the termination of the 

203. It is in this same manner that the Sthiti (continu- 
ance in life) of those persons is also in the same order as 
before in all the Manvantaras till all the living beings are 

360 Brahmania Purana 

204. The characteristic feature of the transitional stage 
of the previous Manvantaras ofthe past and future has been 
mentioned by Svayambhuva (son of the self-born lord) i.e. 
(by what is mentioned about the Svayambhuva Manvantara). 

205. The achievements (happenings) of the future 
Manvantaras depends upon the past Manvantaras. Thus, the 
unbroken line ofprogeny continues till the annihilation of all 
living beings. 

206. (Defective Verses). The changes of the Manvan- 
taras are invariably continuous in the Maharloka. The people 
of the Mahar and Jana worlds proceed to (and establish in) 

207. By the vision ofthe (future) happenings there and 
by the knowledge ofthe evident manifoldness, those who are 
established in Satya Loka remain steady there on account of 
its permanence when there is a change in the period of transi- 
tion of Manvantaras. 

208. With the changes ofthe Manvantara, they leave the 
Satya-loka in ultimate end (?). Then on account of earnest 
devotion and abandonment of Visayas (objects of sense) they 
enter lord Narayana alone. 

209. In all the repeated changes of the Manvantaras 
that have been functioning for a long time, the world of living 
beings does not remain (still or the same) even for a moment. 
It is due to the characteristic feature of the Fate that the 
world ofliving beings undergoes change by way of decrease 
and increase. 

210-211. Thus are the Manvantaras ofthose Manus of 
righteous souls and divine vision who are eulogised by the 
sages. Obtain these directly as composed by Vayu, by means 
of a happy mixture of detailed explanation and brief conden- 
sation. The Manus have divine power. All the Manvantaras 
contain saintly kings, divine sages, Brahminical sages, Devas, 
and serpents. The Manvantaras are duly endowed with the lord 
ofDevas, Seven Sages, Lord ofthe subjects and Pitrs. 

212-215. It is meritorious to glorify the Isvaras (Gods). 
They are born of noble and liberal-minded families. They 
have great fame. They have flourished on account of their 361 

excellent intellect. They are honoured and worshipped on 
account of their reputation, lustre and renown. 

This (story) is conducive to the attainment of the 
heaven, it is very holy; it is a great esoteric secret; it is condu- 
cive to the birth of a son. This excellent story should be recited 
during the great Parvan days. It quells misery and it bequeaths 

May the lord of subjects endowed with Yogic power 
bestow Siddhi on me, because I have glorified succinctly the 
famous progeny ofAja (the unborn Lord Brahma) that is holy 
and that mainly consists of kings, divine sages (or Devas and 
•Sages) and Manu. 

Thus the Svayambhuva Manvantara has been recounted 
•in detail and in due order. What shall I describe again ? 


The Lineage of Manu : Manvantaras 
Milking of the Earth 

Sdmsapdyana said : — 

1. I wish to hear about the remaining Manvantaras' in 
the proper sequence and also about the rulers of the Manvan- 
taras as well as those whose leaders are Sakra (Indra) and 
{other) Devas. 

1. The description of Manvantaras is one of the five essential Charac- 
teristics of a Purana. Fnranas like Bh. P. VIII. 1.29, NP. 1.40.17-37, VP.III. 
Chap. 1 and 2, KP. 1.51, Va. P. 62 describe the \ urious umuvantaras. Each 
Manu presides over the world for seventy-one cycles of four Yugas. He has 
his separate set of Indra, gods, Saptarsis etc. There is a general agreement of 
Puranas about the names of the first seven Manns (including the present one 
viz. Yaivasvata); But there are some differences in the names of future Manus 
but most of them are bracketed under a common name Savarni such as Dharma 
Savarni, Rudra Savarni etc. Our Purana, however, gives some different 
names such as Raucya, Bhautya of the future Manus. 

362 Brahmanda Purana 

Suta said : — 

2. Understand even as I recount succinctly and in 
detail about those Manvantaras whicii liave gone by and wlriclr 
are yet to come. 

3-5. Tire following six are the Manus of the past viz. 
Svayambhuva Manu at the outset; then Svarocisa Manu, then 
Uttama, Tamasa, Raivata and Caksusa. I shall mention the 
eight (Manus) of the future (four of whom are) Savarni, 
Raucya, Bhautya and Vaivasvata. I shall narrate these (later 
on) before Vaivasvata Manu. The five Manus of the past- 
know them to be Mdnasas (Mental Sons). 

6-7. I have already recounted to you the Manvantara 
of Svayambhuva Manu. Henceforth, I shall mention succinctly 
the creation of the subjects by the second noble-souled Manu 
Svarocisa.' In the Manvantara. of Svarocisa the Tusitas were 
the gods., 

8-12. So also the scholars Paravatas. Thus two groups 
are remembered. 

The sons ofKratu (also known as) Svarocis were born 
ofTusita. The Paravatas were Vasisthas (? Sons ofVasistha). 
Two groups are remembered (each consisting of) twelve. These 
twentyfour Devas are considered as Chandajas. 

The Tusitas are — Divasparsa, Jamitra, Gopada, Bhasura, 
Aja, Bhagavan, Dravina of great strength, Aya of powerful 
arms, Mahaujas of great virility, Cikitvan who was well-known, 
Arhsa and Rta the twelfth among them. These are glorified as 

1. Just as in the 1st Manvantara, Svayambhuva (the son ofgod Brahma) 
was the presiding Manu, Yamas were the gods, Yajiia, tlie incarnation of 
Visnu officiated as Indra and tlie seven sages were Marici, Atri, Aiigiras, 
Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya and Vasispha were the Saptarsis, VV. 6-20 describe 
the 2nd Manvantara in which Svarocisa was the Manu, the twelve Tusitas 
and 12 Paravatas were the gods (Devas), Vipascit was the Indra and the seven 
sages (the descendants of the seven sages of the previous Manvantara) viz. 
tJrja, Stamba, Prana, Rsabha, Datta, Niscala and Arvarivan were the Sapta- 
rsis and Caitra, Kimpurusa and other nine sons of Manu Svarocisa. 

Thus we find such sets of gods, sages, Indra etc. in each Manvantara in. 
the following verses. 

It may be noted that there are some variations in the names of these gods, 
and sages in different Puranas. 

1.2.36. 13-27a 363 

These were the sons of Kratu. They were Somapayins 
(Imbibers ofthe Soma juice). 

13-15. The Paravatas were as follows : 

Pracetas the shining one, Visvadeva, Samaiija, the 
famous Ajihma, Arimardana, Ayurdana, Mahamana, Divya- 
mana, Ajeya of great fortune and grandeur, Yavlyan (younger 
one) of great strength, Hotr and Yajvan. Thus the Paravatas, 
have been recounted. Thus these were the Devas in the Svaro- 
cisa Manvantara. 

16. The twentyfour gods were the Somapds (Imbibers, 
of Soma juice) then. Their Indra then was Vipascit, well- 
known all over the worlds. 

17-18. The seven sages were — (1) Urja son of Vasistha,. 
(2) Stambha son of Kasyapa, (3) Prana son of Bhrgu, (4) 
Rsabha son of Angiras, (5) Datta son of Pulastya, (6) Niscala 
Atreya son ofAtri and (7) Arvarlvan son ofPuIaha. 

19-20. The following are declared as the nine sons of 
Svarocisa Manu, viz. Caitra, Kimpurusa, Krtanta, Vibhrta, 
Ravi, Brhaduktha, Nava, Satu and Sruta. They were the 
perpetuators ofthe line of lord Manu. They have been thus 
enumerated in the Puranas. This is the second Manvantara. 

21. These four viz. Manu, the seven sages, the Devas 
and the Pitrs — constitute the root (the basis) of a Manvantara. 
and their descendants are the subjects. 

22. The following is the conclusion in the scriptural 
texts — The deities are the sons ofthe sages; the Pitrs are the 
sons ofthe Devas, and the sages are the sons ofthe Devas. 

23. The Ksatriyas and the Vaisyas (were born) of Manu 
and the Brahmanas ofthe seven sages. Thus the Manvantara 
has been recounted succinctly and not in details. 

24-25a. The details ofthe Svarocisa Manvantara should 
be known from that ofthe Svayambhuva Manvantara. It is not: 
possible to describe it in details even in hundreds of years, on 
account ofthe repeated multiplicity of the subjects in every 

25b-27a; In the third Manvantara of Uttama,' five 

1. W. 25b-41 describe the 3rd Manvantara called Uttama. 

364 Brahmanda Pur ana 

groups of Devas are mentioned. I shall mention them. Under- 

They are Sudhamans, Vasavaftins, Pratardanas, Sivas 
and Satyas. Each of these groups consists of twelve Devas. 

27b-28. The twelve Sudhamans are called (1) Satya, 
(2) Dhrti, (3) Dama (4) Danta (5) Ksama (6) Ksama (7) 
Dhvani (8) Suci (9) Isa (10) Urja (11) Srestha and the 
twelfth one Suparna by name. 

29-31. The Vamsavartins (Vasavartins) are mentioned as 
follows : Sahasradhara, Visvayu, the two Samitaras, Brhat, 
Vasu, Visvadha, Visvakarman, Manasa, Virajasa, Jyoti and 

The Pratardanas are glorified. They are — Avadhya, 
Avarati, lord Vasu, Dhisnya, Vibhavasu, Vitta, Kratu, 
Sudharman, Dhrtadharman, Yasasvija, Rathormiand Ketuman. 

32-33. There are twelve other (Devas) worthy of par- 
taking of their shares in thcYajiia viz. Harhsasvara, the liberal- 
minded Pratardana and Yasaskara, Sudana, Vasudana, 
Sumanjasa, Visa, Yama, Vahni, Yati, Sucitra and Sutapas. 
They are to be known as Sivas. 

34-36. Understand the names of the Satya group of 
gods as they are viz. Dikpati, Vakpati, Visva, Sambhu, 
Svamrdika, Divi, Varcodhaman, Brhadvapus, Asva, Sadasva, 
Ksema and Ananda. These twelve Devas who are worthy of 
partaking of their shares in the Yajfia are recounted as Satyas. 

Thus these were the gods in the Manvantara of Uttama. 

37. They were the sons of Uttama, the Prajapati, the 
Ahgiras (?). The Indra (leader) of those Devas was well-known 
by the name Susanti. 

38. Vasistha had seven sons well known as Vasisthas. 
All those were the seven sages in the Manvantara ofUttama. 

39-40. Uttama the noble-souled Manu had thirteen 
sons viz. Aja, Parasu, Divya, Divyausadhi, Naya, Devambuja, 
the unequalled Mahotsaha, Gaja, Vinlta, Suketu, Sumitra, 
Sumati and Sruti. 

41. These were the progenitors ofthe race of Ksatriyas. 
This is the third Manvantara. Thus the creation of Uttama 
has been recounted along with that of Svarocisa. 365 

42-43. Understand the creation of Tamasa' in detail 
and in due order. In the fourth Manvantara of Tamasa, the 
Manu, the. sets (of Devas) proclaimed are viz. Satyas,- 
Surtipas, Sudhls and Haris. Those Devas in the iVIanvantara of 
Tamasa were the sons of Pulastya. 

44-48. Each of those sets of Devas consisted of twenty- 
five (Devas). (Defective text) In that Manvantara the 
Indriyas (? sense-organs) are remembered as the Devas. It is 
through the sense-organs that people understand things. The 
sages affirm (about the sense-organs). They have their testi- 
monies. Manas (the Mind) the eighth one (?) is that at 
the head. 

Sibi ofgreat exploits, is the Indra of those Devas. O 
excellent ones, understand those seven sages who were in that 
Manvantara. They were — Kavya the son ofAhgiras, Prthu the 
son ofKasyapa, Agni the son ofAtri, Jyotirdhaman the son of 
Bhrgu, Garaka the sonofPulaha, Pivara the son ofVasistha and 
Caitra the son of Pulastya. 

49-50. The following were the sons of Tamasa, the 
Manu viz. Janujangha, Santi, Nara, Khyati, Subha, Priya- 
bhrtya, Parlksit, Prasthala, Drdhesudhi, Krsasva and 

Understand the groups of Devas mentioned in the fifth 
(? second) Manvantara of Svarocisa.* 

51-54. They were Amitabhas, Abhiitarayas, Vikunthas 
and Sumedhas. 

Varisthas were the splendid sons of Varistha the 
Prajapati* *(?). 

There were fourteen very brilliant Devas in each of the 
four Ganas (sets ofgods). 

The following fourteen are remembered as the Devas 
called Amitabhas in the Svarocisa (Carisnava in Va. P.) 
Manvantara viz. Ugra, Prajiia, Agnibhava, Prajyoti, Amrta'^ 
Sumati, Virava (? Vavirava), Dhaman, Nada, Sravas, Vrtti,. 
Rasi, Vada and Sabara. 

1. W. 42-50 detail the fourth Manvantara Tamasa. 

* Some misprint, as the order of Manvantaras is confused here. 

* * Va. P. 62-46 reads "the sons of Carisnu" for 'Varisthas' hereof 

366 Brahmanda Purana 

55-56. They know that the names of the set (called) 
Abhiitarayas are as follows : — Mati, Sumati, Rta, Satya, 
Edhana, Adhrti, Vidhrti, Dama, Niyama, Vrata, Visnu, Sahas, 
Dyutiman and Susravas. 

57-60. Vrsa, Bhettr, Jaya, Bhinia, Suci, Danta, Yasas, 
Dama, Natha, Vidvan, Ajeya, Krsa, Gaura and Dhruva. These 
have been glorified as Vikuntha (class of gods). 

Understand the (gods called) Sumedhas. They are 
Medhas, Medhatithi, Satyamedhas, Prsnimedhas, Alpamedhas, 
Bhijyomedhas the lord, Dipti-Medhas, Yaso-Medhas, Sthira- 
medhas, Sarvamedhas, Sumedhas, Pratimedhas, Medhajas and 

61-62. Vibhu of great exploits and manliness was their 

In the Raivata' Manvantara the seven sages were — 
Devabahu the son (or descendent) of Pulastya; the descendant 
of Kasyapa named Sudhaman; Hiranyaroman the descendant 
of Angiras, VedasrI the descendant of Bhrgu, Urdhvabahu the 
descendant ofVasistha, Parjanya the descendant of Pulaha, 
and Satyanetra the descendant of Atri. 

63-64. The sons of Raivata were : — Mahavlrya, Susam- 
bhavya, Satyaka, Haraha, Suci, Balabandhu, Niramitra, 
Kambu, sriiga and Dhrtavrata. 

This is the fifth Manvantara. 

65. Svarocisa, Uttama, Tamasa and Raivata — these four 
Manus are considered as belonging to the family of Priyavrata. 

66-67. In the sixth Manvantara^ viz. Caksusa Manvan- 
tara, the five sets ofDevas are remembered viz. Adyas, Prasiitas, 
Bhavyas, Prthukas and the Lekhas of great majestic lustre. All 
of them were heaven-dwellers. They are called after the names 
of their mothers (?) 

1. VV. 51-65 describe what is generally known as Raivata Manvan- 
tara but is wrongly called Svarocisa in this text. Va. P. calls this Carisnava 
Manvantara. It is in W. 61-62 that our text corrects itself and calls this 
as Raivata Manvantara. 

2. W. 66-81 give the outline ofthe 6th — Caksusa Manvantara. 

3. Does the author want to suggest the existence of matriarchical society 
in the 6th Manvantara ? 367 

68. They were the grandsons of Aranya (?) the Praja- 
pati, who was the son of . Atri. Each of these groups is 
remembered as comprising of eight Devas. 

69. Antarllisa, Vasu, Havya, Atithi, Priyavra'ta, Srota, 
Manta and Anumanta — these are glorified as Adyas. 

70-72. Syenabhadra, Svetacalcsus, Mahayasas, Sumanas, 
Pracetas, Vanenas, Supracetas and Muni of great inherent 
strength — these are mentioned Frasutas. 

Vijaya, Sujaya, Mana, Syoda (?) (Udyana in Va. P.) 
Mati, Parimati, Viceta's and Priyaniscaya — these Devas are 
remembered as Bhavyas. 

Understand now the Prthulcas. 

73-74. Ojistha, god Saliuna, Vanahfsta, Satlcrta, 
Satyadrsti, Jiglsu, Vijaya and Ajita of great fortune — these are 
the heaven-dwellers (named) Prthukas. I shall mention the 
(group of gods, called) Lekhas also by name. Understand. 

75-76. Manojava, Praghasa, Pracetas of great fame, 
Dhruva, Dhruvaksiti, Acyuta of great vigour, Yuvanas and 
Brhaspati — (thus) the Lekhas have been gloriously recounted. 
Manojava ofgreat virility became their Indra then. 

77-78. The following were the seven sages in the 
Caksusa Manvantara viz. Uttama the son (descendant) of 
Bhrgu; Havisman the son of Angiras; Sudhaman the son of 
Kasyapa; Virajas the son of Vasistha; Atinaman the son of 
Pulastya; Sahisnu the son of Pulaha and Madhu the son of 

79-80. The following ten were the sons of Caksusa 
Manu born of Nadvala viz. Uru, Piiru, Satadyumna, Tapas- 
vin, Satyavak, Krti, Agnisjut, Atiratra, Sudyumna and 
Abhimanyu the tenth. This is the sixth Manvantara. 

81. His creation is reckoned on the basis of Vaivasvata 
Manvantara the current one. 7 hus the Manvantara of Caksusa 
Manu (has been recounted) in detail and in the due order. 
The sages said : — 

82. Whose successor and heir was Caksusa ? In whose 
family was he born ? Recount factually unto us all other 
persons born of his family.' 

1. W. 82-102 trace the genealogy of CakSusa Manu from Atri 
Uttanapada Dhruva etc. 

368 Brahmanda Pur ana 

Suta said : — 

83. Listen to the succinct account, O Bralimanas of 
tlie creation of Caksusa in wliose family was born Prthu the 
valorous son ofVena. 

84-86. There are other lords of subjects (such as) 
Daksa, the son of Pracetas. 

Atri, the Prajapati, accepted Uttanapada as his son. 
Since the Prajapati was a king, he became his adopted son. He 
was given in adoption by Svayambhuva Manu to Atri for some 
reason, after the advent of the sixth future Manvantara of 
Caksusa. With this as introduction I shall recount it, O 

87-88. Sflnrta, the beautiful lady of excellent hips, the 
daughter ofDharma, gave birth to the four sons of Uttana- 
pada. That lady, well-known by the name Stinrta, was the 
splendid mother of Dhruva. That lady of sparkling smiles was 
born of LaksmI, the wife ofDharma. 

89-90a. Uttanapada begot the sons Dhruva, Klrtiman, 
Ayusman and Vasu. He begot two daughters of sparkling 
smiles viz. Svara and Manasvinl. The sons ofthese two ladies 
(have already been) mentioned. 

90b-93a. In the first Treta Yuga, the grandson of 
Svayambhuva (Manu), Dhruva of great virility, performed a 
penance without taking in food for ten thousand years accord- 
ing to the divine reckoning. He was desirous of (and prayed 
for) acquiring great fame. Praying for great fame, he practised 
all the Yogic rites. Brahma who was delighted with him, 
bestowed on him the excellent abode among the luminaries. It 
is divine and devoid ofrising and setting, till the total annihi- 
lation of all living beings. 

93b-95. On seeing his great grandeur and prosperity, 
Usanas, the preceptor of the Daityas and the Asuras sang this 
verse : — 

'O ! How wonderful is the power of his penance'! O 
(how commendable is) his learning ! O (how great is) the 
holy rite, whereby the seven sages stand by, after keeping this. 
Dhruva above them. 

The heaven is attached to Dhruva. He is the master and 
lord ofthe heaven. 369 

96. Bhumi (the queen of Dhruva) gave birth to the two 
kings, Srsti and Bhavya, (the sons of) Dhruva. 

Lord Srsti, told his own shadow, "Become a woman". 

97. Since he was a man of truthful speech, the shadow 
became a woman immediately with a divine body. She was 
embellished with divine ornaments. 

98. Srsti begot of Chaya (His spouse, the shadow) five 
sons devoid of sins viz. Praclnagarbha, Vrsabha, Vrka, Vrkala 
and Dhrti. 

99-100. Suvarca, the wife of Praclnagarbha, gave birth 
to a son named Udaradhl who was Indra in his previous birth. 
This lord attained the status of Indra by practising Yogic feats 
for the period of a Manvantara, by taking food once at the end 
of a thousand years. 

101- Bhadra gave birth to Divaiijaya, the son of Uda- 
radhl. VarangI gave birth to Ripu (the son) ofDivanjaya who 
was a conqueror of his enemies. 

102. BrhatI gave birth to Caksus with all splendour (as 
the son) ofRipu. Manu, the great scholar, who made the race 
ofBrahmanas and Ksatriyas function, was his son. PuskarinI 
(otherwise known as) VarunI gave birth to Caksusa Manu. 

The sages said : — 

103. Wherefore is the daughter of Prajapati, O sinless 
one, is called VarunI ? Mention this along with the underlying 
fact. Indeed, you are an adept in detailed narration. 

Silta replied : — 

104. Udaka, the son ofAranya, attained the status of 
Varuna. Therefore, she was known as VarunI. She became 
well-known thus, on account of her brother. 

105. Ten splendid sons were born of Manu and Nadvala, 
the daughter of Viraja, the Prajapati. They were of great 
vigour and vitality. 

106-107a. They were Uru, Pflru, Satyadyumna, Tapas- 
vin, Satyavak, Krti, Agnistut, Atiratra, Sudyumna (these nine) 
and Abhimanyu the tenth. These were the sons of Manu and 

370 Brahmanda Parana 

107b-108. Agneyi gave birth to Uru's six sons of great 
splendour viz. Anga, Sumanas of good reputation, Gaya, 
Sukra, Vraja and Ajina. 

Sunltlia gave birtli to a single child of Afiga (named) 

109. There was a great commotion on account of the 
fault and crime of Vena. For the sake of a progeny, the sages 
churned his right hand. 

110-112. When his hand was churned, the handsome 
Prthu was born. After producing his son Prthu of famous 
valour, the sages said — "O subjects (be) joyous. This is your 
king. He is born with an armour, wielding a bow. He appears 
(as if) burning on account of his splendour. This king will 
bestow sustenance on you all". Prthu, the son of Vena, the 
ancestor, of all Ksatriyas protected all the worlds trten. 

113. That king was the first among those who were 
crowned and anointed after the Rajasyya sacrifice. Two clever 
bards Sflta, Magadha were also born for the purpose of 
eulogi ig him. 

4-115. This cow (viz. the earth) was milked by that 
intel'jent great king (for the sake of) vegetables for the 
svb'jcts who were desirous of sustenance. He was accompanied 
b • • :he Devas, the groups of sages, the Pitrs, the Danavas, the 
Gandharvas, the groups ofcelestial damsels, the serpents, the 
Punyajanas (the demons and goblins), the mountains, the trees 
and the creepers. 

116. Being milked in the different vessels, Vasun- 
dhara (the Earth containing rich deposits) yielded them milk 
as desired by them. The subjects sustained their lives thereby. 

Sdmiapdyana requested' : — 

117-121. O sage of great noble rites, recount the birth 
(and life- tory) of Prthu in detail, how formerly the Earth was 

1. The story of Prthu and his milking of the earth is a Puranic transfor- 
mation of the Vedic conception of milking of the Viraj cow. The Viraj Siikta 
(AV. VIII 10) forms the basis of the Purariic legend. This puranic legend 
records the right of the sages (public leaders) to do away with a wilful tyrant. 
This Prthu, the son ofVena is a Vedic king and is recorded to have worship- 371 

milked by that noble-souled (Prthu), how (he was accom- 
panied) by the Devas, the Nagas (serpents) the Brahmanical 
sages, the Yaksas, the Raksasas, the Gandharvas and the 
celestial damsels formerly, how and by what means (he milked 
them). Even as we ask, tell us about their different special 
vessels, the milker, the milk, as well as the different calves 
used by them. Tell us in due order the special types of milk 
(yielded by her). For what reason was the hand of Vena 
•churned formerly by the infuriated great sages of yore ? 
Mention that reason unto us. 

Suta Narrated 

122. I shall recount to you, O Brahmanas, the birth of 
Prthu, the son of Vena. Listen to it with concentration and 
purity ofmind, O excellent Brahmanas. 

123. This Brahman (i.e. the story as sacred as the Vedas) 
should not be communicated to one who is not pure, to one 
who is a sinner, to one who is not a disciple, to one who is 
antagonistic and under no circumstances to one who does not 
observe holy rites. 

124-125. The origin of Prthu the son ofVena is con- 
ducive to the acquisition of wealth, fame, longevity and merit. 
It is on a par with the Vedas. It is an esoteric secret mention- 
ed by the sages. If any person who is free from jealousy listens 
to this story or recounts this to others after making obeisance 
to the Brahmanas, he will never have an occasion to repent over 
his omissions and commissions of acts. 

126. There was a king named Anga. The lord was on a 
par with Atri and was born of the family of Atri. He was a 
Prajapatl and a zealous protector of Dharma. 

ped the Asvins in his sacrificial chambers(AV. XX. 140.5). The milking of 
Viraj cow by Prthu with the earth as a milliing pail and Vaivasvata Manu as 
the calf is recorded in AV. VIII 10.24 (but here Caksusa Manu is made the 
calf see V. 202). 

The whole episode is a development of an ancient Vedic legend and has 
been depicted in various Puranas as in Bh. P. IV. 18, Mbh. Santi 59v98-128 
Mt. P. ch. 10. 1-35, Va. P. 62. 103-197 (to mention a few). The different 
motifs introduced here show how social order was established by Prthu who 
was the first crowned and anointed king. The ideal kingship and the happy 
condition of subjects here is covetable even today. 

372 Brahmania Parana 

127. Vena was his son. He was not very much devoted 
to pious activities. This lord of the subjectswas bornof Sunltha 
the daughter of Mrtyu. 

128. That Vena was the son of the daughter of Kala 
(god ofdeath). Hence, on account of a (hereduory) default 
ofhis maternal grandfather, he turned his back on Dharma 
(Virtue) and carried on his activities in the world as he 


129. That king brought to a standstill (prohibited) 
holy rites and devout practice. Transgressing the (injunction of 
the) Vedas, and scriptures he became engaged in sinful 

130. He was devoid of practice of self-study of 
the Vedas and the chanting of Vasatkara. While he was ruling 
over the kingdom, the gods never drank the Soma juice in great 

131. "No Yajiia should be performed. No monetary or 
other gifts should be offered", this was the cruel solemn dec- 
laration of that Prajapati, when his (utter) ruin was imminent. 

132. (He declared) "I should be worshipped and 
honoured in the Yajna by the gods and the twice-born ones. 
Yajiias should be performed (unto me) and Homas should be 
offered on my behalf (i.e. with me as the object of worship)". 

133. As he exceeded the bounds of decency (because} 
he had many heroic acts to his credit, all the great sages with 
Marici as their leader spoke to him then. 

134. "O king, we are going to initiate a religious rite 
lasting for a hundred years. Do not commit any sinful deed- 
Thisis not the eternal Dharma. 

135. You are born in the family of the god of death. 
Undoubtedly you are a Prajapati. Formerly, you had entered 
into a contract stipulating, "I shall protect the subjects." 

136-139. As all those Brahmana sages said thus. Vena, 
ofevil intellect, laughed and said — "Who else is an expert on 
account of the things understood by me? Who else is the 
creator of the (/Aa^-zwA whom (whose words) should I listen to 
(obey) ? Who is equal to me on the Earth in regard to heroism, 
power of penance and truthfulness? You are all slow-witted 
souls. Certainly, you do not know me factually. I am the source 373 

of origin ofall the worlds and particularly of all righteous 
acts. Ifl so wish I may burn the entire Earth or flood it with 
water. I may create or swallow (destroy) it. No doubt need 
be entertained in this respect". 

140. Vena was thus defiled excessively on account of 
his ignoble behaviour. When he could not be dissuaded from 
his arrogance, the great sages became infuriated. 

141. Even as he was struggling, the extremely infuriated 
great sages seized him by means of both the arms. They twisted 
and churned the left hand ofthat very powerful king. 

142. It is reported that at the outset an extremely short 
person was born ofthat hand that had been crushed and churn- 
ed. He was dark in colour too. 

143. He was extremely frightened. With all his sense- 
organs in utter confusion, he stood there with joined palms. On 
seeing him distressed and bewildered they said — "Nislda" (sit 

144. He became a person endowed with endless ex- 
ploits and established the community of Nisadas (tribal people, 
hunters). Moreover he created the Dhlvaras (fishermen) origi- 
nating from the sins ofVena. 

145. Other tribal people who have their abodes on the 
Vindhya, viz. the Tamburas, the Tuburas, the Khasas and 
others with special interest in sinful activities — Understand 
them as persons born of the sins ofVena. 

146. Again the infuriated great sages whose anger had 
been aroused, churned the right hand of Vena as though it 
was the Arani (the piece of wood used to kindle the sacred fire 
by means of attrition). 

147. Prthuwas born ofthat hand that resembled a lotus. 
He was called Prthu because he was born of the big (Prthu) 
palm ofhand. 

148-150. He shone with his body (as if) blazing like fire. 
He wielded the primordial bow of loud report named Ajagava. 
For the sake of security and protection, he held arrows and the 
coat of mail of great lustre. When he was born all the living 
beings everywhere became extremely delighted. They approach- 
ed the great King. Vena went to heaven (like a) saintly king 
on account of the birth of a noble-souled good son. 

374 Brahmanda Parana 

151-152. That tiger among men was saved from the hell 
named put by his noble son. Rivers and the seas took gems and 
jewels as well as water for the sacred sprinkling (at the time) 
of coronation and all of them approached him. Lord Grand- 
father (god Brahma) came along with Angiras and the immor- 
tal ones (gods). 

153-154a. All the living beings, both mobile and im- 
mobile approached the ruler of men, the son ofVena, the 
protector of the subjects, of great splendour, with Supreme 
sovereignty* and sprinkled him with the sacred water. 

154b- 155a. That great king was anointed (as a sover- 
eign) by gods, the sons ofAhgiras. Valorous Prthu, the son of 
Vena, was the first (primordial) king of great fortune. 

155b. His subjects had been antagonized by his father 
but they were conciliated and kept satisfied by him. 

156-159. Thenceforth, he was named Raja (king) on 
account of his Anurdga (Affection, love). When he wished to 
march against the ocean, the waters became stunned and 
paralysed. Even the mountains crumbled down. But (none of 
his) flagstaffs got broken. The Earth bore rich harvest without 
being ploughed. The cows yielded plenty of milk as desired by 
everyone (or yielded everything desired). There was honey in 
every cluster of flowers. 

At the very same time, while he was performing a sacri- 
fice, while the Somajujce was extracted, Sflta was born ofthe 
Sautya day (i.e. the day on which the Soma juice was extract- 
ed). After he had been born thus, Magadha (bard) was born.' 

160. He was born while the Samagas (those who sing 
the Saman hymns very well) were singing and when Subhanda* * 
(?) pertaining to the Visve-Devas had arrived. Hence he is 
called Magadha. 

* Rajaraja or Kubera is inappropriate in the context. Hence tlie 
emendation — raja-rajyena is adopted from Va. P. 62. 135. 

1. W. 156-173. As usual the author gives the popular etymologies 
of Suta and Magadha, and records the duties allotted to them. The relation 
between Magadhas and their home-land Magadha is clear but not so about 
Suta and Anupa (south Malwa). 

** misprint for srug-bhaada 'vessel containingwooden ladles' vide Va.P. 
62.141. 375 

161-162. The //am offerings of Brhaspati got mingled 
with those of Indra. He invoked Indra by means of the Daiva 
(divine) Mantra. It was then ^that Stita was born. Thereby a 
default occurred there and therefore an expiation too in the 
holy rites (became due). For the Havis offering of the precep- 
tor got mixed and therefore overpowered by the Havya of the 

163-165. On account of the (mingling) activity of the 
lower and the upper, the progeny became one mixed in caste 
as in the case of one born of the womb of a Brahmana lady 
from a source of origin belonging to a lower caste viz. from 
a Ksatriya. The SiJta has similarity with the previous earlier 
one and hence ic is mentioned that he has the same duties as 
the previous one (i.e. the Brahman). It is the middle dharma 
ofSQta, the duties ofKsatriyas. (He has these duties also) viz. 
looking after and maintaining chariots, elephants and horses. 
Practice ofmedicine is the lowliest duty. It was for the sake of 
eulogising Prthu that both of them were called there by the 
great sages. 

166. All the sages told those two — "Let this king be 
eulogised. This is a job befitting you and this ruler of men is 
a deserving person". 

167-168. The Stita and Magadha thereafter said to all 
those sages, — "We shall please the Devas and the sages by 
means of our activities. But we do not know anything about the 
performance, characteristic features and reputation of this 
king. Wherefore can we eulogise him ? Then the brilliant 
Brahmanas spoke: 

169. "This (king) is always devotedly engaged in his 
duty. He is truthful in speech. He has perfect control over his 
sense-organs. He is habituated to the wise pursuit of knowledge. 
He is liberal-minded and charitably disposed. He is never 
defeated in battles. 

170-173. Those two (i.e. SQta and Magadha) were 
engaged by the sages (with the following instructions) viz. "Let 
him be eulogised for his future activities". 

Stita and Magadha eulogised him by composing songs 
about the past achievements of that powerful king Prthu. At 

376 Brahmanda Purana 

the end of that encomium, Prthu the lord of the subjects was 
highly pleased. He gave the land of Anflpa (South Malwa) to 
Stita and Magadha to Magadha. Ever since then the rulers of 
the Earth are eulogised by Stitas and Magadhas. They are 
awakened (in the morning) by Siitas, Magadhas and bards 
through words and expressions of benediction. On seeing him 
the subjects were extremely delighted. The great sages said : — 
174. "This ruler of men, the son ofVena, shall offer you 
means of sustenance". Thereupon, the subjects eagerly rushed 
to the highly fortunate son ofVena. 

175-176. "Give us the means of sustenance as per pro- 
mise by the great sages". On being approached (and request- 
ed ) thus by the subjects, the mighty ruler with a desire for 
the welfare of the subjects, seized his bow and arrows and rushed 
at the Earth. Thereupon, afraid ofthe son ofVena, the Earth 
assumed the form ofa cow and began to flee.' 

177-179. Taking the bow with him, Prthu pursued her 
(i.e. the Earth in the form ofa cow) as she ran. Afraid of 
the son ofVena, she went to Brahma's world and other worlds 
as well (but eventually) saw the son ofVena in front of her 
with the bow in his raised hand. He was shining brilliantly on 
account of the refulgent sharp arrows. He never failed in his 
aim (in hitting the target). He was noble-souled with great 
yogic power. He could not be assailed even by the immortal 
ones. Unable to get succour from elsewhere, she resorted to the 
son ofVena himself. 

180-181. She who was worthy of always being honoured 
by the three worlds, joined her palms in reverence and said to 
the son ofVena : — "You are not able to see any sin in killing 
a woman. How can you sustain the subjects who had been nur- 
tured and brought up by me ? O king, all the worlds are 
stationed in me. This universe is being supported by me. 

182-183. The subjects who have been nurtured by me 
should not perish for my sake, O king. It does not behove 
you to kill me. You wish to do something conducive to the 

1. See note 1, p. 370 above. As stated therein, this is an elaboration 
ofa Vedic legend. 377 

welfare of the subjects. O protector of the Earth, listen to 
these words of mine. All enterprises begun methodically with 
proper means become fruitful. 

184. Even after liilling me, Oking, you cannot protect 
the subjects (Ifyou kill me, you will become incompetent to 
protect the subjects). 1 shall be present within. O lustrous 
one, get rid of your anger. 

185. O protector of the Earth, they say that females, 
even from among the lower categories of animals, should not 
be killed. It does not behove you to abandon righteous beha- 
viour, in the case of living beings". 

186. On hearing these diverse statements of the Earth 
the magnanimous noble-souled king controlled his anger and 
spoke to the Earth thus : — 

187. "If anyone were to kill one or more for the sake 
ofone whether it be himself or another, then his action is 

188. But O gentle, splendid lady, in case many flourish 
happily when a single person is killed, there is neither major 
nor minor sin in the act of his killing. 

189. Therefore, O Vasundhara (Earth), I will kill you 
for the sake of subjects, ifyou do not carry out my request 
that is conducive to the welfare ofthe world. 

190. Ifyou turn your face against my behest, I will 
kill you presently with a single arrow. Establishing my prestige 
thus, I shall myself sustain the subjects. 

191. In compliance of my instructions, O the most 
excellent one among the up-holders ofDharma (piety), enliven 
and nourish the subjects perpetually. Indeed, you are capable 
of it. There is no doubt about it. 

192. Adopt also the status of my daughter. In that case 
I shall withdraw this terrific-looking arrow which I have raised 
up for slaying you". 

193. Thereupon the Earth who had been told thus, 
replied to the son ofVena : — 

"Undoubtedly O ! King, I shall carry out all these 

378 Brahmanda Pur ana 

194. Find out that calfunto me whereby I shall pour 
out milk out of affection. O the most excellent one among- 
the upholders ofDharma, make me flat and level everywhere 
so that the milk that flows out shall spread everywhere 

Suta said: — 

195-200. Thereupon, he removed the heaps or collections 
of rocks everywhere. The son ofVena removed with the tip of 
his bow all the mountains that had risen up. In the Manvan- 
taras that had gone by, the Earth had been uneven. (Now) all 
her uneven parts became even naturally. In the previous crea- 
tion when the surface ofthe Earth was uneven, there had been 
no distinction between cities and villages. There were no plants 
or crops. There was neither agriculture nor breeding of cattle. 
There was no market place or trade route. Such had been the 
condition formerely in the Caksusa Manvantara. All these had 
been possible (or created) (only) in the Vaivasvata 

The subjects lived in those places wherever there was 
level ground. Initially the diet of the subjects consisted of 
fruits and roots. 

201. We have heard that at that time their sustenance 
was maintained with great difficulty. • Everything was made 
available in this world even since the days of the son 
of Vena. 

202. After adopting Caksusa Manu as the calf, lord 
Prthu milked plants and vegetables from the Earth on its own 

203. Those virtuous subjects began to sustain themselves 
by means of that food ever since then. It is heard that the 
Earth was once again milked by the sages. 

204-206. Soma (The Moon) was the calfin their case. 
Brhaspati (Jupiter) was the milkman. Gayatrl and other 
(Vedic) Metres carried out the function of the Utensil (milk- 
pot). Penance and the eternal Brahman (Vedas) was their 
milk (the yield). 

Again it is heard that the Earth was milked by the groups 
ofDevaswith Purandara (Indra) as their leader, taking up 37£ 

(with him) a golden vessel. Maghavan was the calf and lord 
Savitr was the milJiman. Urja (Power, energy, Procreative 
energy) and honey was the milk. The deities sustain themselves 
by means of that. 

207-209a. It is heard that the Earth was again milked 
by the Pitrs by means of a Silver Vessel. The yield was 
Svadha and it was conducive to their immediate contentment. 
Yama the valorous son ofVivasvan was their calf The power- 
ful god Antaka (the god of death) was the milkman of the 

209b-212a. It is heard that the Earth was once again 
milked by the Asuras with an iron vessel and the all round yield 
was the power of Maya (deception, illusion). Virocana, the ex- 
tremely famous son of Prahlada, was the calf unto them. 
Rtvikdvimiirdha (?) the son of Diti was their milkman. With, 
the (different types of) Maya for their milky yield all the 
Asuras became Mayavins (experts in making use of Maya). 
Those persons of great virility sustain themselves by means of 
Maya. That is their great source ofstrength. 

212b-215a. After adopting Taksaka as their calf, it is 
heard, that the Earth was once again milked by the serpents, 
with a pot of ground (or bottle-gourd) as their vessel and 
poison as their milk. O excellent Brahmana, Vasuki, the 
valorous son of Kadru, was the milkman unto those Ndgas- 
and Sarpas (different varieties of Serpents). Those terrible 
beings sustain themselves by means of that alone (i.e. poison). 
They are excessively poisonous. They have that as their food. 
They are active on account ofit. That is their source ofvigour. 
They solely depend on it. 

215b-217. In a pot not annealed properly, the Earth 
was once again milked by the Yaksas and the Punyajanas after 
adopting as their calf Vaisravana who was fond of Antardhana 
(becoming invisible). The milkman was Rajatanabha who was 
the father of Manidhara. The son ofYaksa was extremely res- 
plendent and he was endowed with great reputation. He had 
perfect control over (his sense-organs). This is perfectly true 
because they sustain themselves by means ofit (? i.e. becoming 

380 Brahman Aa Parana 

218-220a. The Earth was once again milked by Raksasas 
and Pisacas. Their milkman wasKubera. That ofBrahml was 
Brahma* The powerful Sumall was the calf. The milky yield was 
blood. The Earth was milked in Kapala-Patra (skull-vessel). 
Antardhdna (the power of becoming invisible) was milked by 
the Raksasas. In all respects the Raksasas sustain themselves 
by means of that milk. 

220b-222a. Then the Earth was milked by the Gandhar- 
vas and the groups of celestial damsels with lotus as their 
vessel. They made Citraratha their calf The milky yield was pure 
fragrant scent. Their milkman was Vasuruci'. (Visvavasu in 
Va. P the splendid son of a sage (? of Muni), the extremely 
powerful king of the Gandharvas, the noble-souled one resembl- 
ing the sun. 

222b-224a. It is heard that the sparkling goddess Vasun- 
dhara (Earth) was again milked by the mountains.** The 
milky yield was as follows : the medicinal herbs having embo- 
died forms and different types of precious gems and jewels. 
Himavan was the calf and Meru the great mountain was the 
milkman. The vessel was a mountain itself. Hence, the moun- 
tains are all well-established. 

224b-227. It is heard that the Earth was once again 
milked by the trees and the creepers after taking up as their 
vessel the (leafy cup of) Palasa tree that grows again and again 
when cut down or burnt. The Plaksa tree, the tree of prolific 
blossoms, was the calf of these famous ones (i.e. trees and 
creepers). It yielded the milk they desired. 

The Earth was thus a milch cow that yielded every- 
thing they desired. It made the living beings flourish. She 

* This is obscure — Va. P. 62 reads Brahmopetas 1u dogdha 'Raksasa called 
Brahmopeta was tlie milkman*. 

I. Mt. P. 10. 25 reads here Vararuci for Vasuruci as the milk-man 
and Natya Veda was the milk: 

Dogdha Vararucir ndma ndtya-vedasyu pdragah I 

In other words a new discoverer or inventor is the milkman and the 
contribution to that science or lore is the milk. 

** Kalidasa in Kumdra-sambhava 1.2 has ditto echoed this. 

1.2.37. l-12a 381 

alone was the Dhdlri and Vidhdtri (one who created and laid 
down rules and shaped the destiny), the Vasundhard (one who 
holds riches) was the supporter Jofevery one). We have heard 
that the Earth (of such potentialities), the source of origin of 
all the worldly things mobile and immobile, the foundation 
ofthe Universe, had been milked by Prthu for the welfare of 


Cdksusa Manvantara ; Dynasty of Vaivasvata Manu 

Suta said : — 

1. As per traditional report, the Vasudha (the Earth) 
was extended here with oceans as its limits. It is glorified in 
songs as Vasudha because it holds (within its bowels) riches 

2. Formerly, it was completely inundated with the' 
Medas (fat, suet) of (the demons) Madhuand Kaitabha. Hence 
by etymological derivation it is called Medini by the expoun- 
ders ofthe Brahman. 

3. Thereafter, on its attainment of the status of the 
daughter of the intelligent king Prthu, the son of Vena, it came 
to be cited as Prthivi. 

4-5. The division of the Earth also was formerly accom- 
plished by Prthu. The Earth consisting ofa series of towns and 
mines (of various natural products)and inhabited by the people 
of four castes was protected by that intelligent king. King 
Prthu the son of Vena, was a person of such power and influence, 
O excellent Brahmanas. 

6-12a. He is worthy of being bowed down to and 
honoured by entire living beings all round. 

Prthu alone is worthy of being offered of obeisance by 
Brahmanas ofgreat dignity and splendour, and experts in the 

382 Brahmanda Parana 

Vedas and the Vedangas (ancillary subjects of the Vedas), 
since he is ancient and had Brahman as the source of origin. 

Prthu, the primordial king, the valorous son of Vena, 
should be bowed down to by the highly fortunate kings who 
seek great reputation. 

Prthu alone, who was the first formulator of Military 
service, should be bowed down to by warriors in the battlefield 
desirous of obtaining victory in the war. 

The warrior who glorifies king Prthu and then proceeds 
to the battlefield returns safely from the terrible battle and 
attains glorious fame. 

The saintly king ofgreat fame, Prthu alone, should be 
bowed down to by Vaisyas too who strictly abide by the duties 
and activities befitting the Vaisyas, since it was he who had 
offered them sustenance. 

Thus the different types ofcalves, milkmen, milk and the 
vessels — all these have been recounted by me in due order. 

12b-15a'. At the outset, the Earth was milked by the 
noble-souled Brahma after making the wind god the calf. The 
seeds on the surface of the Earth were the milky yield. 

Thereafter, in the Svayambhuva Manvantara (the Earth 
was milked) after making Svayambhuva Manu the calf. All 
types of plants were the milky yield. 

Thereafter, when the Svarocisa Manvantara arrived, the 
Earth was milked after making Svarocisa, the calf The plants 
and food-grains were the milky yield. 

15b-16a. In the Uttama (Manvantara) the earth was 
milked by intelligent Devabhuja* after making Manu the best 
calf and the (milk-yield was) all crops. 

16b-17a. Again during the fifth Manvantara called 
Tamasa, theearthwas milked again byBalabandhu after makiny 
Tamasa (Manu) as the calf. 

17b-18a. It is reported that when the sixth Manvantara 
of Caristava (Carisnava in Va. P.) arrived, the Earth was 
milked by Purana for the calf Caristava. (carisnava). 

* Va P. 63.15 reads Devabhujena 'by Devabhuja' instead of Devinujena 

1. W. 12b-20 give the list of persons who "milked" the earth in 
each Manvantara. In a way each "milking" represents advancement m 
human civilization. 

1.2.37. 18b-29 383 

18b-19a. When the Caksusa Manvantara arrived, in 
that Manvantara, the Earth was milked by Purana (?) after 
making Caksusa, the calf. 

19b-20a. When the Caksusa Manvantara had elapsed 
and the Vaivasvata Manvantara arrived, the Earth was milked 
by the son ofVena. How it was milked has already been re- 
counted to you by me. 

20b-22. The Earth was thus milked in the previous Man- 
vantaras by these viz. — the Devas and others, the human and 
other living beings too. A similar situation should be understood 
in the Manvantaras of the past as well as of the future. The 
Devas reside in heaven throughout a Manvantara. 

Now listen to the progeny of Prthu. Two very valiant 
sons were born to Prthu. They were Antardhi and Pavana. 

23-24. Sikhandini gave birth to Havirdhana (the son) 
ofAntardhana (same as Antardhi). 

Dhisana, the daughter of Agni (Agneyl) gave birth to six 
sons of Havirdhana — viz. Praclna-Barhis, Sukla, Gaya, Krsna, 
Praja and Ajina. Lord Praclnabarhis was a great Prajapati 
(Lord of the subjects, or sovereign ruler) . 

25. On account of his strength, learning, penance and 
virility, he was the sole monarch of the Earth. His Darbha 
grasses had their tips towards the East.' Hence, he was known 
as Praclnabarhis. 

26. After a great penance, that Prajapati married Savarna 
the daughter of the ocean. 

27 Savarna, the daughter of the ocean, gave birth to ten 
sons of Praclnabarhis. All of them were masters of the Science 
of archery. They were called Pracetas (collectively). 

28. Performing pious rites (collectively) without being 
separated from one another, they underwent severe penance 
for ten thousand years lying down within the waters of the 

29. While they were performing the penance, the trees 

1. Cf. Vp. I 14.4. This speciality is attributed to tlie king's performance 
of many sacrifices. 

384 Brakmanda Purana 

encompassed the Earth that was not being protected. Then 
there was the destruction of subjects. 

30. This happened when the Caksusa Manvantara 
passed by. The whole firmament became enveloped by the trees 
and hence the wind was unable to blow. 

31-32. For ten thousand years, the subjects were unable 
to carry on their activities. On hearing about it all, those 
Pracetas equipped with the power of penance, became infuri- 
ated and they created wind and fire out of their mouths. The 
wind uprooted the trees and dried them up. 

33-35. The fire burned them. Thus there was a terrible 
destruction of trees. On coming to know of the destruction 
of the trees and when a few trees remained. King Soma (the 
Moon god) approached these Pracetas and said — " Now that 
you have seen the purpose realised, O Kings, sons of PracTna- 
barhis, get rid of your anger for the continuity of the world. 
The trees will grow on the Earth. Let the fire and wind be 

36. This fair-complexioned daughter of the tre*. has 
become the crest-jewel of all women. This girl has been held 

(and nurtured) in the womb by me, as I had already known the 
future events. 

37. She is Marisa by name, and has been created by the 
trees themselves. Let'this girl who has been nurtured in the 
womb of Soma (the Moon-god) be your wife. 

38. With half of your splendour and with half of mine, 
the scholarly Prajapati, Daksa will be born ofher. 

39*. He is on a par with fire. He will make these subjects 
flourish once again, the subjects who have been mostly burned 
down by the fire of your splendour". 

40. Thereafter, at the instance of Soma, those Pracetas 
controlled their anger and as per religious procedure accepted 
from the trees, the girl Marisa as their wife. 

* Alternatively : 

On account of the fire consisting of your fiery brilliance, he 
(Daksa) will be just like fire. But he wiU make the subjects multiply and 
flourish again — the subjects most of whom are consumed by fire. 385 

41-42. Thereafter, they mentally impregnated Marisa. 
Prajapati Daksa was born of Marisa as the son of all the ten 
Pracetas. He had excessive splendour on account of the part 
of Soma (the Moon god). He was vigorous. In the .beginning 
Daksa created subjects mentally and later on (he created 
them) through sexual intercourse. 

43. After mentally creating the mobile and immobile 
beings and the bipeds and quadrupeds, Daksa created 

44. He gave ten daughters to Dharma; thirteen to 
Kasyapa and twentyseven (daughters) who were suitable for 
passing (calculation) of the time (i.e. the Constellations) to 
(the Moon) god. 

45-46. After giving (the daughters) to these, he gave 
four others to Aristanemi; two to Bahuputra and two to Angiras. 
He gave one daughter to Krsasva. Children were born of them. 
This is sung ab'out as the Sixth Manvantara of Caksusa Manu. 

47-48. The Vasus, the Devas, the birds, the cows, the 
Nagas (Serpents, elephants), the Daityas and the Danavas, the 
Gandharvas and the Apsaras as well as other species were born 
ofVaivasvata Manu, the seventh among Manus, who was 
Prajapati (a patriarch or Lord of the Subjects). It was only 
after that, that the subjects were born of sexual copulation. 
The creation of the former subjects, it is said, was through 
thought, (will), sight, and touch. 

The sage asked : — 

49-51. Formerly, the auspicious origin of the Devas, 
the Danavas, the Devarsis (divine Sages) and the Noble-souled 
Daksa was narrated by you. The birth of Daksa from the vital 
airs of Brahma was mentioned by you. How did the Daksa of 
great penance attain the state of being the son of the Pracetas 
again ? O Suta, it behoves you to clarify this doubt of ours. He 
was the son of the daughter of Soma (Moon). How did he 
become his father-in-law ? 

Suta explained : — 

52. Creation and annihilation, O excellent ones, do 
happen perpetually among the living beings. The sages and those 

386 Brabmanda Pur ana 

people who possess Vidyd (Learning) do not become confused 
in tliis matter. 

53. All these, Daksa and others, are born in every 
Yuga. They are annihilated again. A learned man does not 
become confused in this matter. 

54. The state of being elder or yonder also was present 
in them, O excellent Brahmanas. But penance alone was 
weighty. Prowess was the reason thereof. 

55. He who comprehends this creation of Caksusa con- 
sisting ofthe mobile and immobile beings, shall become one 
endowed with progeny. He shall cross the life-span. He 
will be honoured in the heaven (after his death). 

56-57. Thus the creation of Caksusa has been succinctly 
recounted. Thus these six types of creation, of the nature of 
the Manvantaras beginning with Svayambhuva and ending 
with Caksusa, have been concisely narrated in the due order. 
These are the creations as described by wise men who were 
excellent Brahmanas. 

58-60. Their detailed explanation should be understood 
through the creation of Vaivasvata (Manvantara). All these 
creations ofVivasvan are neither deficient nor superfluous as 
regards health, longevity, magnitude, virtue, wealth and love. 
He who reads this without jealousy attains all these good quali- 
ties. I shall narrate (the creation of the noble-souled Vaivasvata 
the current Manu, both succinctly and in detail. Understand it 
even as I recount. 


Vaivasvata Manvantara 
The Marica Creation 

Suta said : — 

1. During the Seventh Manvantara ofVaivasvata Manu, 
the Devas and the great sages were born of Kasyapa, the son 
of Marici' 

1. This explains the Title "The Marica Creation". 387 

2. The following are remembered as the eight groups of 
Devas : (l)Adityas (2) Vasus (3) Rudras (4) Sadhyas (5) 
Visvedevas (6) Maruts (7) Bhrgus and (8) Angiras. 

3-4. The Adityas, Maruts and Rudras should be known 
as the sons ofKasyapa. The three sets (of gods) viz. Sadhyas, 
Visvedevas and Vasus are the sons of Dharma. The Bhrgus are 
the sons ofBhrgu and the Devas (called) Angiras are the sons 
of Angiras. In this Vaivasvata Manvantara, these are considered 
to be Chandajas (born of Ghandas). 

5. All these too will meet death after the efflux of time. 
Thus the current splendid creation should be known as that of 
the son ofMarlci. 

6-8. At present, their brilliant Indra is Mahabala (greatly 
powerful) byname. 

The Indras of all the Manvantaras of the past, present 
and future should be known as having equal (similar) charac- 
teristic features. All of them are the lords (of everything) past, 
present and future.* All of them are bountiful and crested 
(eminent) and wield the thunderbolt in their hands. All of 
them have severally performed a hundred sacrifices. 

9-12. There Indras have overpowered all living beings 
whether mobile or immobile in the three worlds, by their 
Dharma (and other special reasons), by their brilliance, 
penance, intelligence, might, learning and exploit. I shall explain 
to you in details why (and how) these mighty ones are the 
dominant lords and masters of Bhuta, Bhavya and Bhavat, 
(try to) understand me as I recount. It is remembered 
by the Brahmanas that Bhuta, Bhavya and Bhavat are the three 
worlds. This Bhurloka (Earth) is remembered as Bhilta; the 
Antariksa (Atmosphere) is remembered as Bhavat. The Diva 
(Heaven) is remembered as BAovja. I shall mention their means 
(of derivation). 

13. While meditating upon the names (i.e. what names 
should be given to the worlds), this (name viz. bhuh) was 
uttered at the outset by god Brahma. As the word Bhuh 

* See VV. 12-20 below for the special meaning of bhuta, bhavat and 

388 Brahmanda Purana 

was spoken at the outset the Bhurloka (Earth) came into 

14-15. The root Bhu is remembered as one meaning 
'existence'. It also means 'appearance of the world'. Hence this 
first world became Bhurloka because of its 'coming into being', 
(Bhutatva) as well its being visible (Darsana). It is remembered 
by the Brahmanas as 'Bhiir' because of its being bhuta. After 
this had come into being, the second word Bhavat was uttered 
by Brahma. 

16. The word Bhavat is used when something is being 
produced. Bhuvarloka (atmosphere) is mentioned by this word 
because of its being produced (Bhavana.) 

17-20. The atmosphere (antariksa) being bhavat (is the 
process of being produced). The second world is, therefore, 
called Bhavat. 

When the second world had been produced the word 
Bhavya was uttered by Brahma. Therefore, that world became 
Bhavya world. The word Bhavya is considered in the case of 
what has not yet come into existence (or happened). Hence 
this Bhavya is remembered by the name Tridiva (Heaven). 
The Earth is remembered by the word Bhu. The Antarikfa 
(Atmosphere)is remembered asBhuvah. The heaven is remember- 
ed as Bhavya, This is the decision in regard to the (names of the 
three worlds. Three Vydhrtis (utterances) took place (while) 
speaking about the three worlds. 

21-22. There is a root viz. TVafA— This root is rem- 
embered by persons who know (grammar) in the sense of 
'protection'. Since they are the protectors ofthe three worlds 
namely the Bhuta, Bhavya and Bhavat, they are declared as 
Indras by Brahmanas. Devendras are the Chief ones and the 
meritorious ones. 

23a. In the Manvantaras those who are the Devas are 
participants in (the oblations etc. in) sacrifices are called the 
protectors ofthe three worlds by the Brahmanas. 

23b-25. The Yaksas, the Gandharvas, the Raksasas, the 
Pisacas, the Serpents and the human beings are remembered as 
(effects ofthe) glory ofthe Devendras. The Devendras are the 
elders, protectors, kings and the Pitrs (Manes). The excellent 389 

gods protect these subjects righteously. Thus the characteristic 
features of the Devendras have been succinctly recounted. 

26-29. I shall mention the seven sages who have current- 
ly resorted to the heaven. They are (1) The intelligent sage 
Visvamitra ofgreat penance, who was the son of Gadhi and 
who belonged to the family of Kusika. (2) Jamadagni, the 
valorous son ofAurva and the scion of the family of Bhrgu. 
(3) Bharadvaja ofgreat reputation who was the son of Brhas- 
pati. (4) The righteous and scholarly sage named 'Saradvan' 
who was the son of Utathya and who belonged to the family 
ofGotama. (5) The holy lord Atri son of the Self born lord is 
the fifth one. He is (otherwise known as) Brahmakosa (having 
Brahman as the protective covering). (6) Vasuman the son 
ofVasistha is well known in the world. He is the sixth one (7) 
Vatsara born of the family of Kasyapa. 

These seven sages are honoured by good men. 

30-33. These seven sages enumerated now exist in the 
present Manvantara. 

The following nine are the righteous sons of Vaivasvata 
Manu : Iksvaku, Nrga who was impudent, Saryati, Narisyanta, 
Nabhaga who was famous, Dista, Kariisa, Prsadhra and Pamsu 
who is remembered as the ninth. They have been glorified as 
very religious. This present Manvantara is the Seventh one. 

Thus, O Brahmanas, the Second Pada (quarter) has 
been recounted by me in detail and the proper order. What 
more shall I recount.?